Ultras are a type of association football fans who are renowned for their fanatical support. The term originated in Italy, but is used worldwide to describe predominantly organised fans of association football teams. The behavioural tendency of ultras groups includes singing football chants, playing musical instruments such as drums, their use of flares and smoke bombs (primarily in tifo choreography), frequent use of elaborate displays, vocal support in large groups and the displaying of flags and banners at football stadiums, all of which are designed to create an atmosphere which encourages their own team and intimidates the opposing players and their supporters. These groups also commonly organise trips to attend away games.

Ultras of Levski Sofia
Ultras of Lazio

Ultras groups have been responsible for many cases of football hooliganism and violence,[1] although differently from hooligan firms, ultras do not have the explicit objective of fighting other fans.[2] Ultras groups are also in some cases directly linked to ideologies like neo-Nazism and other forms of far-right politics,[3][4][5] and sometimes far-left politics.[6][7] In some instances, hooliganism and/or this politicisation goes to the point where support for their team is relegated to a secondary feature of the phenomenon.[8]

In recent decades, the culture has become a focal point for the movement against the commercialisation of sports and football in particular.[9] Ultras also have regional variants and analogues, such as hooligans in the United Kingdom, barra bravas in Hispanic America,[10] and torcidas organizadas in Brazil.[11]

History edit

Barra bravas of Club Atlético Independiente in the 1960s

The origin of the ultras movement is disputed,[12] with many supporters groups from various countries making claims solely on the basis of their dates of foundation. The level of dispute and confusion is aided by a contemporary tendency (mainly in Europe) to categorise all groups of overtly fanatical supporters as ultras. Supporters groups of a nature comparable to the ultras have been present in Brazil since 1939, when the first torcida organizada was formed (although these groups began to focus on violence in the 1970s). Inspired by the torcidas and the colourful scenes of the 1950 World Cup, supporters of Hajduk Split formed Torcida Split on 28 October 1950.[13] The group is often cited as the oldest torcida style group in Europe. But the first supporters' groups in the world formed to produce violence were barras bravas, originated in Argentina in the 1950s.

Torcida Jovem of Santos in Brazil. An example of a Brazilian Torcida Organizada

One country closely associated with the ultras movement is Italy.[12][14] The first Italian ultras groups were formed in 1951, including the Fedelissimi Granata of Torino. The 1960s saw the continuing spread and development of the culture with the formation of the Fossa dei Leoni and Boys San groups, the former often regarded in Italy as the first full-fledged ultras group (associated with violence). The term "ultras" was used as a name for the first time in 1969, when supporters of Sampdoria formed the Ultras Tito Cucchiaroni and fans of Torino formed the Ultras Granata. The style of support that would become synonymous with Italian football developed most during the 1970s, as more groups formed, including the radical S.S. Lazio Ultras in 1974, with a strong predominance of fascist slogans and chants amongst other groups such as Hellas Verona supporters. The active support of the ultras became more apparent, in contrast with the "traditional" culture, choreographic displays, signature banners and symbols, giant flags, drums and fireworks became the norm as groups aimed to take their support to higher levels.[15] The decade also saw the violence and unrest of Italian society at the time overlap with the ultras movement, adding a dimension that has plagued it ever since.[16] The ultras movement spread across Europe, Australia, Asia and North Africa during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, starting with the countries geographically closest to Italy.[17]

Characteristics edit

Ultras groups are usually centred on a core group of founders or leaders (who tend to hold executive control),[18] with smaller subgroups organised by location, friendship or political stance. Ultras tend to use various styles and sizes of banners and flags bearing the name and symbols of their group.[18][19] Some ultras groups sell their own merchandise to raise funds for performing displays.[18][20] An ultras group can number from a handful of fans to hundreds or thousands, with larger groups often claiming entire sections of a stadium for themselves. Ultras groups often have a representative who liaises with the club owners on a regular basis, mostly regarding tickets, seat allocations and storage facilities.[18] Some clubs provide groups with cheaper tickets, storage rooms for flags and banners and early access to the stadium before matches to prepare displays. These types of favoured relationships are often criticised when ultras groups abuse their power.[5]

Hooliganism edit

Polish football hooligans in violent clash

While ultras groups can become violent, the majority of matches attended by ultras conclude with no violent incidents. Unlike hooligan firms, whose main aim is to fight hooligans of other clubs, the main focus of ultras is generally to support their own team.[1] Some hooligans try to be inconspicuous when they travel; usually not wearing team colours, to avoid detection by the police. Within the ultra or hooligan culture however, those dressing to "blend in" would be referred to as casuals, which is viewed by some as a branch of hooliganism, yet still maintaining its own independence and culture. Ultras tend to be more conspicuous when they travel, proudly displaying their scarves and club colours while arriving en masse, which allows the police to keep a close eye on their movements.

Europe edit

France edit

Stadium Club Name
Parc des Princes Paris Saint-Germain Collectif Ultras Paris 2016
Stade Vélodrome Olympique de Marseille Commando Ultra '84
Club des Amis de l'OM 1987
South Winners 1987
Fanatics 1988
Dodger's 1992
Marseille Trop Puissant 1994
Handi Fan Club 2005
Stade Geoffroy-Guichard AS Saint-Étienne Associés Supporters 1970
Magic Fans 1991
Green Angels 1992
Indépendantistes Stéphanois 1998
Union des Supporters Stéphanois 2004
Groupama Stadium Olympique Lyonnais Bad Gones
Lyon 1950
Amicale des Rouge & Bleu
Générations OL
O'Elle Club
Handi Sup OL
Gastrogones 69
OL Muséum
Brigade Lyon
Les Canuts de l'OL
Stade Louis-II AS Monaco Le Club des supporters de Monaco
Ultras Monaco 1994

Scotland edit

In Scotland, Ultras Aberdeen are the ultras group who follow Aberdeen F.C, they organise chants and choreography in the Merkland Road Stand, at Pittodrie Stadium, also known as the "Red Shed".[98] the Green Brigade are an ultras group that follow Celtic F.C. and regularly make tifo displays and often voice support for a United Ireland. They are left-wing. On the other side of Glasgow are the Rangers F.C ultra group The Union Bears.[21] The Union Bears are known for their elaborate fan displays and their support for Northern Irish and Scottish unionism within the UK. They celebrate and support the Protestant history of both Rangers and Scotland. Block Seven are a supporters group that support Hibernian FC, the Gorgie Ultras support rivals, Heart of Midlothian FC.

