Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles

More than 14 countries and over 20 cities around the world have proposed banning the sale of passenger vehicles powered by fossil fuels such as gasoline (petrol), liquefied petroleum gas and diesel at some time in the future.[1][2] Synonyms for the bans include phrases like "banning gas cars",[3] "banning ICE cars" (internal combustion engine), or "banning petrol cars".[4]

Reasons for banning further sale of fossil fuel vehicles include meeting national CO2 targets under international agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, energy independence, or health risks from pollution particulates (notably diesel PM10s) and other emissions (notably lead and other anti-knocking agents). The intent to ban vehicles powered by fossil fuels is attractive to governments as it offers a simpler compliance target,[5] compared with a carbon tax or phase-out of fossil fuels.[6] The automotive industry is working to introduce electric vehicles to adapt to bans [2] with varying success and it is seen by some in the industry as a possible source of money in a declining market.

China, the largest auto market globally,[7] is researching a timetable. Japan, the number three global auto market, has comprehensive plans to become a hydrogen economy by 2040.[8] Other countries with proposed bans or implementing 100% sales of zero-emissions vehicles include the UK, South Korea, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Slovenia, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Canada, the 12 U.S. states that adhered to California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Program, Sri Lanka, Cabo Verde, and Costa Rica.[1] In California, emissions requirements for automakers to be permitted to sell any vehicles in the state was expected to force 15% of new vehicles offered for sale between 2018 and 2025 to be zero emission. Much cleaner emissions and increased efficiency in petrol engines mean this will be met with just 8% ZEV vehicles.[9]

ScopeEdit

The banning of fossil fuelled vehicles of a defined scope requires legislation to restrict further sales or registration of new vehicles powered with specific fuels from a future date. At the date of implementation existing vehicles would remain registrable. As of 2020, most bans remain over 10 years into the future and are not yet legislated.

Jurisdictions with planned fossil-fuel vehicle bansEdit

CountriesEdit

Country Ban announced Status and proposed commencement Scope Selectivity
  Canada 2017 2040 (climate plan)[10] Emitting New vehicle sales
  China 2017 researching a timetable[7] Gasoline or diesel New car sales
  Costa Rica 2019 2050[11][12] Gasoline or diesel New car sales
  France 2017 2040 (climate plan)[13] Gasoline or diesel New car sales
  Iceland 2018 2030 (climate plan)[14] Gasoline or diesel New car sales
  Ireland 2018 2030 (private members bill, not passed)[15] Gasoline or diesel New car sales
  Israel 2018 2030[16] Gasoline or diesel New imported vehicles
  Netherlands 2017 2030 (coalition agreement)[17] Gasoline or diesel All cars
  Norway 2017 2025 (tax and usage incentives)[18] Gasoline or diesel All cars
  Singapore 2020 2040 (incentives on electric vehicles)[19] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles
  Slovenia 2017 2030 (emission limit of 50 g/km)[20] Gasoline or diesel New car sales
  Sri Lanka 2017 2040[21] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles
  Sweden 2018 2030 (coalition agreement)[22] Gasoline or diesel New car sales
  United Kingdom 2020 2035 or 2032 (proposed dates)[23] Non-electric New car sales

Cities and territoriesEdit

Some cities listed have signed the Fossil Fuel Free Streets Declaration, committing to ban emitting vehicles by 2030,[24] but this does not necessarily have force of law in those jurisdictions.

