Emir of Qatar

The Emir, or Amir, of the State of Qatar (Arabic: أمیر دولة قطر) is the monarch and head of state of the country. He is also the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces and guarantor of the Constitution. He holds the most powerful position in the country, and has a prominent role in foreign relations.

Emir of State of Qatar
أمیر دولة قطر
Amir Dawlat Qatar
Incumbent
تميم بن حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني (49759678641) (cropped).jpg
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
since 25 June 2013
Details
StyleHis Highness
Heir presumptiveAbdullah bin Hamad Al Thani
First monarchMohammed bin Thani
Formation1851

The emirs are members of the House of Al Thani, whose origins are in the Banu Tamim, one of the largest tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. The present ruler is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, who succeeded on 25 June 2013.[1]

Historical backgroundEdit

There have been eight rulers of Qatar, all members of the Al Thani family.[2][3] Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani is recognised as the first ruler from 1851 when he achieved union of the country's tribes under his leadership.[4]

Qatar became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1871, although Sheikh Mohammed retained control of its internal affairs.[4][5] Following his army's victory at the Battle of Al Wajbah in March 1893, the second ruler Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani has been recognised as Founder of the State of Qatar, although it remained part of the Ottoman Empire until July 1913.[6]

The Ottomans maintained a military presence in Qatar until August 1915 and Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani signed the Anglo-Qatari Treaty on 3 November 1916. Sheikh Abdullah was the Qatari ruler from 1913 to 1949 and is one of the few, including Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, whose tenure extended through both world wars (1914–1945). Qatar's first oil well was drilled in October 1938 and oil was found at Dukhan in January 1940.[7]

Qatar became an independent state on 3 September 1971 and, since then, the ruler has been styled Emir (Amir).[8]

SuccessionEdit

The permanent constitution of the state of Qatar published in 2005 dictates that the rule is hereditary and limited to descendants of Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani. The order of succession in Qatar is determined by appointments within the House of Al Thani.[9]

The former Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (Arabic: الشيخ حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني), appointed his fourth son, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani (Arabic: الشيخ تميم بن حمد آل ثاني), as heir apparent on 5 August 2003, after his older son Sheikh Jassim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (who held the position between 1996 and 2003) renounced his rights to the throne in favour of Sheikh Tamim.[10]

CareerEdit

Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Qatar Armed Forces upon graduation from Sandhurst.[11] He became the heir apparent to the Qatar throne on 5 August 2003, when his elder brother Sheikh Jassim renounced his claim to the title.[12][11] Since then he was groomed to take over rule, working in top security and economics posts.[13] On 5 August 2003, he was appointed deputy commander-in-chief of Qatar's armed forces.[11] Sheikh Tamim promoted sport as part of Qatar's bid to raise its international profile.[13] In 2005 he founded Oryx Qatar Sports Investments, which owns Paris Saint-Germain F.C. among other investments.

List of rulersEdit

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Sheikh
Mohammed bin Thani
  • محمد بن ثاني
c. 1788 – 18 December 1878
(aged 90)
1851[4]18 December 1878Son of Thani bin Mohammed.Al Thani
Sheikh
Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani
  • The Founder[6][14]
  • جاسم بن محمد آل ثاني
c. 1825 – 17 July 1913
(aged 87–88)
18 December 1878[6]17 July 1913[6]Son of Mohammed bin Thani.Al Thani 
Sheikh
Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani
  • عبد الله بن جاسم آل ثاني
1880 – 25 April 1957
(aged 76–77)
17 July 191320 August 1949
(abdicated)
Son of Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani.Al Thani 
Sheikh
Ali bin Abdullah Al Thani
  • علي بن عبد الله آل ثاني
(1895-06-05)5 June 1895 – 31 August 1974(1974-08-31) (aged 79)20 August 194924 October 1960
(abdicated)
Son of Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani and Mariam bint Abdullah Al Attiyah.Al Thani
Sheikh
Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani
  • أحمد بن علي آل ثاني
1922 – 25 November 1977
(aged 54–55)
24 October 196022 February 1972
(deposed)[15]
Son of Ali bin Abdullah Al Thani. From independence on 3 September 1971, the first ruler to be styled Emir (Amir).[8]Al Thani
Sheikh
Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
  • خليفة بن حمد آل ثاني
(1932-09-17)17 September 1932 – 23 October 2016(2016-10-23) (aged 84)22 February 197227 June 1995
(deposed)[16]
Grandson of Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani. Son of Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani and Aisha bint Khalifa Al Suwaidi.Al Thani
Sheikh
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
  • The Father Emir[17]
  • حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني
(1952-01-01) 1 January 1952 (age 70)27 June 199525 June 2013
(abdicated)[1]
Son of Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani and Aisha bint Hamad Al Attiyah.Al Thani 
Sheikh
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
  • تميم بن حمد آل ثاني
(1980-06-03) 3 June 1980 (age 42)25 June 2013[1]IncumbentSon of Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani and Moza bint Nasser.Al Thani 

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Qatari emir Hamad hands power to son Tamim". BBC News. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  2. ^ Qatar's Rulers. Amiri Diwan. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  3. ^ His Highness Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Amiri Diwan. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  4. ^ a b c Sheikh Mohammed Bin Thani. Amiri Diwan. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  5. ^ Rogan, Eugene; Murphey, Rhoads; Masalha, Nur; Durac, Vincent; Hinnebusch, Raymond (November 1999). "Review of The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar by Frederick F. Anscombe; The Blood-Red Arab Flag: An Investigation into Qasimi Piracy, 1797–1820 by Charles E. Davies; The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia and the Gulf, 1745–1900 by Hala Fattah". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 26 (2): 339–342. doi:10.1080/13530199908705688. JSTOR 195948.
  6. ^ a b c d Sheikh Jassim Bin Mohammed Bin Thani. Amiri Diwan. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  7. ^ Sheikh Abdullah Bin Jassim Al Thani. Amiri Diwan. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  8. ^ a b Sheikh Ahmad Bin Ali Al Thani. Amiri Diwan. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  9. ^ "The State and the Basis of its Rule". Al Meezan. State of Qatar. 2022. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  10. ^ "New Qatar crown prince named". BBC News. 5 August 2003. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  11. ^ a b c "Profile: Qatar Emir, Sheikh Tamim bin Khalifa Al Thani". BBC. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  12. ^ "Sheikh Tamim's biography". Qatar News Agency. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Qatar's Sheikh Tamim: 33-year-old groomed for power". AFP. 25 June 2013. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Qatar National Day: Our History". ndqatar.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  15. ^ "Qatar PM seizes power from cousin". Ottawa Citizen. Beirut. AP. 23 February 1972. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  16. ^ "Prince deposes father in Qatar". Deseret News. 27 June 1995. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  17. ^ "Qatar's Father Emir flown to Switzerland to treat broken leg". Doha News. 29 December 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2016.