Ultras are a type of association football fans renowned for fanatical support. The term originated in Italy but is used worldwide to describe predominantly organized fans of association football teams.
The behavioural tendency of ultras groups includes the use of flares (primarily in tifo choreography), vocal support in large groups and the displaying of banners at football stadiums, all of which are designed to create an atmosphere which encourages their own team and intimidates opposing players and supporters. The use of elaborate displays in stadiums often is common, as well.
The actions of ultras groups are occasionally extreme and may be influenced by political ideologies such as conservatism or socialism, or views on racism, ranging from avowed nationalists to anti-fascist. In some instances, this goes to the point where the passionate and loyal support of one's team becomes secondary to the theoretical ideology of the ultras phenomenon. In recent decades, the culture has become a focal point for the movement against the commercialisation of sports and football in particular.
The first signs of the phenomenon of football supporters in Italy are in 1932 when the supporters of Lazio go on to number first the birth of an organized association, with hierarchical structure, of fans. On October 23 of that year, on the occasion of the derby, an organized group called "Paranza Aquilotti" in fact staged a set design at the Stadium of the National Fascist Party  many supporters groups from various countries making claims solely on the basis of their dates of foundation. The level of dispute and confusion is aided by a contemporary tendency (mainly in Europe) to categorize all groups of overtly fanatical supporters as ultras. Supporters groups of a nature comparable to the ultras have been present in Brazil since 1939, when the first torcida organizada was formed (although these groups began to focus on violence in the 1970s). Inspired by the torcidas and the colourful scenes of the 1950 World Cup, supporters of Hajduk Split formed Torcida Split on 28 October 1950. The group is often cited as the oldest torcida style group in Europe. But the first supporters' groups in the world formed to produce violence were barras bravas, originated in Argentina in the 1950s.
One country closely associated with the ultras movement is Italy. The first Italian ultras groups were formed in 1951, including the Fedelissimi Granata of Torino. The 1960s saw the continuing spread and development of the culture with the formation of the Fossa dei Leoni and Boys San groups, the former often regarded in Italy as the first full-fledged ultras group (associated with violence). The term ultras was used as a name for the first time in 1969 when supporters of Sampdoria formed the Ultras Tito Cucchiaroni and fans of Torino formed the Ultras Granata. The style of support that would become synonymous with Italian football developed most during the 1970s as more groups formed including the radical S.S. Lazio Ultras in 1974 with a strong predominance of fascist slogans and chants amongst other groups such as Hellas Verona supporters. The active support of the ultras became more apparent, in contrast with the "traditional" culture, choreographic displays, signature banners and symbols, giant flags, drums and fireworks became the norm as groups aimed to take their support to higher levels. The decade also saw the violence and unrest of Italian society at the time overlap with the ultras movement, adding a dimension that has plagued it ever since.
Green Brigade are an ultras group that follow Celtic F.C. and regularly make tifo displays and often voice support for a United Ireland and Free Palestine. On the other side of Glasgow are the Rangers F.C ultra group The Union Bears. In England there are ultras groups at Crystal Palace F.C. (Holmesdale Fanatics) Leicester City F.C (Union FS) and Huddersfield Town F.C. Several Non-League football teams in England have ultras groups that are left-wing, anti-fascist, anti-racist and anti-sexist such as the fans of Dulwich Hamlet F.C. that have a group called the ComFast Chapter who are openly communist. A Vice article claims the anti-communists Casuals United is at war with anti-fascist football ultras and have come into conflict with the Clapton Ultras and had already caused the disbandment of the anti-EDL Inter Village Firm that followed Mangotsfield United.
Hungarian ultras usually sit in B central. The greatest rivalry: Fradi-Újpest. In the country: Nagyhalász-Ibrány, Diósgyőr-Nyíregyháza, Debrecen-Békéscsaba, Debrecen-Nyíregyháza, Haladás-ZTE, Nagykanizsa-ZTE, ZTE-Győr, Fehérvár-Győr, Pécs-Komló, Pécs-Fehérvár, Pécs-Kaposvár, Siófok-Kaposvár, Tatabánya-Győr, Celldömölk-Tatabánya, Celldömölk-ZTE, Szeged-Békéscsaba, Cegléd-Vecsés.
