The Primeira Liga ([pɾiˈmɐjɾɐ ˈliɣɐ]; English: Premier League), also known as Liga Portugal Bwin for sponsorship reasons, is the top professional association football division of the Portuguese football league system. It is organised and supervised by the Liga Portuguesa de Futebol Profissional, also known as Liga Portugal. As of the 2014–15 season, the Primeira Liga is contested by 18 teams, with the two lowest placed teams relegated to the LigaPro and replaced by the top-two non-reserve teams from this division.[a]
|Organising body||Liga Portuguesa de Futebol Profissional (LPFP)|
|Number of teams||18|
|Level on pyramid||1|
|Relegation to||Liga Portugal 2|
|Domestic cup(s)||Taça de Portugal|
|League cup(s)||Taça da Liga|
|International cup(s)||UEFA Champions League|
UEFA Europa League
UEFA Europa Conference League
|Current champions||Sporting CP (19th title) |
|Most championships||Benfica (37 titles)|
|Most appearances||Manuel Fernandes (486)|
|Top goalscorer||Fernando Peyroteo (332)|
|TV partners||List of broadcasters|
|Current: 2021–22 Primeira Liga|
Founded in 1934 as an experimental (now official) league called Campeonato da Liga da Primeira Divisão, it was named Campeonato Nacional da Primeira Divisão from 1938 until 1999, when it was changed to its current naming. Over 70 teams have competed in the Primeira Liga, but only five have been crowned champions. Among them, the "Big Three" teams – Benfica (37 wins), Porto (29 wins) and Sporting CP (19 wins) – have won all but two Primeira Liga titles; the other winners are Belenenses (1945–46) and Boavista (2000–01).
The Primeira Liga has increased its reputation in recent years, occupying the sixth place of UEFA's national league ranking, as of 2021. It broke into the top five for the first time in the 2011–12 season, passing the French Ligue 1, one of the historical "big five" European leagues, for the first time since 1990. The Primeira Liga also reached a world ranking of fourth according to IFFHS's 2011 ranking.
Before the Portuguese football reform of 1938, an experimental competition on a round-basis was already being held – the Primeira Liga (Premier League) and the winners of that competition were named "League champions". Despite that, a Championship of Portugal in a knock-out cup format was the most popular and defined the Portuguese champion, although the winners of this competition no longer count as Portuguese football champions.
Then, with the reform, a round-robin basis competition was implemented as the most important of the calendar and began defining the Portuguese champion. From 1938 to 1999, the name Campeonato Nacional da Primeira Divisão (National Championship of the First Division) or just Primeira Divisão (First Division), was used.
Porto won the inaugural edition of the new league championship and successfully defended the title in the next season. In 1939–40 the tournament was expanded from eight to ten clubs, due to an administrative battle between Porto and Académico do Porto, regarding a Regional Championship game that ended with only 43 minutes after the start, and later repeated (which FC Porto won) according to Porto FA decision. FPF came out with a decision to satisfy both clubs, expanding the championship to 10 teams (one more from Porto FA and another from Setúbal FA) and annulling the result from the repetition match. With this decision, FC Porto lost the Regional title and finished in 3rd, Leixões SC became the new regional champion, while Académico was 2nd place. All 3 teams qualified for 1939–40 Primeira Divisão.
In the 1941–42 season, it was decided to expand the championship from eight to ten teams to admit Braga FA and Algarve FA champions (until this season only the top teams from Porto, Coimbra, Lisboa and Setúbal were admitted). Porto finished the regional championship in third place again, which did not grant entry into the Primeira Liga. However, a second expand (from 10 to 12) in the same season was decided, which allowed the club to participate.
After the 1945–46 season, the qualifying system based on regional championships was abandoned and adopted a pyramid system, with relegations and promotions between the 3 tiers. The clubs in Primeira Divisão, Segunda Divisão and Terceira Divisão no longer had to play their district championships on the same season as they had been doing since the first seasons of the Liga.
