Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club (French pronunciation: [paʁi sɛ̃ ʒɛʁmɛ̃]), commonly referred to as Paris Saint-Germain, Paris SG, or simply PSG, is a French professional football club based in Paris. Founded in 1970, the club has traditionally worn red and blue kits. PSG has played its home matches in the 47,929-capacity Parc des Princes in the 16th arrondissement of Paris since 1974. The club plays in the highest tier of French football, Ligue 1.
|Full name||Paris Saint-Germain Football Club|
|Short name||PSG, Paris SG|
|Founded||12 August 1970|
|Ground||Parc des Princes|
|Owner||Qatar Sports Investments|
|Head coach||Thomas Tuchel|
|2018–19||Ligue 1, 1st|
|Football (Men's)||Football (Youth Mixed)||Football (Women's)|
|Handball (Men's)||Esports||Judo (Mixed)|
|Boxing (Men's)||League (Men's)|
The Parisian club established itself as a major force in France, and one of the major forces of European football in the 2010s. PSG have won a total of 37 major trophies, making it the most successful French club in history by this measure. Paris SG is also the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1; the club with most consecutive seasons in the top-flight (they have played 45 seasons in Ligue 1 since 1974); one of only two French clubs to have won a major European title; and the most popular football club in France and one of the most widely supported teams in the world.
Domestically, the Parisians have won eight Ligue 1 titles, a record twelve Coupe de France, a record eight Coupe de la Ligue, and a joint record eight Trophée des Champions titles. In European football, they have won one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. The capital club has also won other minor official titles such as one Ligue 2 and one UEFA Intertoto Cup. PSG have a long-standing rivalry with Olympique de Marseille. The duo contest French football's most notorious match, known as Le Classique.
The State of Qatar, through its shareholding organization Qatar Sports Investments (QSI), has been the club's owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and one of the wealthiest in the world. As of the 2017–18 season, PSG have the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual turnover of €542m according to Deloitte, and are the world's eleventh most valuable football club, worth €825m according to Forbes.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club was founded on 12 August 1970 after the merger of Paris Football Club and Stade Saint-Germain, ultimately named for Saint Germain of Paris. PSG made an immediate impact, winning promotion to Ligue 1 in their first season after claiming the Ligue 2 title. Their momentum was soon checked, however, and the club split in 1972. Paris FC remained in Ligue 1, while Paris Saint-Germain kept their name but were administratively demoted to Division 3. Two seasons later PSG returned to Ligue 1 in 1974, moving into the Parc des Princes that same year.
The club's trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the French Cup in 1982, during a decade marked by players such as Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández and Dominique Rocheteau. Four years later, Paris Saint-Germain claimed its maiden league title, after which they went into decline. But a takeover by television giants Canal+ revitalised the club and PSG entered their golden era. Led by David Ginola, George Weah and Raí, the club won nine trophies during the 1990s. Most notably, the Parisians claimed a second league title in 1994 and their crowning glory, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1996.
At the start of the 21st century, PSG struggled to rescale the heights despite the magic of Ronaldinho and the goals of Pauleta. Five more trophies arrived in the form of three French Cups, one League Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup, but the club became better known for lurching from one high-profile crisis to another. Indeed, Paris Saint-Germain spent two seasons staving off relegations that were only very narrowly avoided.
This changed in 2011 with the arrival of new majority shareholders Qatar Sports Investments (QSI). Since the buyout, PSG have spent over €1b on player transfers like Zlatan Ibrahimović, Thiago Silva, Edinson Cavani, Neymar and Kylian Mbappé, and have dominated French football, winning 20 national titles. Despite this, the Champions League has proven to be a trophy beyond their reach. PSG have never made it beyond the Champions League quarterfinals since 2012, exiting the competition at the last-16 round in each of the last three seasons.
Since its foundation, PSG have always represented both Paris and Saint-Germain-en-Laye. As a result, red, blue and white are the traditional colours of Paris Saint-Germain. The red and blue represent the city of Paris, while the white stands for the nearby royal town of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
In the club's crest, the French capital is represented by the Eiffel Tower in red and the blue background. For its part, the white cradle with the white fleur de lys on top is a hint to the coat of arms of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and to French royalty. In France, white is the colour of royalty and the fleur de lys is a royal symbol. The cradle and the fleur de lys also recall that French King Louis XIV was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1638.