England edit

In England, there are ultras groups at Hartlepool United known as the NWC, Middlesbrough F.C (Red Faction), Crystal Palace F.C. (Holmesdale Fanatics), Ipswich Town F.C (Blue Action), Leicester City F.C (Union FS), Huddersfield Town F.C, and Stockport County (Hatters 83).[22][23][24] Several non-league football teams in England have ultras groups that are left-wing, such as the fans of Dulwich Hamlet F.C. who have a group called The Rabble.[25][26] A Vice article claims Casuals United are at war with anti-fascist football ultras.[27]

In late 2022, an Arsenal F.C. supporters group called "Ashburton Army" gained prominence, taking their name from Ashburton Grove, an historic road upon which the team's Emirates Stadium was built.[28][29][30]

In 2024, following the inception of the group and a subsequent meeting with club officials, an Aston Villa F.C. supporters group called "The 1897 Group" were allocated a section of the club's home stadium Villa Park for a Premier League match against A.F.C. Bournemouth to launch the group's presence at Aston Villa's matches.[31]

Hungary edit

Singing at sector B Central during the opening ceremonies of the Puskás Aréna on 15 November 2019

Several clubs in Hungary have large ultras groups, such as Ferencváros (Green Monsters), Újpest (Viola Fidelity), Diósgyőr (Ultras Diósgyőr), Honvéd (Ultras Kispest, Északi Kanyar), Fehérvár (Red Blue Devils), Tatabánya (Turul Ultrái), and Debrecen (Szívtiprók Ultras Debrecen). The national team of Hungary has an ultras group known as the Carpathian Brigade. The group was formed in 2009. Hungarian ultras occupy sector B Central at the Puskás Aréna.

Portugal edit

Portuguese club old group No Name Boys, Lisbon, 2008
Stadium Club Name
Estádio do Dragão FC Porto Super Dragões
Colectivo Ultras 95
Estádio do Bessa Boavista FC Panteras Negras
Estádio da Luz SL Benfica No groups currently organized
Estádio José Alvalade Sporting CP Juventude Leonina 1976
Torcida Verde
Directivo Ultras XXI
Brigada Ultras Sporting
Estádio José Gomes CF Estrela da Amadora – Magia Tricolor
Estádio D. Afonso Henriques Vitória SC White Angels

Greece edit

In Greece, most professional football teams have an ultras group. Most of them are named after a gate number which refers to the specific place where the fans are situated at the stadium. Others have actual names or no special names at all and they are named after their supporting team.

Club Name Stadium
Olympiacos F.C Gate 7 Karaiskakis Stadium
AEK Athens F.C Original 21 (sometimes Gate 21) Agia Sophia Stadium
PAOK F.C Gate 4 Toumba Stadium
Aris Thessaloniki F.C SUPER-3 Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium
Panathinaikos F.C Gate 13 Leoforos Stadium
Atromitos Athinon F.C Fentagin Peristeri Stadium
OFI Crete F.C Gate 4 (Snakes) Theodoros Vardinogiannis Stadium
Panetolikos F.C Gate 6 (Warriors) Panetolikos Stadium
Asteras Tripolis F.C Tigers Theodoros Kolokotronis Stadium
AEL F.C Monsters (Gate 1) AEL FC Arena
Panionios F.C Panthers Panionios Stadium
Iraklis F.C Autonomous Gate 10
PAS Lamia F.C Gate 3
Panseraikos F.C Gate 5
PAS Giannina F.C Pagouria Zosimades Stadium
Egaleo F.C Gate 12

Kosovo edit

Denmark edit

FC Copenhagen (Sektion 12) and Brøndby IF (Sydsiden) have some of the most renowned ultras groups on the continent, and the derby between the two is also one of the fiercest in Europe.[32]

AaB's ultras group caused a 14-minute delay in the 2020 Danish Cup final for a failure to adhere to COVID-19 social distancing rules.[33] The group was ultimately ejected from the stadium and the game resumed, which was won by Sønderjyske.

Italy edit

AC Milan ultras in 2006

In Italy, most professional football clubs have an ultras group which attends every match and has dedicated seating areas in either the north or south end of the stadium behind the goals. Each ultras group will have one or more leaders who choreograph chants, and who hand out banners and flags to other people in the stand to wave throughout the match. Ultras have been credited with creating fantastic atmospheres inside the stadium; however they have also come under universal criticism because of ties to various gangs and the mafia, as well as causing violence which often takes place outside the stadium prior to a match. Over the years inappropriate chanting has resulted in the FIGC issuing partial or full stadium bans to clubs. The ultras will choreograph a wide range of chants throughout a match, but some of the most common chants that result in a ban are anti-Southern chants towards clubs which are located in the South of Italy, most notably towards Napoli, as well as racist chants towards opposition players. However, these issues only partially represent parts of the Ultras culture in Italy – Ultras in Italy are also known for fighting criminals and the Mafia, giving housing to immigrants or helping Italian citizens in need, as well as aiding with food and money during the Covid pandemic to their local hospitals.[34][35]

Republic of Ireland edit

Several groups exist in Rep. of Ireland, as follows:

Shamrock Rovers - SRFC Ultras
St Patrick's Athletic - Shed End Invincibles
Drogheda United - Famous 45 Ultras
Dundalk FC - Shed Side Army
Bohemian FC - Notorious Boo Boys
Galway United F.C. - maroon army
Waterford FC - Block E Boys
Finn Harps FC - Ballybofey brigade

Northern Ireland edit

The ultras scene in Northern Ireland is new and since these have began the younger generation of fans in Northern Ireland has increased more than it has in many years.