"The Big Three" (Portuguese: Os Três Grandes) is a nickname for the three most powerful sports clubs in Portugal. With the exception of Belenenses in 1945–46 and Boavista in 2000–01, only three clubs have won the Primeira Liga title – Benfica (37 times), Porto (29) and Sporting CP (19). These three clubs generally end up sharing the top three positions (thus, appearing more frequently in UEFA competitions) and are the only clubs to have played in every season of the competition.
These clubs dominate Portuguese football, and it has become typical for fans to support any of these teams as a "first club", with a local team probably coming afterwards, if at all. The "Big Three" have the highest average attendance ratings every season in Portugal, while the other teams, lacking support from the locals (with the exception of Vitória de Guimarães and Braga, which are the next-most supported clubs), have suffered from poor attendance. The lack of support for local teams is considered to be one of the main reasons why Portuguese Football registers one of the worst attendance ratings in European Football's best championships, alongside the broadcast of almost all the games on television. In other sports, the rivalry between the big clubs is also considerable and it usually leads to arguments between the fans and players.
Benfica is the club with most league, cup and league cup titles, as well as the most domestic titles (81) and overall titles won (83 or 84, if the Latin Cup is taken into account), including back-to-back European Cup trophies. Porto is the club with most Portuguese Super Cups and international titles won (7).
Sporting CP holds the third place when it comes to the most league and cup titles. Benfica is the only Portuguese club to have won two consecutive European Cup/UEFA Champions League titles, reaching ten European finals: seven European Cups and three UEFA Cup/Europa League, and was runner-up in two Intercontinental Cups. Porto is the only Portuguese club since 1987 to have won any international competition (excluding the UEFA Intertoto Cup), gathering a total of two European Cup/UEFA Champions Leagues, two UEFA Cup/Europa Leagues, one European Super Cup and two Intercontinental Cups and finished runner-up in one European Cup Winner's Cup and three UEFA Super Cups. Sporting won one European Cup Winner's Cup and was runner-up in one UEFA Cup. Apart from the big three, Braga won the last UEFA Intertoto Cup and was runner-up in one UEFA Europa League.
Galp Energia acquired the naming rights to the league in 2002, titling the division SuperLiga GalpEnergia. A four-year deal with the Austrian sports betting bwin was announced on 18 August 2005 amid questioning by the other gambling authorities in Portugal (the Santa Casa da Misericórdia and the Portuguese Casinos Association), who claimed to hold the exclusive rights to legal gambling games in Portuguese national territory. After holding the name Liga betandwin.com for the 2005–06 season, the name was changed to bwin LIGA in July 2006.
From the 2008–09 season to the 2009–10 season the league was named Liga Sagres due to sponsorship from Sagres beer. In 2010, they renewed the sponsorship from Sagres, but also got the sponsorship from ZON Multimédia. The league was named Liga ZON Sagres until 2013–14 after the sponsorship agreement between Sagres, ZON (now NOS) and the league ended. In 2015, the league was named Liga NOS until 2020-21 season. Since 2021, it is known as Liga Portugal 1 Bwin.
- Sponsorship names for seasons
- 2002–2005: SuperLiga GalpEnergia
- 2005–2006: Liga betandwin.com
- 2006–2008: bwin LIGA
- 2008–2010: Liga Sagres
- 2010–2014: Liga ZON Sagres
- 2014–2021: Liga NOS
- 2021-: Liga Portugal 1 Bwin
Official match ballEdit
- 2002–2004: Adidas Fevernova
- 2004–2006: Adidas Roteiro
- 2006–2007: Adidas +Teamgeist
- 2008: Adidas Europass
- 2008–2009: Adidas Europass Portugal
- 2009–2010: Adidas Terrapass Liga Sagres
- 2010–2011: Adidas Jabulani
- 2011: Adidas Speedcell
- 2012: Adidas Tango 12
- 2013: Adidas Cafusa
- 2014: Adidas Brazuca
- 2015: Adidas Conext15
- 2016: Adidas Errejota
- 2016–18: Nike Ordem
- 2018–19: Nike Merlin
- 2019–20: Select Brillant Super TB
From the 2014–15 season on, there are 18 clubs in the Primeira Liga, up from 16 in the previous seasons. During the course of a season, each club plays all teams twice – once at their home stadium and once at their opponent's – for a total of 34 games. At the end of each season, the two lowest placed teams are relegated to the Segunda Liga and the top two teams from Segunda Liga are promoted to the Primeira Liga.