Likewise, PSG's home shirt has always featured the three colours of the club. The three main home jerseys worn by Paris SG throughout its history have been predominantly red, blue or white. The club's first shirt was red, while the other two were predominantly blue (« Hechter shirt ») and white. However, all three have included the remaining two colours, as well as with further variations of the home jersey.
The newly formed Paris Saint-Germain wore a red shirt during its first three seasons of existence. The jersey also featured a blue and white collar to bring together the three colours of the club: the red and blue of Paris, and the white of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. During the 2010–11 season, PSG wore a red home shirt to commemorate its 40th anniversary.
The connection between Paris Saint-Germain and the city's fashion houses is a longstanding one. French fashion designer Daniel Hechter served as the club's president for five years in the 1970s, and is regarded as one of the driving forces behind the team's foundation. He became club president in 1973 and immediately designed PSG's traditional look — a red vertical stripe, bordered with white, on a blue background.
The story goes that Hechter based his creation on the red-and-white jersey worn by Ajax, the Dutch champion dominating European competition at the time, but with the French flag in mind. He would later admit that the story was true. The so-called "Hechter shirt", first worn until 1980–81, returned as PSG's home identity in 1994–95, and has remained so ever since, despite Nike's several experiments along the way.
PSG stars from the 1990s and 2000s like Raí, Ronaldinho and Pauleta are associated with the "Hechter shirt". It was with that jersey that PSG reached five European semi-finals in a row (1993–1997), claimed the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1995–96, and achieved the (first) eight consecutive wins against arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille (2002–2004).
Promoted by PSG president Francis Borelli, the capital club changed its home identity in 1981–82. The new shirt, worn until 1992–93, was white with blue and red vertical stripes on the left. PSG legends from the 1980s like Safet Sušić, Luis Fernández and Dominique Bathenay are associated with the white jersey. It was with this outfit that fans saw the first big Paris Saint-Germain team that won two Coupe de France titles (1982, 1983), experienced its first European campaign in 1983, and claimed its maiden league crown in 1986.
The original logo of the club, also known as the Paris FC logo, was used from 1970 until 1973. It featured a ball with a vessel (a historic symbol of Paris) as well as the club's name "Paris Saint Germain Football Club" or its initials "PSGFC". In 1972, PSG split from Paris FC and, a year later, the club changed its crest.
Like with the club's iconic shirt, Daniel Hechter also designed their historic crest in 1973. Also known as the Eiffel Tower logo, the new crest added Saint-Germain-en-Laye symbols for the first time. These were the fleur de lys and the cradle that represented the royalty and birthplace of French King Louis XIV in the town. The new crest, which finally represented both Paris and Saint-Germain-en-Laye, mainly consisted of a blue background with the Eiffel Tower in red. Between the tower's legs sat the fleur de lys and the cradle in white.
The Parc des Princes was added to the crest in 1980, right under Louis XIV's cradle. This logo lasted until 1991, with the exception of the 1986–87 and 1987–88 seasons, when the club used a special logo in support of the Paris candidature for the 1992 Summer Olympics. In 1991, the Parc des Princes was removed from the crest.
In 1993, former Paris SG shareholder Canal+ was the first to replace the iconic crest. The new model had the acronym "PSG" and underneath it "Paris Saint-Germain". Under pressure from supporters, the traditional crest returned in 1995. This time, however, the crest was surrounded by the club's name "Paris Saint-Germain" and its year of foundation "1970". In 2002, it went through a slight facelift.
The Eiffel Tower crest received a major makeover in 2013. Paris Saint-Germain, under the leadership of its Qatari owners and club president Nasser Al-Khelaifi, made the choice of continuity for its identity, as well as to capitalise on the master asset of the brand: Paris. The City of Light, undisputed icon in the whole world.
Conceived by global creative agency Dragon Rouge, the new logotype clearly puts forward the brand “Paris” instead of “Paris Saint-Germain”. PSG's logo was redrawn, making the word “Paris” very big, above a large Eiffel Tower. Underneath it, “Saint-Germain”, written in smaller letters, remains associated with the fleur-de-lis, its emblem. In contrast, Louis XIV's cradle and the club's founding year "1970" were left out. As PSG general director Jean-Claude Blanc said: “We are called Paris Saint-Germain but, above all, we are called Paris.”