City or territory Country Ban announced Ban commences Scope Selectivity
Amsterdam   Netherlands 2019 2030[25] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles
Athens   Greece 2016 2025[26] Diesel All vehicles
Auckland   New Zealand 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Balearic Islands   Spain 2018 2025−35[27] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles
Barcelona 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Bristol   United Kingdom 2019 2021[28] Diesel All private vehicles (city center from 7 am to 3 pm)
British Columbia   Canada 2018 2025[29] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles by 2040, 10% ZEVs by 2025
Brussels   Belgium 2018 2030[30] Diesel All vehicles
Cape Town   South Africa 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Copenhagen   Denmark 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Hainan   China 2018 2030[31] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles
Heidelberg   Germany 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
London   United Kingdom 2017 2020-30[2][32] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025 (two zero emissions zones by 2022)[33]
Los Angeles   United States 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Madrid   Spain 2016 2025[26] Diesel All vehicles
Mexico City   Mexico 2016 2025[26] Diesel All vehicles
Milan   Italy 2017 2030[2] Diesel All diesel vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Oxford   United Kingdom 2017 2020−35[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles (initially during daytime hours on six streets)[34][35]
Paris   France 2016 2025[26] Diesel All vehicles
Quito   Ecuador 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Rome   Italy 2018 2024[36] Diesel All vehicles
Seattle   United States 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Vancouver   Canada 2017 2030[2] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (June 2020). "Global EV Outlook 2020: Enterign the decade of electric drive?". IEA Publications. Retrieved 15 June 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See Table 2.1
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Burch, Isabella (March 2020). "Survey of Global Activity to Phase Out Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles" (PDF).
  3. ^ "These countries are banning gas-powered vehicles by 2040".
  4. ^ Slezak, Michael (30 July 2017). "As the UK plans to phase out petrol cars, is Australia being left behind?". the Guardian.
  5. ^ Weaver, R. Kent. "Target Compliance: The Final Frontier of Policy Implementation" (PDF). Brookings Institution.
  6. ^ "International Trade Governance and Sustainable Transport: The Expansion of Electric Vehicles" (PDF). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. December 2017.
  7. ^ a b "China to ban petrol and diesel cars, state media reports".
  8. ^ IFRI Center for Energy. "Japan's Hydrogen Strategy and its Economic and Geopolitical Implications" (PDF).
  9. ^ "What Will It Not as Much as You Might Think". Union of Concerned Scientists.
  10. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (29 December 2017). "Canada's actions to reduce emissions". aem. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  11. ^ Schwanen, Tim (19 September 2019). "The five major challenges facing electric vehicles". Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  12. ^ https://presidencia.go.cr/comunicados/2019/02/sintesis-plan-nacional-de-descarbonizacion-2018-2050/
  13. ^ "France plans ban on petrol cars by 2040". BBC News. 6 July 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
  14. ^ Arnar Thor Ingolfsson (9 October 2018). "Stefna að bensín- og dísilbílabanni 2030" [Policy for petrol and diesel car ban 2030] (in Icelandic). Morgunblaðið – via mbl.is.
  15. ^ "Ireland 2040: €22bn to turn State into low-carbon economy".
  16. ^ "Israel aims to eliminate use of coal, gasoline and diesel by 2030".
  17. ^ "New Dutch government's plans for the coming years". NL Times. 10 October 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  18. ^ "Nine countries say they'll ban internal combustion engines". 7 August 2018 – via qz.com.
  19. ^ Tan, Christopher (18 February 2020). "Singapore Budget 2020: Push to promote electric vehicles in move to phase out petrol and diesel vehicles". The Straits Times. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  20. ^ "Slovenia to ban new fossil-fuel cars from 2030, reduce debt". Reuters. 12 October 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  21. ^ "Sri Lanka to scrap state-owned fossil fuel vehicles by 2025". The Straits Times. AFP. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2019. Private owners have until 2040 to replace their cars, tuk-tuks and motorcycles, when the country plans to no longer allow any fossil fuel-burning vehicles on its roads, he said.
  22. ^ Kristensson, Johan. "Ny regering – nu väntar förbud mot bensinbilar". Ny Teknik (in Swedish). Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  23. ^ Sheridan, Danielle (2 February 2020). "Sale of petrol and diesel to be banned five years earlier, as Boris Johnson reveals climate change drive". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  24. ^ "C40 : Fossil-Fuel-Free Streets Declaration". www.c40.org. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  25. ^ "City of Amsterdam to ban polluting cars from 2030". Reuters. 2 May 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  26. ^ a b c d Harvey, Fiona (2 December 2016). "Four of world's biggest cities to ban diesel cars from their centres". the Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  27. ^ Mallorca Goes Deep Green
  28. ^ Laville, Sandra (5 November 2019). "Bristol council votes to ban diesel cars in first for a UK city". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  29. ^ B.C. plans to ban new gas, diesel car sales by 2040
  30. ^ gjs. "Brussel gaat dieselwagens verbannen vanaf 2030, regering wil ook maatregelen tegen benzinewagens". Het Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  31. ^ 2030, Pulau Ini Larang Penjualan Mobil Berbahan Bakar Fosil
  32. ^ "UK's first 24/7 zero emission street to launch on 18 March". UK’s first 24/7 zero emission street to launch on 18 March. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  33. ^ "UK's first 24/7 zero emission street to launch on 18 March". UK’s first 24/7 zero emission street to launch on 18 March. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  34. ^ Smith, Lydia (11 October 2017). "Oxford to ban all petrol and diesel vehicles and become 'world's first zero-emissions zone'". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  35. ^ "Oxford Zero Emission Zone (ZEZ) frequently asked questions". Oxford City Council. 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  36. ^ "Rome latest city to announce car ban, will ban diesel cars from historical center starting 2024". 28 February 2018.