Qualification for European competitionsEdit
The top teams in Primeira Liga qualify for the UEFA Champions League with the first placed team directly entering the group stage and the second placed team entering the playoffs for the group stage of UEFA Champions League. Teams placed third and fourth play in the UEFA Europa League, along with the Taça de Portugal cup winners (unless they already qualify for the UEFA Champions League through league placing). In this case, the berth is given to the fifth placed team.
UEFA League Ranking as of the 2019–20 season:
Since the beginning of the league, there are three clubs with an attendance much higher than the others: Benfica, Porto and Sporting CP. They have also the biggest stadiums in Portugal, with more than 50,000 seats. Other clubs, such as Vitória de Guimarães and Braga, also have good attendances. Académica de Coimbra (currently playing in LigaPro), Vitória de Setúbal, Boavista, Belenenses, and Marítimo are historical clubs, with more than 30 top-flight seasons, from the biggest Portuguese cities, and have also many supporters. However, they do not have big attendances nowadays. Their stadiums have between 10,000 and 30,000 seats.
The 2017–18 season saw the following average attendance by club:
|1||Benfica||53,209||64,642||82.93%||904,553||Estádio da Luz|
|2||Sporting CP||43,623||50,044||87.16%||741,599||Estádio José Alvalade|
|3||Porto||42,674||50,431||85.29%||725,461||Estádio do Dragão|
|4||Vitória de Guimarães||16,015||30,008||53.37%||272,255||Estádio D. Afonso Henriques|
|5||Braga||11,706||30,286||38.65%||198,998||Estádio Municipal de Braga|
|6||Marítimo||7,072||10,932||66.93%||120,216||Estádio dos Barreiros|
|7||Boavista||5,623||30,000||20.55%||95,585||Estádio do Bessa|
|8||Vitória de Setúbal||4,111||13,468||28.80%||69,890||Estádio do Bonfim|
|9||Feirense||3,907||5,600||71.69%||66,412||Estádio Marcolino de Castro|
|10||Rio Ave||3,889||9,065||43.42%||66,116||Estádio do Rio Ave FC|
|11||Chaves||3,627||9,000||40.89%||61,658||Estádio Municipal Eng. Manuel Branco Teixeira|
|12||Paços de Ferreira||3,507||6,404||38.63%||59,612||Estádio da Mata Real|
|13||Belenenses||3,344||19,856||22.27%||56,851||Estádio do Restelo|
|14||Portimonense||3,158||9,544||64.04%||53,693||Estádio Municipal de Portimão|
|15||Aves||2,635||5,441||44.69%||44,803||Estádio do CD Aves|
|16||Tondela||2,373||5,000||47.46%||40,344||Estádio João Cardoso|
|17||Estoril||2,275||8,000||28.83%||38,673||Estádio António Coimbra da Mota|
|18||Moreirense||2,264||6,153||36.80%||38,494||Estádio Municipal 25 de Abril|
List of champions and top scorersEdit
- Before 1995–96, the points were awarded in a format three points for a win. In that season, Primeira Liga switched to the now standard three points for a win system.
- (1) Porto saw six points subtracted for corruption allegations in the Apito Dourado, but they recovered those points in July 2017.