Mottos, mascot and anthems
"Paris est magique!" ("Paris is magic!") and "Ici, c'est Paris!" ("Here is Paris!") have historically been the club's most popular mottos. More recently, PSG introduced its official anthem and mascot in 2010, when they revived its Tournoi de Paris pre-season competition in commemoration of the club's 40th anniversary.
Ahead of the tournament, PSG unveiled "Allez Paris Saint-Germain", to the tune of "Go West" by Village People, and Germain the Lynx as the club's anthem and mascot, respectively. "Ville Lumière", to the tune of "Flower of Scotland", is considered a club anthem as well.
Parc des Princes
Paris Saint-Germain played their first game at the Parc des Princes against Red Star on November 10, 1973, as a curtain-raiser for that season's opening Ligue 1 match between Paris FC (PFC) and Sochaux. PSG won 3–1 as Othniel Dossevi scored the club's first goal at the Parc. The club moved into the Parc des Princes upon its return to Ligue 1 in 1974, ironically the same year that Paris FC were relegated. Up until that point it had been the home stadium of PFC.
Before that, PSG had been playing at several grounds including the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre, the Stade Jean-Bouin, the Stade Bauer, and even the Parc a few times that season despite the reluctance of PFC. PSG registered its record home attendance in 1983, when 49,575 spectators witnessed the club's 2–0 win over Waterschei in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals.
The Parc des Princes has a seating capacity of 47,929 spectators and its pitch is surrounded by four covered all-seater stands, officially known as the Présidentielle Francis Borelli, Auteuil, Paris and Boulogne Stands. Conceived by architect Roger Taillibert, the current version of the Parc des Princes officially opened on 4 June 1972, at a cost of 80–150 million francs. The stadium is the third to have been built on the site, the first opening its doors in 1897 and the second following in 1932.
Camp des Loges
The Camp des Loges sports complex, also known as the Ooredoo Training Centre for sponsorship reasons, has been the training centre of Paris Saint-Germain since the club's foundation in 1970 as well as playing host to the Paris Saint-Germain Academy. The current version of the Camp des Loges officially opened on 4 November 2008. It is the second to have been built on the site, the first opening its doors in 1904. In July 2016, Paris Saint-Germain chose Poissy as the site of its future performance centre, baptised Campus Paris Saint-Germain, which is scheduled to open at the start of the 2019–20 season.
Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre
The Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre sports complex, whose main stadium has a seating capacity of 2,164 spectators, is located just across the street from the training centre of Paris Saint-Germain, the Camp des Loges. It was one of PSG's main grounds until 1974. That year the club moved into the Parc des Princes. The stadium — as well as the other artificial turf and grass football pitches of the complex — hosts training sessions and home matches for the Paris Saint-Germain Academy.
Paris Saint-Germain is the most popular football club in France ahead of arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille. Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy is one of the club's most prominent supporters. Other famous PSG fans include French tennis players Richard Gasquet and Gaël Monfils; French NBA player Tony Parker; French judoka Teddy Riner; French actor Jean-Paul Belmondo; and French record producer DJ Snake.
Since the emergence of the Boulogne Boys in the 1980s, PSG fan groups or ultras have been linked to football hooliganism. The Boulogne Boys, considered one of the oldest hooligan groups in France, took their British neighbours as dubious role models and violence escalated in the early 1990s. PSG owners Canal+ tried to break up the Boys without success. They encouraged non-violent fans of the Kop of Boulogne stand to take place in the Virage Auteuil stand at the other end of the Parc des Princes. In order to be differentiated with Boys, Supras Auteuil followed the example of Italian supporters with the use of flares and tifo choreography. More generally, the Boulogne Boys embodied skinhead subculture and French far-right movements, while Supras Auteuil represented Parisian diversity with immigrants or sons of immigrants.