Club Name
Glentoran F.C. Glentoran Ultras
Linfield F.C. Blue Unity
Cliftonville F.C. Red Fanatics
Coleraine F.C. Coleraine Casual Army
Larne F.C. Casual Inver Army

Poland edit

The first Polish ultras groups were formed in 1980s by fans of Legia Warszawa and Arka Gdynia. Those early ultra groups identified as either fascist or national-socialist and opposed communist government of Wojciech Jaruzelski. The 1990s saw the continuing spread and development of the ultra culture with the formation of the Wisła Sharks and Cracovia Jude Gang groups, the former often regarded in Poland as the first full-fledged ultras group. With intimidating and non-stop chanting, they've made their presence felt in the stands.[36] Modern hooligans try to be inconspicuous when they enter the stadium; usually not wearing team colours, to avoid detection by the police and PZPN officials.[37]

Spain edit

Spanish ultraism is generally agreed to have come from Italian and English ultraism and hooliganism at the 1982 World Cup held in Spain. Held only seven years after the death of Franco, the World Cup was an opportunity for Spain to join the world of modern international football. Spanish ultraism is particularly known for its dramatic and polarized distinction across two ideological cleavages: fascism and nationalism. The vast majority of ultra groups identify as either fascist or anti-fascist, and either independentist or nationalist.[38]

The Netherlands edit

In The Netherlands, most professional football teams have an ultras group. the first ultras groups in the Netherlands were formed in the 1970s by fans of Feyenoord they called themselves S.C.F. Hooligans. After S.C.F. Hooligans were formed many other ultras groups started forming such as AFC Ajax (F-side) FC Utrecht (Bunnikside) ADO Den Haag (north side) De Graafschap (Brigata Tifosi) FC Twente (Vak-P)

Belgium edit

Most clubs in Belgium have an ultra-group, such as Sporting Charleroi (Storm Ultras 2001), Sint-Truidense V.V. (Brigada Hesbania), KRC Genk (Drughi Genk), RSC Anderlecht (Mauves Army 2003) Standard Liège (Ultras Inferno 1996)

Luxembourg edit

Several clubs in Luxembourg have an ultras group, such as FC Differdange 03 (UD45), Jeunesse Esch (Ultras Esch), Avenir Beggen (Ultras Beggen), Luxembourg national football team (M-Block)

Bosnia and Herzegovina edit

Bosniaks are known for their national ultras group BHFanaticos. Also, they have a few ultras that are connected to football clubs Manijaci, Horde zla, Lešinari, Red Army, Škripari, Ultrasi and many more.

Cyprus edit

Gate-9 (Greek:Θύρα 9) is a Cypriot fans' group that supports the football team People's Athletic Club Omonia 1948 and all the sport departments of AC Omonia except football. Omonia supporters are traditionally left wing. A 2009 gallop poll estimated that three out of four Omonia fans vote for the Progressive Party of Working People, the communist party of Cyprus.[39] While the group retains its left wing beliefs, in recent years it has been openly critical of the party's involvement in the club's administrative decisions. The party has denied accusations that it influences club decisions.[40] Gate-9 members are associated with communist beliefs and have been noted for waving banners bearing Che Guevara's portrait, and other communist symbols.[41] The group is also involved in humanitarian work for refugees in Cyprus.[42] The group, besides Nicosia, has fan clubs in Limassol, Athens, Thessaloniki, Larnaka,[43] Paphos,[44] and London.[45]

There are also ultras groups affiliated with the APOEL FC[46] and the Anorthosis Famagusta FC.[47]

Malta edit

Although small in size, Malta has some notable ultras groups. The main ultras groups in Malta are Birkirkara Ultras 1997, Ultras Beltin 99, and Paola Boys Hibs Ultras, as well as the Maltese national football team ultras group, the South End Core.

Ukraine edit

Stadium Club Name
Chernihiv Stadium Desna Chernihiv Ultras Desna

Romania edit

Romania's ultras only finds itself in the traditional teams like Steaua București, Dinamo București and Rapid București; but there are some small ultras groups which support their local club. The biggest ultras groups are: Peluza Nord Steaua, Peluza Sud Steaua, Peluza Cătălin Hîldan, Peluza Sud Dinamo, Peluza Nord Rapid, t2 Rapid, Peluza Şepcile Roşii and Peluza Nord Hunedoara. There are also some honourable mentions like Peluza Marină Farul, Peluza Sud Craiova, Peluza Nord Craiova and Peluza Nord Galați.

Türkiye edit

The three big clubs of Turkey, namely Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray, have a dedicated and passionate fanbase. The ultras of these clubs are Çarşı, Genç Fenerbahçeliler and UltrAslan, respectively.

Bulgaria edit

The most famous ultras in Bulgaria are Sector G (CSKA Sofia), Sector B (Levski Sofia), Bultras (Botev Plovdiv), and Lauta Army (Lokomotiv Plovdiv).

Africa edit

Algeria edit

Stadium Club Name
Douera Sportpark Stadium MC Alger Ultras the Twelfth Player 2011
Ultras Green Corsaires 2012
Ultra' Amore E Mentalita 2019
Stade 20 Août 1955,
JSM Skikda Ultras Senza Confine 13
Ultras Ouled Russicada 2015
Mohamed Hamlaoui Stadium,
CS Constantine Ultras Loca Ragazzi 2010
Ultras Green Army 2012
Ultra' Iqbal 2023
April 13, 1958 Stadium,
MC Saida

Ultras Méga Boys 2007

20 August 1955 Stadium (Algiers),
CR Belouizdad

Ultras Fanatic Reds 09

Stade 8 Mai 1945,
ES Setif Ultras Inferno 10
Stade du 5 Juillet,
USM Alger Les Unionistes Algérois
Alger Offender
El Assima
Les Originaires d'Alger
Ahmed Zabana Stadium,
MC Oran Ultras Red Castle 2011
Ultras Leones Rey 2009
Forza Mouloudia
Maghrebi Unity Stadium MO Bejaia Ultras Granchio 09
Ultras Saldae Kings 2011
Ultras Free Men 16
La Banda Berberista
Bejaia Offender
May 19, 1956 Stadium USM Annaba Les indepandants de bone 12
Ultras Sparta Rosso 15
1 November 1954 Stadium (Tizi Ouzou)
JS Kabylie Ultras Kabylie Boys 09
Ultras The Leader 2013
Ultras Samba Boys 2013
20 August 1955 Stadium (Algiers),
NA Hussein Dey

Ultra Dey Boys 09
Ultras Crazy Capital 14

Mohamed Boumezrag Stadium,
ASO Chlef

Ultras Polina 10
Ultras Asnam Boys 1437
Groupe Djawarih 2014
Group Armata Rosso 2019