Performance by clubEdit
|Club||Winners||Runners-up||Winning seasons||Runner-up seasons|
|Benfica||37||29||1935–36, 1936–37, 1937–38, 1941–42, 1942–43, 1944–45, 1949–50, 1954–55, 1956–57, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1966–67, 1967–68, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1974–75, 1975–76, 1976–77, 1980–81, 1982–83, 1983–84, 1986–87, 1988–89, 1990–91, 1993–94, 2004–05, 2009–10, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2018–19||1943–44, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1951–52, 1952–53, 1955–56, 1958–59, 1965–66, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1981–82, 1985–86, 1987–88, 1989–90, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1995–96, 1997–98, 2002–03, 2003–04, 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2017–18, 2019–20|
|Porto||29||28||1934–35, 1938–39, 1939–40, 1955–56, 1958–59, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1984–85, 1985–86, 1987–88, 1989–90, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1994–95, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1997–98, 1998–99, 2002–03, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2017–18, 2019–20||1935–36, 1937–38, 1940–41, 1950–51, 1953–54, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1968–69, 1974–75, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1982–83, 1983–84, 1986–87, 1988–89, 1990–91, 1993–94, 1999–2000, 2000–01, 2004–05, 2014–15, 2016–17, 2018–19, 2020–21|
|Sporting CP||19||21||1940–41, 1943–44, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1950–51, 1951–52, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1957–58, 1961–62, 1965–66, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1979–80, 1981–82, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2020–21||1934–35, 1938–39, 1939–40, 1941–42, 1942–43, 1944–45, 1949–50, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1967–68, 1970–71, 1976–77, 1984–85, 1994–95, 1996–97, 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2013–14, 2015–16|
|Belenenses||1||3||1945–46||1936–37, 1954–55, 1972–73|
|Boavista||1||3||2000–01||1975–76, 1998–99, 2001–02|
|Vitória de Setúbal||0||1||—||1971–72|
All-time Primeira Liga tableEdit
The all-time Primeira Liga table is an overall record of all match results, points, and goals of every team that has played in Primeira Liga since its inception in 1934. The table is accurate as of the end of the 2020–21 season. For comparison, older seasons have been calculated according to the three-points-per-win rule.
|4||Vitória de Guimarães||76||3162||2256||875||537||844||3173||3178||-5||–||–||4||10||12||13||39||1941–42||2007–08||3|
|7||Vitória de Setúbal||72||2590||2072||694||508||870||2794||3119||-325||–||1||3||2||9||6||21||1934–35||2019–20||2|
|15||Paços de Ferreira||22||862||716||219||205||292||784||1000||-216||–||–||1||–||1||2||4||1990–91||2019–20||3|
|21||União de Leiria||18||711||584||184||159||241||620||771||-151||–||–||–||–||2||2||4||1979–80||2011–12||5|
|27||Estrela da Amadora||16||608||540||144||176||220||521||680||-159||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1988–89||2008–09||7|
|29||Sporting da Covilhã||15||457||406||126||79||201||585||834||-249||–||–||–||–||1||3||4||1947–48||1987–88||5|
|32||Lusitano de Évora||14||412||364||116||64||184||494||722||-228||–||–||–||–||1||1||2||1952–53||1965–66||5|
|33||Sporting de Espinho||11||379||354||96||91||167||336||523||-187||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1974–75||1996–97||7|
|38||União da Madeira||6||206||208||48||62||98||177||300||-123||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1989–90||2015–16||10|
|39||Naval 1º de Maio||6||193||184||49||46||89||160||255||-95||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||2005–06||2010–11||8||[C]|
|45||União de Tomar||6||162||172||43||33||96||178||331||-153||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1968–69||1975–76||10|
|46||Desportivo das Aves||6||160||196||40||40||116||173||320||-147||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1985–86||2019–20||13|
|51||Académico de Viseu||4||105||128||27||24||77||81||237||-156||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1978–79||1988–89||13|
|58||Unidos de Lisboa||3||62||54||18||8||28||151||145||6||–||–||–||1||–||–||1||1940–41||1942–43||4||[G]|
|59||Académico do Porto||5||60||82||18||6||58||137||300||-163||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1934–35||1941–42||7||[H]|
|67||União de Coimbra||1||22||30||5||7||18||22||54||-32||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1972–73||1972–73||15||[L]|
|68||Ginásio de Alcobaça||1||19||30||4||7||19||20||56||-36||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1982–83||1982–83||16|
|70||União de Lisboa||1||11||14||3||2||9||30||49||-19||–||–||–||–||–||1||1||1934–35||1934–35||6||[F]|
- A. ^ Never relegated.
- B. ^ Renamed Fabril in 2000.
- C. ^ Club folded in 2017. Successor club Naval 1893 was founded in 2017.
- D. ^ Club ended football team in 2013.
- E. ^ Club folded in 2007. Successor club Olímpico Montijo was founded in 2007.
- F. ^ Merged to form Atlético CP in 1942.
- G. ^ Club ended football team in 2009.