The feared French riot police were expelled by the Boys and other minor fan groups in the Boulogne stand during a game against Caen in 1993. Incidents occurred wherever PSG travelled, and only multiplied with the emergence of the Supras Auteuil as a rival to Boulogne's hegemony. Things came to a head in February 2010 shortly after Marseille beat PSG 3–0 at Parc des Princes. PSG supporter Yann Lorence was left in critical condition after being involved in a violent exchange outside the stadium between the Boulogne Boys and the Supras Auteuil. Lorence died a month later because of the injuries he sustained that night, forcing then PSG president Robin Leproux to take action. All season tickets at Parc des Princes were revoked and all ultra groups were exiled in what was known as "Plan Leproux." The incident led to the dissolution of the Supras Auteuil.
The death of Yann Lorence was not even the first in recent memory. Julien Quemener, a Boulogne Boys member, was shot dead by an off-duty policeman during violence following PSG's UEFA Cup tie with Hapoel Tel Aviv in November 2006. During the 2008 Coupe de la Ligue Final, the Boys also unfurled a banner which referred to Lens fans as incestuous, jobless paedophiles. The episode led to the dissolution of the Boulogne Boys. Before "Plan Leproux" came into effect, Parc des Princes was one of the most intimidating stadiums to visit in Europe. The plan made PSG pay the price in terms of atmosphere, with one of Ligue 1's most feared venues now subdued. For their part, many of the remaining supporter groups formed the Collectif Ultras Paris (Paris Ultras Collective or CUP) with the aim of returning to the Parc des Princes.
In early October 2016, after a six-year absence, the club and the CUP first agreed a Parc des Princes return for PSG's 2–0 home win over Bordeaux. The ultras have since been regrouped in the Auteuil end of the stadium. In April 2017, PSG's ultras reportedly damaged areas of Lyon's Parc OL during the 2017 Coupe de la Ligue Final against Monaco. As a result, the French Football League (LFP) hit PSG with a €100,000 fine. In May 2017, PSG supporter groups Lista Nera Paris and Microbes Paris left the CUP. Additionally, the CUP dismissed the Karsud group from its ranks. The groups left in the CUP are the K-Soce Team, Liberte pour les Abonnes, Le Combat Continue, Le Parias and Nautecia. In August 2017, PSG and the CUP reached an agreement to allow the club's Ultras to hold season tickets together in the Auteuil end for the first time since 2010.
Paris Saint-Germain shares an intense rivalry with Olympique de Marseille; matches between the two teams are referred to as Le Classique. The clash is considered France's biggest rivalry as well as one of the greatest in club football. At the very least, it is France's most violent. Important security measures are taken to prevent confrontations between the fans, but violent episodes still often occur when the duo meet.
PSG and l'OM remain, along with Saint-Étienne, the only French clubs with a big history pre-millennium. The duo are the only two French clubs to have won major European trophies and were the dominant forces in the land prior to the emergence of Olympique Lyonnais at the start of the millennium. They are also the two most popular clubs in France, and the most followed French clubs outside the country. Both teams are at or near the top of the attendance lists every year as well.
Like all the game's major rivalries, PSG vs. OM extends beyond the pitch. The fixture has a historical, cultural and social importance that makes it more than just a football match. It involves the two largest cities in France: Paris against Marseille, capital against province and north against south.
Tournoi de Paris
Initially held by Racing Paris between 1957 and 1966, the Tournoi de Paris briefly returned in 1973 with new organizers Paris FC, before current hosts Paris Saint-Germain successfully relaunched the competition in 1975. Abandoned in 1993 for financial reasons, PSG revived it in 2010 to commemorate the club's 40th anniversary. Ahead of the tournament, the club introduced its official anthem and mascot.
Not held in 2011, it was renamed Trophée de Paris in 2012, and featured a single prestigious match. This was the last edition of the tournament to date. Paris Saint-Germain is the most successful club in the history of the competition, having lifted the trophy on seven occasions. Regarded as French football's most prestigious friendly tournament, the Tournoi de Paris is also considered a precursor of both the Intercontinental Cup and FIFA Club World Cup.
Tournoi Indoor de Paris-Bercy
The Tournoi Indoor de Paris-Bercy was a mid-season indoor football invitational competition hosted by Paris Saint-Germain at the AccorHotels Arena in Paris, France. The tournament was founded in 1984 and was held annually until 1991. Played indoors (synthetic field and seven-a-side), the competition featured host club PSG and five more teams. Paris SG is the most successful club in the history of the competition, having lifted the trophy on two occasions.