1 November 1954 Stadium (Batna),
CA Batna Ultras Aurès Boys 2009
Ultras Furia Roja 2013
Stade Imam Lyes,
O Medea Ultra' Olympic Medea
Titteri Ragazzi 2024
February 24, 1956 Stadium,
Sidi Bel Abbès
USM Bel Abbès

Ultras Scorpion Trop Puissant
Ultras Verde Veteranos

1 November 1954 Stadium (Algiers) USM El Harrach

Grinta Curva(UGG & UYC)
Ultra' Combattiva

20 August 1955 Stadium,
Bordj Bou Arréridj
CA Bordj Bou Arréridj Ultras Commandos 2008
Ultras Monstros 18
El Alia Sports Complex US Biskra

Ultras Pandilla Ziban
Groupe Ouled el Ziban

Touhami Zoubir Khelifi Stadium AS Aïn M'lila

Red Scorpion

Stade Akid Lotfi WA Tlemcen

Ultras Kop 13

Stade 20 Août 1955 (Béchar) JS Saoura

Ultras Giallo Verde

Stade Messaoud Zougar MC El Eulma

Ultras Vikings 2009
Ultras Red Army 2013

Maghrebi Unity Stadium JSM Bejaia

Ultras Gouraya United
Ultras Marins

1 November 1954 Stadium (Batna),
MSP Batna

Ultras Pantera Nera 2009

Ismaïl Makhlouf Stadium RC Arbaâ

Ultras Blue Vichingo
Ultras Tauras Blue

Stade Tahar Zoughari RC Relizane

Ultras Verde Corazon
Ultras Mina Men

Amar Hamam Stadium USM Khenchela

Ultras Mascula 13
Casa Nera

Stade Mokhtar Abdelatif Amal Bou Saâda

Ultras Ouled el Khadra

Habib Bouakeul Stadium ASM Oran

Ultras Verde Lupo

Stade Mohamed Reggaz WA Boufarik

Ultras Orange W'arriors 2015
La Fiamma

Stade Ben Abdelmalek MO Constantine

Ultras Libertados
Ultras Ouled Ben Badis

Rouibah Hocine Stadium JS Djijel

Ultras Green Gunners
Ultras Free Fans
Ouled el Corniche

Brakni Brothers Stadium USM Blida

Ultras Green Killers 2014
Les Blidéens

Stade Souidani Boujemaa ES Guelma

Ultras Rebells Ragazzi

Omar Oucief Stadium CR Témouchent

Ultras Red Wolves

Ahmed Kaïd Stadium JSM Tiaret

Ultras Cavalier Blue
Ultras Blue Eagles

Stade Amar Benjamaa ES Collo

Ultras Los Marinos 23

Stade Mohamed Bensaïd ES Mostaganem

Ultras Verde Marinero 12

Stade Mohamed Bensaïd WA Mostaganem

El Widadyoun 1945

Stade de l'Unité Africaine GC Mascara

Ultras Green Storm 2008

Stade Zerdani Hassouna US Chaouia

Ultras Giallo Boys

Mohamed Benhaddad Stadium RC Kouba

Ultras Green Fans
Ultras Raed 2015

1 November 1954 stadium US Souf - Group Quicksand 2023
13 February Stadium CR Béni Thour

Ultras Crazy Fans
Les vrais 30

Salah Takdjerad Stadium JS Bordj Ménaïel - Pure Blood 2023
1 November 1954 stadium Olympique Akbou - Ultras Brawers
11 December 1961 Stadium HB Chelghoum Laïd - Ragazzi Verde
Mohamed Belkebir Stadium SKAF Khemis Miliana - Cardellino Scuola
Mohamed Mouaz Stadium ESM Koléa - Ultras Etoile Verde
Ahmed Khalfa Stadium WR M'Sila - Ouled el hodna
Mila Stadium CB Mila - Ultras Salerno 2011
El Milia Stadium CRB EL Milia - Les Fidèles 2017

Morocco edit

Stadium Club Name
Prince Moulay Abdellah Stadium Association Sportive des FAR Ultras Askary 2005
Black Army 2006
Stade Mohamed V Wydad Casablanca Ultras Winners 2005
Stade Mohamed V Raja CA Ultras Green Boys 2005
Ultras Eagles 2006
Ibn Batouta Stadium Ittihad Riadi Tanger Ultra Hercules 2007
Complexe sportif de Fès Maghreb de Fès Ultras Fatal Tigers 2006
Complexe sportif de Fès Wydad de Fès Ultras Bianco Nero 2008
Complexe sportif de Phosphate Olympique Club de Khouribga Ultras Green Ghost 2007
Stade Municipal (Kenitra) Kenitra athletic club Ultras Helala Boys 2007
Stade Adrar Hassania Agadir Ultras Imazighen 2006
Stade Saniat Rmel Moghreb Tetouan Ultras Los Matadores 2005
Ultras Siempre Paloma 2006
Stade Municipal de Berkane RS Berkane Ultras Orange Boys 07
Stade Mimoun Al Arsi Chabab Rif Al Hoceima Ultras Rif Boys 2010
Ultras Los Rifeños 2012
Stade El Massira Olympic Safi Ultras Shark 2006
Stade du 18 novembre Ittihad Khemisset Ultras Cavaliers Family 2009
Stade de Marrakech Kawkab Marrakech Ultras Crazy Boys 2006
Honneur Stadium MC Oujda Ultras Brigade Wajda 2007
Honneur Stadium USM Oujda Ultras Pioneers 10
Stade Boubker Ammar AS Salé Ultras Red Pirates 06
Ultras Pirates 07
Ultras Fanatics 09
Stade Municipal De Khénifra Chabab Atlas Khénifra Ultras Zayan Boys 2008
Ultras Révoltés 2012
Stade D'honneur De Meknès COD Meknès Ultras Red Men 2008
Ultras Vulcano Rosso 2010
Stade El Abdi Difaâ Hassani El Jadidi Ultras Cap Soleil 2007
Stade Municipal (Oued Zem)) Rapide Oued Zem Ultras Martyrs 2007
Berrechid Municipal Stadium Youssoufia Berrechid Ultras Liberta 13
Stade d'honneur de Beni Mellal Raja Beni Mellal Ultras Star Boys 2007
Complexe Bernoussi CR Bernoussi Ultras Imbrator 2012
Stade de Settat RS Settat Ultras Masked 2008
Stade Tiznit Amal Tiznit Ultras Risings 2008
Stade de Tan-Tan NS Tantan Ultras 2Tan Boys 2008
Stade du 16 Novembre Chabab Houara Ultras Giallo Pizzi 2009
Stade Municipal d'Aït Melloul USM Aït Melloul Ultras Swassa Boys 2011
Stade du Errachidia US Errachidia Ultras Sand Men 2012
The Curva Sud in a RCA vs OCS match in 2022

