Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co., Ltd, commonly known as Geely, is a Chinese privately held multinational automotive company headquartered in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province. The group was established in 1986 and entered the automotive industry in 1997 with its Geely Auto brand. It sells passenger vehicles under the Geely Auto, Lotus, Lynk & Co, Proton, and Volvo brands as well as commercial only vehicles under the London EV Company and Yuan Cheng Auto brands. The group sold over 1.5 million cars in 2018.
|Founded||6 November 1986 in Taizhou, Zhejiang, China|
|Headquarters||Binjiang District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China|
|Products||Automobiles, engines, transmissions, luxury vehicle|
|Revenue||CN¥208.799 billion (2016)|
|CN¥12.542 billion (2016)|
|CN¥8.409 billion (2016)|
|Total assets||CN¥206.741 billion (2016)|
|Total equity||CN¥38.971 billion (2016)|
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references|
in consolidated financial statement; shareholders' equity figure excluded perpetual bond
Geely Group was already manufacturing its own cars before it acquired the Swedish passenger car maker Volvo Cars from Ford in 2010. It completed the acquisition of British taxi maker The London Electric Vehicle Company in 2013, and acquired a majority stake in British sports carmaker Lotus Cars in 2017.
ZGH business is divided into five sub-groups: Geely Auto Group which includes the brands Geely Auto, Lynk & Co, Proton, and Lotus; Volvo Car Group which includes the brands Volvo Cars and Polestar; Geely New Energy Commercial Vehicle Group which include the brands London Electric Vehicle Company and Yuan Cheng; Geely Group (New Business) which includes the brands Caocao, Terrafugia, Qianjiang Motorcycles, Joma, and other new businesses; and Mitime Group which includes ZGH educational institutions, motorsports business, and tourism business. ZGH has global operations spanning the automotive value chain, from research, development and design to production, sales and service.
Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd (Chinese: 吉利汽车; pinyin: Jílì Qìchē) (SEHK: 175), a subsidiary of Geely, is listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. On 13 February 2017, it became a constituent of the Hang Seng Index.
After the purchase of a failing, state-run firm, Geely manufactured motorcycles in the mid-1990s. Small van production began in 1998, and a year later, it received state approval to manufacture automobiles. Car production began in 2002. A subsidiary of the group, Geely Auto, had its IPO on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong in 2004.
Geely approached Ford in mid-2008 about a possible takeover of Volvo Cars. On October 28, 2009, it was named as the preferred buyer of Volvo by the American automaker. A deal was reached in late March and completed in early August, 2010.
In December 2011, it was announced that Geely would begin selling Chinese-designed and -manufactured cars in the United Kingdom at the end of 2012, with the first model to go on sale being the Emgrand EC7. The company has also stated its intention to begin sales in Italy.
In May 2017, Geely confirmed plans to purchase a 51% controlling-stake in Lotus Cars from its owner, DRB-HICOM (Proton). Additionally, Geely plans to purchase a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings, to facilitate future export growth in right-hand drive markets. The deals were seen as an important step for the Chinese carmaker in their quest to make inroads into the lucrative ASEAN region.
In July 2017 the company purchased Terrafugia, an American maker of flying cars. In November 2017, Geely announced completion of the Terrafugia acquisition, including approval from all relevant regulators.
In December 2017, Geely invested €3.25 billion into Swedish truck and construction company Volvo Group, a former parent company of Volvo Cars. The deal made Geely the biggest shareholder by number of shares with an 8.2% stake, and second by voting rights, with 15.6%.
In September 2019, Geely led a round of private funding for Volocopter that raised $55 million for the company. Volocopter's other private investors also include Daimler AG which owns a stake in the company.
In late July 2020, it was announced that the Xingma Group had agreed to transfer a 15.24% stake of its shares in the Ma'anshan-based heavy truck manufacturer Hualing Xingma to Geely New Energy Commercial Vehicle Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of Geely Holdings. After the transaction, Geely New Energy Commercial Vehicle Group would become the de facto controlling shareholder of Hualing Xingma.