Ownership and finances
During its first 21 years of existence, Paris Saint-Germain was owned by wealthy French businessmen Guy Crescent, Pierre-Étienne Guyot, Henri Patrelle, Daniel Hechter and Francis Borelli. This trend changed in 1991 and, over the next 20 years, the club was owned by big companies Canal+ (1991–2006) and then Colony Capital (2006–2011). The State of Qatar, through its shareholding organization Qatar Sports Investments (QSI), has been PSG's owner since 2011.
This means that PSG are one of only two state-owned clubs in the world, along with Manchester City. As a result, Paris SG are also one of the richest clubs in the world. QSI, a subsidiary of the Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), became the club's majority shareholders in June 2011 and sole shareholders in March 2012. For his part, QSI chairman Nasser Al-Khelaifi has been PSG president since the takeover. PSG's real boss, however, is the Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. He is both the chairman of the QIA and the founder of QSI.
Upon their arrival, QSI pledged to form a team capable of winning the UEFA Champions League and making the club France's biggest name. Consequently, since the summer of 2011, Paris Saint-Germain have spent more than €1b on player transfers such as Thiago Silva, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Edinson Cavani, David Luiz, Neymar and Kylian Mbappé. These huge expenditures have translated in PSG's domination of French football, winning 20 national titles in the process. However, they have not yet brought home the coveted Champions League trophy and have caused the capital club problems with UEFA and its Financial Fair Play regulations (FFP).
As of the 2017–18 season, Paris Saint-Germain have the sixth-highest revenue in the footballing world with an annual turnover of €542m according to Deloitte, and are the world's eleventh most valuable football club, worth €825m according to Forbes. PSG's strong financial position has been sustained by the club's huge sponsorship deals. The Parisian club currently has 28 commercial partners, including top sponsors Nike, ALL, Ooredoo and QNB Group. Throughout its history, though, PSG has rarely been profitable. Prior to the Qatar buyout, the club's cumulative losses between 1998 and 2010 amounted to €300m.
Records and statistics
Since its inception, Paris Saint-Germain have played 48 seasons, all of them within the top three levels of the French football league system: Ligue 1, Ligue 2 and Division 3. PSG holds many records, most notably being the most successful French club in history in terms of major trophies won, with 37; the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1; the club with most consecutive seasons in top-flight (they have played 45 seasons in Ligue 1 since 1974); and one of only two French clubs to have won a major European title.
The Parisians have won the Ligue 1 seven times. The club's worst Ligue 1 finish to date is 16th, their placing at the end of the 1971–72 and 2007–08 seasons. The 2015–16 season was the club's best to date. PSG won all four domestic titles (Ligue 1, Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Trophée des Champions) and reached the quarter-finals of the UEFA Champions League. In Ligue 1, the capital club finished with 96 points (national record), while Zlatan Ibrahimović scored 50 goals in all competitions (national record). However, the club's record for most goals in a season was set in 2017–18, when the capital side scored 171 goals in all competitions.
Paris SG are also the only club to have won the Coupe de la Ligue five times in a row (2014–2018); the only club to have won the Coupe de France four times in a row (2015–2018); one of only two clubs to win the Trophée des Champions six times in a row (2013–2018); the only European club to have won all four national titles (Ligue 1, Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Trophée des Champions) in a single season (2014–15, 2015–16 and 2017–18); and the youngest European club to have won a European trophy.
- As of the 2018–19 season.
|Domestic||Ligue 1||8||1985–86, 1993–94, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2017–18, 2018–19|
|Coupe de France||12||1981–82, 1982–83, 1992–93, 1994–95, 1997–98, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2009–10, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18|
|Coupe de la Ligue||8||1994–95, 1997–98, 2007–08, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18|
|Trophée des Champions||8||1995, 1998, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018|
|European||UEFA Cup Winners' Cup||1||1995–96|
|UEFA Intertoto Cup||1||2001|
French teams are limited to four players without EU citizenship. Hence, the squad list includes only the principal nationality of each player; several non-European players on the squad have dual citizenship with an EU country. Also, players from the ACP countries—countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that are signatories to the Cotonou Agreement—are not counted against non-EU quotas due to the Kolpak ruling.