The history of Moroccan ultras can be traced back to the early 2000s, with the formation of the first ultras group, Ultras Tanger, in 2003. However, the first ultras group that still exists today is Ultras Green Boys, which was founded in 2005 to support Raja Casablanca. That same year, Ultras Winners was also founded to support Wydad Casablanca. The Moroccan ultras movement quickly gained momentum and popularity, with other notable groups such as Ultras Eagles (also supporting Raja Casablanca), being formed in 2006. Moroccan ultras groups are heavily influenced by European ultras movements, and are known for their passionate and dedicated support of their favorite football clubs. They are also known for their elaborate displays of choreographed support, including banners, flags, flares, and coordinated chants. Despite facing challenges, such as financial costs and loss of members, Moroccan ultras groups remain an important part of the country's football culture, known for their intense rivalries and unwavering support of their clubs.

Egypt edit

The clubs in Egypt became a major political force during the uprising against Mubarak in 2011, but were known for long-standing animosity with the police.[48] When 38 members of the Ultras Devils were arrested in "Shebeen al-Kom" for "belonging to an illegal group" plus additional violent offences, it was seen as a crackdown on the organisations by authorities.[48]

Ultras of Zamalek

In 2013, the Associated Press stated that the Egyptian Ultras network was one of the most organised movements in Egypt after the Muslim Brotherhood.[48]

Stadium Club Name
Cairo International Stadium Al Ahly SC Ultras Ahlawy
Ultras Devils
Cairo International Stadium Zamalek SC Ultras White Knights (UWK)
Port Said Stadium Al-Masry SC Ultras Green Eagles
Suez Stadium Suez Montakhab Ultras Suez Fedyan
Ghazl El Mahalla Stadium Ghazl El Mahalla SC Ultras Whales 2008
Ismailia Stadium Ismaily SC Ultras Yellow Dragons
Ultras Rebels
Alexandria Stadium Al Ittihad Alexandria Club Ultras Green Magic
El Mansoura Stadium El Mansoura SC Ultras Orange Dragons
Aswan Stadium Aswan SC Ultras Nile Crocodile
El Minya Stadium El Minya SC Ultras Red Camels
Tanta Stadium Tanta SC Ultras 300
Damanhour Stadium Ala'ab Damanhour SC - Ultras Blue Anaconda
Zagazig University Stadium Sharkia SC Ultras Green Horses
Sons of Oraby
Shebin Stadium Gomhoriat Shebin SC Ultras Balck Horses
El Mahalla Stadium Baladiyat El Mahalla SC Ultras Red Tigers 2011

Tunisia edit

Stadium Club Name
Stade Olympique de Radès ES Tunis Curva Sud Tunis
Ultras Lemkachkhines 2002
Zapatista Esperanza 2007
Fedayn Espérantistes 2009
Matadors 2008
Stade Olympique de Radès Club Africain Curva Nord Tunis
African Winners 1995
Leaders Clubistes 2003
North Vandals 2007
Dodgers Clubistes 2007
Stade Taïeb Mhiri CS Sfaxien Curva Nord Sfax
Black & White Fighters 2003
Raged Boys 2007
Ultras Sfaxiens 2007
Leoni Bianconeri 2007
Drughi Bianconeri 2013
Stade Olympique de Sousse ES Sahel Curva Nord Sousse
Brigade Rouge 2001
Ultras Fanatics 2003
Ultras Saheliano 2007
Stade 15 October CA Bizertin Ultras Big Boss 2010
Ultras Marines 2005
Hedi Ennaifer Stadium Stade Tunisien Ultras Bardo Boys 2002
Stade Abdelaziz Chtioui AS Marsa Vikings Marsois 2011

Libya edit

Stadium Club Name
The Tripoli International Stadium Al-Ittihad Club (Tripoli) Ultras Dragone 1989
Ultras Teha Boys 2010
Ultras Teha 2010
The Tripoli International Stadium Al Ahli SC (Tripoli) Ultras Flame Boys 2010
Ultras Green Monsters 2016
The Tripoli International Stadium Al-Madina SC Hawatuh Boys 2023
Martyrs of February Stadium Al-Ahly SC (Benghazi) Ultras Butchers 2009
Ultras Jazzara 2010
Ultras Red Inferno 2021
Martyrs of February Stadium Al-Nasr SC (Benghazi) Ultras Green Eagles 2010
Ultras Carboniera 2013
Martyrs of February Stadium Al Tahaddy SC Ultras Panthers Boys 2018
Misurata Stadium Asswehly SC Ultras Misurata Knights 2010
Misurata Stadium Alittihad Misurata SC Ultras Misurata Ghosts 2018
Al Bayda Stadium Al Akhdar SC Ultras Dour 2018
Al Khums Stadium Al Khums SC Ultras Hera Boys 2018
Ultras Alreyas Boys 2023
Sorman Stadium Rafik Sorman Ultras Rofa Warriors 2018
10 June Stadium Al Ta'awon SC Ultras Sa7ara 2018
Al marj Stadium Al-Morouj SC Ultras Crimson Snakes 2019
Derna Stadium Darnes SC Tribuna Ragazzi 2020
Jumayl Stadium Al-Mustaqbal (football club) Ultras Fighters 2021
Zaawia Stadium Olympic Azzaweya Ultras Blue Castle 2023
Zuwara Stadium Aljazeera SC Ultras Yellow Army 2023
Tobruk Stadium Al-Suqoor Club Ultras Dean Boys 2024

Sudan edit

Stadium Club Name
Al-Merrikh Stadium Al-Merrikh SC Ultras Jawareh 2008
Ultras Olympus Mons 13
Al-Hilal Stadium Al-Hilal SC Ultras Blue Lions 2008