- H. ^ Club ended football team in 1964.
- I. ^ Merged to form O Elvas in 1947.
- J. ^ Club folded in 2005. Successor club Felgueiras 1932 was founded in 2006.
- K. ^ Club folded in 1984.
- L. ^ Club folded in 2016. Successor club União 1919 was founded in 2016.
|Liga Portugal 2|
|Campeonato de Portugal|
|Portuguese District Championships|
|Clubs no longer in competition|
- In 1972–73, Benfica became the first team to win the Portuguese league without defeat, with 58 points in 30 games (28 wins and 2 draws), the best efficiency ever obtained (96.7%) where 2 points were awarded for a victory. In that season, Benfica set the Portuguese league and European leagues record for most consecutive victories (23) – 29 wins overall, between 1971–72 and 1972–73. Benfica also set the league record for the greatest margin of victory in points over the second-placed team (18 points) in a 2 points per win championship.
- In 1977–78, Benfica completed the Portuguese league unbeaten for the second time (21 wins and 9 draws), despite finishing second.
- From 24 October 1976 to 1 September 1978, Benfica set the record for the longest unbeaten run in the league: 56 matches.
- In 1990–91, Benfica achieved the highest number of wins in a single season – 32 (out of 38 matches).
- In 1998–99, Porto became the only team to win five consecutive titles.
- In 2010–11, Porto won the Portuguese league without defeat, with 84 points in 30 games (27 wins and 3 draws), the best efficiency ever obtained (93.3%) where 3 points were awarded for a victory. That season, Porto also set the league record for the greatest margin of victory in points over the second-placed team (21 points) in a 3 points per win championship.
- In 2012–13, Porto won the Portuguese league unbeaten for the second time (24 wins and 6 draws).
- In 2015–16, Benfica achieved a record 88 points in the Portuguese league (29 wins, 1 draw and 4 defeats in 34 games).
- In 2017–18, Porto tied Benfica's 88 points record (28 wins, 4 draws and 2 defeats in 34 games).
- In 2020–21, Sporting CP set the record for the longest unbeaten run in a single season with 32 matches (25 wins and 7 draws) out of 34.
Player transfer feesEdit
|1||Darwin Núñez||€24M||4 September 2020||Almería||Benfica|||
|2||Raúl Jiménez||€21.8M||21 July 2016||Atlético Madrid||Benfica|||
|3||Giannelli Imbula||€20M||1 July 2015||Marseille||Porto|||
|Óliver Torres||9 February 2017||Atlético Madrid||Porto|||
|Raúl de Tomás||3 July 2019||Real Madrid||Benfica|||
|Julian Weigl||2 January 2020||Borussia Dortmund||Benfica|||
|Everton Soares||14 August 2020||Grêmio||Benfica|||
|8||Hulk||€19M||14 May 2011||Tokyo Verdy||Porto|||
|9||Pedrinho||€18M||11 March 2020||Corinthians||Benfica|||
|10||Carlos Vinícius||€17M||20 July 2019||Napoli||Benfica|||
|1||João Félix||€126M||3 July 2019||Benfica||Atlético Madrid|||
|2||Rúben Dias||€68M||29 September 2020||Benfica||Manchester City|||
|3||Bruno Fernandes||€55M[b]||29 January 2020||Sporting CP||Manchester United|||
|4||Éder Militão||€50M||14 March 2019||Porto||Real Madrid|||
|5||James Rodríguez||€45M||24 May 2013||Porto||Monaco|||
2020–21 until 2022–23Edit
- Albania – Tring Sport
- Austria – Sportdigital and DAZN
- Belarus – Belarus 5
- Belgium – RMC Sport
- Bosnia and Herzegovina – Arena Sport
- Brazil – ESPN
- Brunei – Astro SuperSport
- Canada – GOLTV Play
- China – K-Ball
- Croatia – Arena Sport
- Cyprus – CytaVision
- Czech Republic – Sport1
- France – RMC Sport
- Georgia – Silk Sport
- Germany – Sportdigital and DAZN
- Greece – Cosmote TV
- Hungary – Sport1
- Ireland – FreeSports
- Israel – Sport 1
- Japan – SKY PerfecTV!