- As of the 2019–20 season.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Hall of Fame
In July 2017, the club announced its "Hall of Fame" of notable players. The inaugural induction saw 20 former players named, including record appearance maker Jean-Marc Pilorget; all-time assist leader Safet Sušić; longest-serving captain Dominique Bathenay; and Ballon d'Or winner George Weah.
Staff and management
|Head coach||Thomas Tuchel|
|Assistant coach||Arno Michels|
|Goalkeeper coach||Gianluca Spinelli|
|Video analysis coach||Benjamin Weber|
|Performance coach||Martin Buchheit|
|Fitness coach||Denis Lefebvre|
|Chief executive officer||Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani|
|Deputy general manager||Jean-Claude Blanc|
|Secretary general||Victoriano Melero|
|First-team coach||Thomas Tuchel|
Source: Le Parisien
- "Parc des Princes". PSG.fr. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "Paris Saint-Germain FC". UEFA.com. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Histoire". PSG.fr. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Paris Saint-Germain : Calendrier, Effectif et Information". LFP.fr. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "Which European football clubs have never been relegated?". The Guardian. 2 June 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "PSG, 45 saisons consécutives et nouveau record en Ligue 1". Histoire du #PSG. 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
- "Paris city guide". UEFA.com. Archived from the original on 9 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "C'est une première : les Français préfèrent le PSG à l'OM". Eurosport. 4 October 2015. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- "France's passion play". FIFA.com. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- "Le Qatar sans limite". Le Parisien. 7 March 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
- "Paris Saint-Germain, having conquered France, are still working on Qatar". The National. 30 December 2015. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
- "Deloitte Football Money League 2019" (PDF). Deloitte. 3 January 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Paris Saint-Germain on the Forbes Soccer Team Valuations List". Forbes. 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "La création du PSG de 1970 à 1973". Paris United. 12 November 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Histoire du Paris Saint Germain". PSG70. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Le jour où le PSG a investi le Parc". SoFoot. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "A brief history of PSG". ESPN FC. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2015. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "PSG firmly in the pantheon". FIFA.com. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Paris Saint-Germain's Qatari owners have spent $1.17 billion on players". CNBC.com. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "PSG Have Spent €1.17Billion On Players And Still Haven't Got Past Champions League QF's". SPORTbible. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- "PSG's Champions League fortunes won't change until the club changes its zero-sum gamesmanship". Yahoo! Sports. 6 March 2019. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Le PSG". Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Paris Saint-Germain, la capitale scintille en rouge et bleu". SO FOOT.com. 28 December 2015. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "Historique des maillots du PSG : les années 1970". PSG MAG. 16 June 2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Historique des maillots du PSG : les années 2010". PSG MAG. 20 June 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "At P.S.G., a Style Few Clubs Can Match". The New York Times. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- "Historique des maillots du PSG : les années 1980". PSG MAG. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "The Crest Dissected - Paris Saint Germain". The Football History Boys. 11 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Historique des maillots du PSG : les années 1990". PSG MAG. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "Blasons, Logos, Écussons du PSG". PSG70. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- "Design sporting club: L'OM et le PSG. Une histoire d'amour... du design". Design sporting club. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- "PSG dreams bigger with its new brand logo by Dragon Rouge". Dragon Rouge. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- "Can Paris Saint-Germain become the world's richest sports club?". Financial Times. 28 March 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "Paris is Earning". The Classical. 11 January 2012. Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "Football – Tournoi de Paris : Bordeaux maître dans la capitale". RTL.fr. 1 August 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Le PSG prend un nouveau virage". PSG.fr. 23 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "Comment "O Ville Lumière" est en train de pousser Phil Collins vers la sortie". L'ÉQUIPE. 19 December 2015. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Millième au Parc des Princes : ces dix matches qui ont fait l'histoire du PSG". Europe1. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "A brief history: Paris FC". thefootballcult – Medium. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "1973 - 1978 : Paris se replace sur la scène française". Paris United. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Le PSG et Manchester City, les faux jumeaux". Le Monde. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "PSG-OM, record d'affluence au Parc des Princes en L1". Paris.canal-historique. 24 October 2016. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- "Plan du Parc". PSG.fr. Archived from the original on 3 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- "Le Parc des Princes". Info PSG. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Parc des Princes". UEFA.com. Archived from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "Ooredoo, nouveau partenaire du Paris Saint-Germain". PSG.fr. 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Le Camp des Loges à St-Germain". 78actu. 26 June 2016. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Présentation du nouveau centre d'entraînement". PSG.fr. 3 November 2008. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Le Paris Saint-Germain choisit Poissy". PSG.fr. 11 July 2016. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "Présentation du Campus Paris Saint-Germain aux riverains". PSG.fr. 2 June 2017. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- "Stade municipal Georges Lefèvre". Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "PSG - OM : Ces stars qui supportent le Paris Saint-Germain". Non Stop People. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- "PSG and Brazil star Neymar celebrates 26th birthday with lavish party in Paris". FIFA.com. 5 February 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- "Fratricidal turf war threatening PSG future". ESPN FC. 12 October 2010. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "How PSG lost its soul". LookLeft. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
- "Why the return of Paris Saint-Germain's ultras is such a big deal". ESPN FC. 12 November 2016. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "A League of One". The New York Times. 6 March 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "PSG fined €100,000, threatened with supporters' ban after damage at Lyon". ESPN FC. 28 April 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- "Paris Saint-Germain ultras lose two supporter groups". ESPN FC. 9 May 2017. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- "Paris Saint-Germain end Ultras season ticket restriction after seven years". ESPN FC. 12 August 2017. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Joey Barton puts the "punch" back into the Marseille-PSG rivalry". Bleacher Report. 4 September 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "The top 50 football derbies on the world 20-11". Mirror Online. 13 April 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
- "Anecdotes autour du Tournoi de Paris". PSG.fr. 12 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Le Paris SG va relancer le Tournoi de Paris en juillet". Le Point. 24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 26 December 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- "Le PSG relance le Tournoi de Paris dès 2010". PSG MAG. 24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "PSG-Barcelone 2–2 : une soirée pleine de promesses". Le Parisien. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Há 60 anos, Vasco derrotava o Real Madrid de Di Stéfano em Paris". Globo Esporte. 14 June 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Tournoi Indoor de Paris-Bercy". RSSSF. 5 October 2003. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Political and Organizational Factors of PSG". Sports and Leisure in France. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- "Paris Saint-Germain: Can world's richest club rule Europe?". The Independent. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "PSG v Manchester City emblematic of how Gulf rivals are fuelling football". The Guardian. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "PSG's Qatari owners tap Neymar to promote QNB". SportsPro Media. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Al-Thani, Al-Khelaïfi, Blanc, Henrique : qui dirige vraiment le PSG ?". Le Parisien. 5 May 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Profile: Qatar Emir, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani". BBC News. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
- "Football Leaks : les contrats surévalués du PSG version qatarie". Le Monde. 2 November 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Deloitte Football Money League 2014" (PDF). Deloitte. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- "Sponsors". PSG.fr. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Why Paris Saint-Germain's Financial Statements Qualify As Fiction". Forbes. 21 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- "Le PSG a cumulé 300 M€ de déficit depuis 1998". PSG MAG. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Paris S-G: Histoire du club dans chaque compétition". Footballdatabase.eu. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- "Les records collectifs". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Les records individuels". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Le PSG reste au sommet". LFP.fr. 1 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Le PSG en Coupe de France : 4 à la suite, record national !". LFP.fr. 8 May 2018. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "TDC: PSG make it six in a row!". Ligue1.com. 4 August 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "Man City 15 games from the quadruple - can they do it?". BBC Sport. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- "le match du jour, 8 mai 1996 : PSG-Rapid Vienne, Paris sur le toit de l'Europe". Paris.canal-historique. 8 May 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- "Équipe Première". PSG.fr. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
- "Le PSG dévoile son Hall of Fame". Histoire du #PSG. 4 July 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "Le classement des matchs officiels joués au PSG". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Le classement historique des passeurs du PSG". Histoire du #PSG. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Les principaux capitaines du PSG". L'EQUIPE. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
- "Iconic Weah a true great". FIFA.com. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2015.