Rwanda edit

stadium club name
Amahoro Stadium Rayon Sports F.C. The blues of Rwanda
Amahoro Stadium APR F.C. zone 5
Umuganda Stadium Etincelles F.C. Etincelles F.C. fans

Lesotho edit

stadium club name
Hlotse Stadium Linare FC ULTRAS LINARES
Pitso Ground Matlama FC Ultras Matlama

South Africa edit

stadium club name
Orlando Stadium Orlando Pirates F.C. The Sea Robbers
Amakhosi Stadium Kaizer Chiefs F.C. Amakhosi
Cape Town Stadium Cape Town City F.C. (2016) Ultras Blue Eagels
Free State Stadium Bloemfontein Celtic F.C. Unity Supporters
Cape Town Stadium Cape Town Spurs F.C. Urban Warriors

Asia edit

Bangladesh edit

Stadium Club Name Notes
Bashundhara Kings Arena Bashundhara Kings Bashundhara Kings Ultras First ever registered fan Ultras in Bangladesh.[49]It was founded in 2021.

China edit

Stadium Club Name
Workers' Stadium Beijing Guoan FC The Royal Army(御林军)

Palestine edit

Stadium Club Name
Dura International Stadium Shabab Al-Khalil SC Ultras Khalele 2011
Faisal Al-Husseini International Stadium Hilal Al-Quds Club Group Hilaly

Jordan edit

Stadium Club Name
Amman International Stadium Al-Faisaly SC Ultras Al Faisaly 2013
King Abdullah II Stadium Al-Wehdat SC Wehdaty Group 2012
Ultras Green Knights 2018

Iraq edit

Stadium Club Name
Al-Shaab Stadium Al-Shorta SC Ultras Green Harp 2012
Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya Stadium Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya Ultras Blue Hawk 2012
Sulaymaniyah Stadium Sulaymaniya SC Ultras Sulaimaniy
Franso Hariri Stadium Erbil SC Ultras Qalla
Al-Zawra'a Stadium Al-Zawraa Ultras The Kings

Saudi Arabia edit

Stadium Club Name
King Abdullah Al-Ittihad Ultras Golden Tigers 2011
King Fahd Al Hilal Ultras Blue Wave 2011
KSU Stadium Al Nassr Ultras Al Aalami 2011
King Abdullah Al Ahli Ultras Al Malaki 2011

Syria edit

Stadium Club Name
Al-Assad Stadium Tishreen SC Ultras Eagles 2009
Al-Baath Stadium Jableh SC Ultras Blue Boys 2017
Khalid ibn al-Walid Stadium Al-Karamah SC Ultras Blue Sun
Deir ez-Zor Municipal Stadium Al-Fotuwa SC Ultras Blue Blood
Al-Jalaa Stadium Al-Wahda SC (Syria) Ultras Orange Pliiji
Al-Assad Stadium Hutteen SC Ultras Blues
Bassel al-Assad Stadium Al-Sahel SC (Syria) Ultras Pirates 2017

United Arab Emirates edit

Al-Wasl SC[citation needed]

Ultras Junoon is an Emirati group that was founded in 2010 by the fans of Al-Wasl Club. This club is considered to have the largest fan base in the Emirates, and Al-Wasl Club fans are considered the first club that came up with the idea of Ultras in the Gulf region. It is mentioned that Al Wasl fans were the main reason for increasing excitement in the region and increasing the viewership of the league in the Emirates, in particular. The Ultras Junoon have a great ability to preserve the history of this club, and they are close to making any decision in the interest of this club.

The (Death Note) Tifo Made by (Ultras Junoon)

Malaysia edit

In Malaysia, the ultras scene is characterized by the presence of "Ultras Malaya," the largest supporter club dedicated to the Malaysia national football team. "Ultras Malaya" made its debut in 2007 during the AFC Asian Cup campaign when Malaysia co-hosted the competition along with Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam.

"Ultras Malaya" boasts a diverse membership with fans from different ethnic backgrounds, states, and clubs across Malaysia. The group represents fans from all 14 states and other subdivisions within Malaysia. One of the most significant rivalries in Southeast Asian football is between "Ultras Malaya" and the fans of the Indonesia national football team. This rivalry is famously known as the "Nusantara derby" and has witnessed several intense clashes before, during, and after matches between the two nations, both on and off the field.

"Ultras Malaya" witnessed a gradual increase in its membership over the years, reaching its zenith during the AFF Suzuki Cup in 2014, when the number of members soared into the tens of thousands, although exact figures are not confirmed.

As time passed, UM07, the parent organization of "Ultras Malaya," expanded its reach by establishing subsidiary groups at the state and club levels across Malaysia. These subsidiary supporter groups are passionate in their support for both their local clubs and the national team. Here are some of the main ultras and supporters groups associated with specific states and clubs:

  • Johor Darul Ta'zim FC: "Boys of Straits" (Super League, formed in 2010)
  • Kedah Darul Aman FC: "Ultras Kedah 09" (Super League, founded on December 29, 2009)
  • Kelantan FC: "Gate H Boys" (M3 League, established in 2010)
  • Kuala Lumpur City FC: "Kuala Lumpur Ultras/Cityboys" (Super League, founded on February 28, 2011)
  • Melaka United: "Ultras Taming Sari" (Super League, established on January 11, 2011)
  • Negeri Sembilan FC: "Ultras Nogori 9" (Super League, formed on May 15, 2010)
  • Penang FC: "Ultras Panthers" (Super League, emerged in 2011)
  • Perak FC: "Silver State Ultras/The Supporters" (Premier League, established in April 2009)
  • Perlis FA: "Brigate Gialloblu Perlis" (Club Dissolved, formed around 2010 or 2011)
  • Sabah FC: "North Borneo Ultras" (Super League, founded on April 5, 2011)
  • Sarawak FA/Sarawak United: "GB13" (M3 League,[50] established in 2011)
  • Selangor FC: "UltraSel Curva" (Super League, formed in 2010)
  • Sri Pahang FC: "Elephant Army" (Super League, founded on February 3, 2010)
  • Terengganu FC: "Ultras Tranung" (Super League, established in 2010)

Within "Ultras Malaya," the role of the Capo is crucial in leading the chanting and energizing the crowd inside the stadium. One of the most well-known Capos of "Ultras Malaya" is Mohd Ridzuan Ahmad, also known as Lekir Haji Ahmad. His leadership and coordination skills have contributed to the vibrant and passionate atmosphere during Malaysia's football matches, making him a respected figure among the ultras community.