|July 5, 1962 Stadium||MC Alger||-Ultras the Twelfth Player 2011 |
- Ultras Green Corsaires 2012
- Groupe Vert et Rouge 2013
-Ultras Squalo Verde 2019
-Ultras Love And Montality
|Stade 20 Août 1955,
|JSM Skikda||- Ultras Senza Confine 13 |
- Ultras Ouled Russicada 2015
|Mohamed Hamlaoui Stadium,
|CS Constantine||- Ultras Loca Ragazzi 2010 |
- Ultras Green Army 2012
- Ultras Los Guerreros 2015
|April 13, 1958 Stadium,
- Ultras Méga Boys 2007
|20 August 1955 Stadium (Algiers),
- Ultras Fanatic Reds 09
|Stade 8 Mai 1945,
|ES Setif||- Ultras Inferno 10|
|Stade Omar Hamadi,
|USM Alger||- groupe Ouled El Bahdja|
|Ahmed Zabana Stadium,
|MC Oran||- Ultras Red Castle 2011 |
- Ultras Leones Rey 2009
|Maghrebi Unity Stadium||MO Bejaia||- Ultras Granchio 09 |
- Ultras Saldae Kings 2010
- Ultras Free Men 15
- Ultras Pirate Boys 16
|May 19, 1956 Stadium||USM Annaba||- Les indepandants de bone 12|
- Ultras Sparta Rosso 2015
|1 November 1954 Stadium (Tizi Ouzou),
|JS Kabylie||- Ultras Kabylie Boys 09 |
- Ultras The Leader 2013
- Ultras Samba Boys 2013
|20 August 1955 Stadium (Algiers),
|NA Hussein Dey||
- Ultras Dey Boys 09
|Mohamed Boumezrag Stadium,
- Ultras Polina 10
|1 November 1954 Stadium (Batna),
|CA Batna||- Ultras Aurès Boys 2009 |
- Ultras Furia Roja 2013
|Stade Imam Lyes,
|O Medea||- Ultras Matador 26 |
- Ultras Titery Army 2015
|February 24, 1956 Stadium,
Sidi Bel Abbès
|USM Bel Abbès||
- Curva Nord
|1 November 1954 Stadium (Algiers)||USM El Harrach||
- Grinta Curva
|20 August 1955 Stadium,
Bordj Bou Arréridj
|CA Bordj Bou Arréridj||- Ultras Commandos 2008 |
- Ultras Monstros 18
The clubs in Egypt became a major political force during the uprising against Mubarak in 2011, but were known for long-standing animosity with the police. When 38 members of the Ultras Devils were arrested in Shebeen al-Kom for "belonging to an illegal group" plus additional violent offences, it was seen as a crackdown on the organizations by authorities. Ultras in Turkey have also played a role in the 2013 protests in Turkey, with fans of arch-rivals Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Besiktas shielding protesters and allying against police violence. Police responded with raids in the Besiktas neighbourhood, the main breeding ground of ultras of the Beşiktaş club, the Carsi Group.
|Cairo International Stadium||Al Ahly SC||- Ultras Ahlawy|
- Ultras Devils
|Cairo International Stadium||Zamalek SC||- Ultras White Knights|
|Port Said Stadium||Al-Masry SC||- Ultras Green Eagles|
|Suez Stadium||Suez Montakhab||- Ultras Suez Fedyan|
|Ghazl El Mahalla Stadium||Ghazl El Mahalla SC||- Ultras Whales 2008|
|Ismailia Stadium||Ismaily SC||- Ultras Yellow Dragons|
- Ultras Rebels
|Alexandria Stadium||Al Ittihad Alexandria Club||- Ultras Green Magic|
|Stade Olympique de Radès||ES Tunis||- Curva Sud Tunis|
|Stade Olympique de Radès||Club Africain||- Curva Nord Tunis|
|Stade Taïeb Mhiri||CS Sfaxien||- Curva Nord Sfax|
|Stade Olympique de Sousse||ES Sahel||- Curva Nord Sousse|
|Stade 15 October||CA Bizertin||- Ultras Big Boss 2010 , Ultras Marines 2005|
The ultras scene was introduced to Lebanon in February 2018, with Nejmeh's "Ultras Supernova". Their rivals Ansar quickly followed with their own ultras group, "I Tifosi", one month later. Ahed formed their own ultras group, called "Ultras Yellow Inferno", the same year. Prior to the Arab Club Champions Cup game between Nejmeh and Al-Ahly of Egypt, played on 13 August 2018, seven “Ultras Supernova” fans were arrested by the Egyptian national security because of the negative connotations the word “Ultras” has in Egypt. The fans have been returned to Lebanon by request of the Lebanese Ambassador to Cairo.
|Audi Field||D.C. United||District Ultras|
|Avaya Stadium||San Jose Earthquakes||1906 Ultras|
Ultras groups are usually centred on a core group of founders or leaders (who tend to hold executive control), with smaller subgroups organized by location, friendship or political stance. Ultras tend to use various styles and sizes of banners and flags bearing the name and symbols of their group. Some ultras groups sell their own merchandise to raise funds for performing displays. An ultras group can number from a handful of fans to hundreds or thousands, with larger groups often claiming entire sections of a stadium for themselves. Ultras groups often have a representative who liaises with the club owners on a regular basis, mostly regarding tickets, seat allocations and storage facilities. Some clubs provide groups with cheaper tickets, storage rooms for flags and banners and early access to the stadium before matches in order to prepare displays. These types of favoured relationships are often criticized when ultras groups abuse their power.
While ultras groups can become violent, the majority of matches attended by ultras conclude with no violent incidents. Unlike hooligan firms, whose main aim is to fight hooligans of other clubs, the main focus of ultras is generally to support their own team. Some hooligans try to be inconspicuous when they travel; usually not wearing team colours, in order to avoid detection by the police. Within the ultra or hooligan culture however, those dressing to "blend in" would be referred to as casuals, which is viewed by some as a branch of hooliganism, yet still maintaining its own independence and culture. Ultras tend to be more conspicuous when they travel, proudly displaying their scarves and club colours while arriving en masse, which allows the police to keep a close eye on their movements.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ultras.|
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