- Latin America – GOLTV
- Liechtenstein – Sportdigital
- Lithuania – Sport 1
- Luxembourg – RMC Sport and Sportdigital
- Macau – Macau Cable TV and TDM (When in Overnight Simulcast with RTP Internacional on Canal Macau)
- Malaysia – Astro SuperSport
- Montenegro – Arena Sport
- Netherlands – Ziggo Sport
- North Macedonia – Arena Sport
- Puerto Rico – GOLTV
- Romania – LookSport
- Russia – Match TV
- Serbia – Arena Sport
- Slovakia – Sport1
- Slovenia – Arena Sport
- Switzerland – Sportdigital and DAZN
- Turkey – S Sport
- Ukraine – Sport1
- United Kingdom – FreeSports
- United States – GOLTV
- Lusophone Africa – RTP (one game from one of the Big Three (Liga Portugal 1 is not only the "Os 3 Grandes") a week on RTP África), Sport TV África
- Worldwide – RTP and SIC (one game from one of the Big Three (Liga Portugal 1 is not only the "Os 3 Grandes") a week on RTP Internacional and SIC Internacional)
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- "Current Ranking – IFFHS". Iffhs.de. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Stadium Newspaper, 10 January 1940
- "Pesquisa". Record.xl.pt. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- Tovar 2011, p. 191.
- Tovar, p. 136
- Lee Scott (20 February 2020). "Rangers Beware - Braga are One of European Football's Form Teams". footballcritic.com. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
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- "Country coefficients - UEFA Coefficients - UEFA.com". UEFA. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Tribunal diz que Belenenses SAD pode utilizar nome, marcas e símbolos do clube
- "Painel de espectadores por clube". Ligaportugal.pt. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- FC Porto perde seis pontos UEFA (in Portuguese)
- "Primeira Liga numbers". www.thefinalball.com. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- "Primeira Liga Usage stats". playmakerstats.
- "Primeira Liga Goals Scored stats". playmakerstats.
- "Comunicado" [Announcement] (PDF). CMVM (in Portuguese). S.L. Benfica. 4 September 2020.
- Pritchett, David (21 July 2016). "Raúl becomes Benfica's record signing". Planet Benfica. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- "Official: Porto sign Imbula for €20m". Goal.com. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- "FC Porto anuncia compra do passe de Óliver" [FC Porto announces purchase of Óliver's pass]. O Jogo (in Portuguese). Global Media Group. 9 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Welcome, Raúl de Tomás!". S.L. Benfica. 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "Weigl is already a Benfica player!". S.L. Benfica. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- "Comunicado" [Announcement] (PDF). CMVM (in Portuguese). S.L. Benfica. 14 August 2020.
- "Hulk é o mais caro da história: Porto gasta 19 milhões". Maisfutebol (in Portuguese). 14 May 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "Comunicado" [Announcement] (PDF). CMVM (in Portuguese). S.L. Benfica. 19 August 2020.
- Nascimento, Diogo (20 July 2019). "Welcome, Carlos Vinícius!". S.L. Benfica. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- "Comunicado à CMVM" [Announcement to CMVM]. S.L. Benfica (in Portuguese). 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- "Comunicado" [Announcement] (PDF). CMVM (in Portuguese). S.L. Benfica. 27 September 2020.
- "City Complete Ruben Dias Signing". Manchester City F.C. 29 September 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- "Sporting oficializa venda de Bruno Fernandes ao Man. United: todos os detalhes do negócio". Record (in Portuguese). Lisbon. 29 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "Real Madrid confirma Militão até 2025 por 50 milhões de euros" [Real Madrid confirms Militão until 2025 for 50 million euros] (in Portuguese). zerozero. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Monaco sign João Moutinho and James Rodríguez from Porto for £60m". The Guardian. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Sportfive awarded Primeira Liga international rights to 2023". SportBusiness. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
- "Do t'ju lëmë pa frymë". Retrieved 23 September 2017.
- "Die portugiesische Liga NOS für weitere 3 Jahre bei sportdigital und bei DAZN" (PDF). Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- "Программа телепередач". Retrieved 3 February 2019.
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