Lebanon edit

The ultras scene was introduced to Lebanon in February 2018, with Nejmeh's "Ultras Supernova" and White ultras for racing Beirut 2019.[51][52][53] Their rivals Ansar quickly followed with their own ultras group, "I Tifosi", one month later.[52] Ahed formed their own ultras group, called "Ultras Yellow Inferno", the same year.[53] Prior to the Arab Club Champions Cup game between Nejmeh and Al-Ahly of Egypt, played on 13 August 2018, seven "Ultras Supernova" fans were arrested by the Egyptian national security because of the negative connotations the word "Ultras" has in Egypt.[54] The fans have been returned to Lebanon by request of the Lebanese Ambassador to Cairo.[55]

India edit

East Bengal ultras
The 3D Blue Tiger tifo displayed by Blue Pilgrims in June 2018

The ultras scene in India was introduced by East Bengal Ultras, the ultras group of East Bengal FC, in 2013, and since then it grew slowly, as ultras groups of various clubs started to form and display of "Tifo's" and "Pyro" shows became very much a part of the ultras scene in Indian football.[56]

Blue Pilgrims is an organised group of football fans who support the India national football men's team, women's team, and all the other age – group national teams at every home and away game, formed by a group of football fans of several club fan bases of football clubs from India. Founded in 2017 before the commencement of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup, which was held in India, the group based their name on the nickname of the national team, the "Blue Tigers". They consider travelling with the national teams, to wherever the teams play, as their pilgrimage. They often display flags, banners, and tifos in support of the national team.[57]

Stadium Club Name
Salt Lake Stadium, Kolkata East Bengal FC East Bengal Ultras
Salt Lake Stadium, Kolkata East Bengal FC East Bengal the Real Power
Salt Lake Stadium, Kolkata Mohun Bagan AC Mariners Dé Xtreme
Salt Lake Stadium, Kolkata Mohun Bagan AC Mariners' Base Camp[58]
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Kochi Kerala Blasters FC Manjappada
Sree Kanteerava Stadium, Bengalore Bengaluru FC West Block Blues
Mumbai Football Arena, Mumbai Mumbai City FC West Coast Brigade
G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium, Hyderabad Hyderabad FC Deccan Legion
Indira Gandhi Athletic Stadium,


NorthEast United FC Highlander Brigade

Oceania edit

Australia edit

Melbourne Victory FC supporters at the 2007 A-League Grand Final
Stadium Club Name
Coopers Stadium, Adelaide Adelaide United FC Red Army
Suncorp Stadium, Brisbane Brisbane Roar FC The Den
Industree Group Stadium, Gosford Central Coast Mariners FC Yellow Army
Campbelltown Sports Stadium, Sydney Macarthur FC The Bullpen
AAMI Park, Melbourne Melbourne Victory FC North Terrace
AAMI Park, Melbourne Melbourne City FC Yarra End Collective
McDonald Jones Stadium, Newcastle Newcastle Jets FC Squadron Novocastria
HBF Park, Perth Perth Glory FC The Shed
Allianz Stadium, Sydney Sydney FC The Cove
CommBank Stadium, Parramatta Western Sydney Wanderers FC Red and Black Bloc
AAMI Park, Melbourne Western United FC Western Service Crew

New Zealand edit

Stadium Club Name
Wellington Regional Stadium, Wellington Wellington Phoenix Yellow Fever

North America edit

Canada edit

Stadium Club Name
Stade Saputo CF Montréal Brigade Montréal
132 Crew
Suppras MTL
Bolos Crew
BMO Field Toronto FC Block 114
Wanderers Grounds HFX Wanderers FC Block 108 Ultras
Tim Hortons Field Forge FC - Barton St. Battalion
BC Place Stadium Whitecaps FC - South Siders

United States edit

Stadium Club Name
Audi Field D.C. United District Ultras[59]
PayPal Park San Jose Earthquakes San Jose Ultras[60]
Red Bull Arena New York Red Bulls Torcida 96[61]
Subaru Park Philadelphia Union Sons of Ben
CenturyLink Field Seattle Sounders FC Emerald City Supporters[62]
Dignity Health Sports Park Los Angeles Galaxy Ghosts Ultras Galaxy
Providence Park Portland Timbers Timbers Army
Banc of California Stadium Los Angeles Football Club The 3252
Children's Mercy Park Sporting Kansas City Fountain City Ultras
Yankee Stadium New York City Football Club Ultras NYC[63]

Los Templados

Keyworth Stadium Detroit City FC Northern Guard Supporters

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Ultra vires". Spiked. 9 February 2007. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  2. ^ "What is a football ultra? Serie A hardcore fan culture explained".
  3. ^ Pantelick, Nicolas (2 February 2022). "Fanaticism and the "Ultras" Movement: How Far Will You Go to Support Your Team?". Harvard International Review.
  4. ^ Parkin, Simon (24 April 2018). "The rise of Russia's neo-Nazi football hooligans". The Guardian.
  5. ^ a b "The dark heart of Italian soccer". CBC Sports. 15 April 2005. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  6. ^ "Learning from adjacent fields: the relation between extremism and hooliganism" (PDF). home-affairs.ec.europa.eu. 25–26 October 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2023.
  7. ^ Jones, Tobias (26 March 2020). "1312 by James Montague review – inside the world of football's ultras". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 July 2023.
  8. ^ "Fan tragedy sends the fight against Ultras back to square one". The Guardian. 12 November 2007. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  9. ^ "Are German fans really turning against the beautiful game?". The Guardian. 7 April 2008. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  10. ^ "World Cup 2022: Argentina's 'barras bravas' bring the noise – DW – 12/11/2022". dw.com. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  11. ^ "Torcidas Organizadas: Torcidas Organizadas no Brasil e no Mundo". Brasil Escola (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  12. ^ a b "We Don't Fight, We Paint Flags Instead". In Bed With Maradona. 2 November 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  13. ^ "Povijest". Torcida.hr (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  14. ^ "Ultra sensitive". When Saturday Comes. April 2007. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  15. ^ "Ultras rule?". Football Italia. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  16. ^ Alberto Testa, Gary Armstrong (2010). Football, Fascism and Fandom. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4081-2371-3.
  17. ^ Spaaij, Ramón; Viñas, Carles (March 2005). "Passion, politics and violence: A socio‐historical analysis of Spanish ultras". Soccer & Society. 6 (1): 79–96. doi:10.1080/1466097052000337034.
  18. ^ a b c d "Ultras pull the strings as Italy descends into chaos". The Guardian. 4 February 2007. Archived from the original on 2 October 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  19. ^ "Gruppi". asromaultras.org (in Italian). Archived from the original on 12 February 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  20. ^ "AS Roma Ultras". asromaultras.org (in Italian). Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  21. ^ "Rangers ultras Union Bears' eerie message after Ibrox fans storm own POTY Awards in Glasgow".
  22. ^ Bakowski, Gregg (23 October 2016). "Ultra culture could help Premier League terraces take positive steps". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Palace 'ultras' causing anxiety". ESPN. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  24. ^ Barker, Matthew. "When Saturday Comes – Crystal Palace ultras under pressure from club and fans". When Saturday Comes. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  25. ^ "Eastbourne Town's 'ultras' are game for a laugh and making football welcome to all". iNews. 16 November 2017. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  26. ^ "London's Left-Wing Utopian Non-League Ultras Are Reclaiming Football". Vice. 5 January 2015. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  27. ^ "The English Far-Right's War on Anti-Fascist Football Ultras". Vice. 13 February 2015. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  28. ^ "Who are Ashburton Army? The Arsenal ultras group AFTV could only dream of". Thick Accent. 30 December 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  29. ^ "The Clock End's boys in black: a look into Arsenal's 'ultras'". Pain in the Arsenal. 6 October 2022. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  30. ^ "Arsenal fan 'ultras' filmed ahead of West Ham game, fans are divided over the footage". SPORTbible. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  31. ^ "Aston Villa news from BirminghamLive as the 1897 Group prepare for Bournemouth trial display after encouraging meeting with the club". BirminghamLive. 5 April 2024.
  32. ^ "The Copenhagen sektion 12 is Denmarks biggest ultra group they maintain over 10000 people just on the sekttion 12Derby". Outside Write. 31 March 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  33. ^ "Danish Cup Final Delayed". bbc.com. 1 July 2020.
  34. ^ Jones, Tobias (15 September 2019). "At home with Italy's ultras: 'It isn't about watching football, but watching each other'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  35. ^ Monella, Lillo Montalto (9 November 2019). "Racism in football: Are Italy's Ultras the problem or the solution?". euronews. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  36. ^ Subcultrue of stadium hooligans – Pathology or crime?
  37. ^ Jurczewski, Mariusz (October 2013). "Prawno-kryminalistyczna problematyka przestępczości stadionowej". Wydział Prawa, Uniwersytet w Białymstoku.
  38. ^ Westby, David (2017). Ultras in Spain: A Study on the Relationship Between Macro-level Cleavages and Micro-level Actors (Thesis). doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.28548.94088.
  39. ^ "Η ΚΑΘΗΜΕΡΙΝΗ, kathimerini.com.cy". www.kathimerini.com.cy. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  40. ^ "Η θύρα 9 μεγάλωσε και δεν ελέγχεται" [Port 9 has grown and is not controlled]. Reporter (in Greek). 14 December 2015.
  41. ^ Bono, Gary (3 October 2011). "Omonoia: Feisty team blends sports and left politics". People's World.
  42. ^ "Αθλητικά νέα - Αθλητικές ειδήσεις για όλα τα sport | Thema Sports". Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  43. ^ Christou, Andreas (16 July 2013). "Ομόνοια: Σε νέο οίκημα το Συ.Φι Λάρνακας Αμμοχώστου" [Omonia: In a new building the Sy.Fi Larnaca Famagusta]. Balla (in Greek). Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  44. ^ http://sport-fm.com.cy/podosfairo/omonoia/item/1676-omonoia-«ομάδα-όλης-της-κύπρου»/1676-omonoia-«ομάδα-όλης-της-κύπρου».html [dead link]
  45. ^ "Ομόνοια: Χαμός στο Συ.Φι. Λεμεσού με Καϊάφα και παίκτες! (pics) | Α' Κατηγορία | Κύπρος | Ποδόσφαιρο | BALLA". Archived from the original on 22 March 2014.
  46. ^ ΠΑΝ.ΣΥ.ΦΙ (in Greek). APOEL FC. Archived from the original on 20 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  47. ^ sigmalive/ΚΥΠΕ (22 February 2014). "Επεισόδια στον πετοσφαιρικό αγώνα Αναγέννηση- Ανόρθωση". Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  48. ^ a b c el Deeb, Sarah (14 March 2013). "Egypt: 38 soccer fans charged with violence". USA Today. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  49. ^ TBS, Sports (18 December 2023). "Bashundhara Kings Ultras: The first fan club of its kind in Bangladesh". The Business Standard.
  50. ^ Sarawak United
  51. ^ "المدرجات لا تعترف إلا بالشجعان". lebanonfg.com. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  52. ^ a b COPA90. "Ultras Supernova: Lebanon's First Ultras Group". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 23 February 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  53. ^ a b "مباريات قويّة في الجولة العاشرة". الأخبار (in Arabic). Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  54. ^ "قضية مشجعي "النجمة" الموقوفين في مصر... ماذا جرى معهم؟". LBCI Lebanon (in Arabic). Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  55. ^ "Lebanese Nejmeh fans to be deported days after arrest at Borg al-Arab Stadium | MadaMasr". madamasr.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  56. ^ "A Fans Revolution : East Bengal Ultras – GoalBold". 3 July 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  57. ^ "Indian national football teams to have dedicated fan base named 'Blue Pilgrims". www.sportskeeda.com. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  58. ^ "Mariners' Base Camp – The Ultras of The National Club of India Mohun Bagan". Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  59. ^ "District Ultras – Home".
  60. ^ "San Jose Ultras – Home". sanjoseultras.com.
  61. ^ "Torcida 96 – Home". Facebook.
  62. ^ "Emerald City Supporters – Home". Facebook.
  63. ^ "Ultras NYC – Home". Instagram.

Further reading edit

External links edit

  •   Media related to Ultras at Wikimedia Commons