In September 2020, Geely started talks with rival car manufacturers, including Daimler, to license a new architecture it developed for building electric cars. The new technology offers increased driving ranges of up to 700km and lighter cars.
Based in China, Zhejiang Geely Holding Group operates all over the world through its many subsidiary brands. The Group's core business activities are within the automotive industry where it controls the following automotive groups and vehicle brands:
- Geely Auto Group which consists of Geely Auto, Geometry, Lotus, Lynk & Co and Proton
- Volvo Car Group which consists of Volvo Cars and Polestar
- Geely Commercial Vehicles which consists of London Electric Vehicle Company and Yuan Cheng Auto.
Other non-automotive businesses are managed under Geely Group (New Business). The Group also has cultural and educational business under its Mitime Group.
Subsidiaries and brandsEdit
Geely Auto GroupEdit
Seven brands are managed under the Geely Auto Group, Geely Auto, Lynk & Co, Polestar, PROTON, Lotus and Volvo Cars.
Geely Auto – Listed as Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd. on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and controlled through holdings in Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Geely Auto is ZGH's mainstream brand primarily sold in China and select overseas markets.
Geometry - an electric only range of Geely-based cars.
Lynk & Co – Owned 50% by Geely Auto, 30% by Volvo Cars, and 20% by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. Lynk & Co is a new globally focused high-end car brand based on technology developed jointly by Geely Auto and Volvo Cars.
Polestar - Polestar was founded by Polestar Racing, now called Cyan Racing, as the performance vehicle division in Volvo Cars to explore how the technology behind their racing success could be applied to Volvo road cars. In 2017, Polestar became an independent brand under Volvo Cars focused on high-performance electrified cars, and in 2018 was spun out into its own entity, controlled 50% by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group and 50% by Volvo Cars.
Proton – Owned 49.9% by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group and 50.1% by DRB-Hicom and is managed by Geely Auto Group. Proton is the National Car Brand of Malaysia established in the 1980s at the behest of the government and later reverted to private ownership under DRB Hicom.
Lotus Cars – Owned 51% by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group and 49% by Etika Automotive. Lotus Cars is a British producer of sports and racing cars. The first Lotus car was built in 1948 and in June 2017, Lotus Cars became majority owned by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group.
Volvo Cars – Volvo Cars is 99% controlled by Zhejiang Geely Auto Group through subsidiaries since its purchase from Ford in 2010 for approximately US$1.4 billion. Volvo is one of the most well-known and respected luxury car brands in the world, ranking ahead of Lexus and Infiniti in a 2019 survey by U.S. News.
Geely New Energy Commercial Vehicle GroupEdit
Geely New Energy Commercial Vehicle Group began with the full acquisition of the London Taxi Company from Manganese Bronze Holdings. The brands under Geely New Energy Commercial Vehicle Group are London Electric Vehicle Company and Yuan Cheng Auto
London Electric Vehicle Company (LEVC) – The London Taxi Company, which was acquired by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2013, changed their name to London Electric Vehicle Company (LEVC) in 2017 to reflect their new mission of developing and producing electric commercial vehicles. With a new factory in Ansty, Coventry, they have begun production of a new generation of zero emission capable new taxi vehicle in late 2017.
Yuan Cheng Auto – Yuan Cheng Auto was formed in 2016 to focus on the development of new energy commercial vehicles in China and has already launched several long range capable truck and bus solutions.
Non-automotive subsidiaries and brandsEdit
Geely Group (new business)Edit
CAOCAO - CAOCAO ride hailing service was developed by Hangzhou YouXing Technology Company and majority owned by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. It is the first Chinese new energy focused mobility service.
Terrafugia - Terrafugia was founded in 2006. The company was acquired in full by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2017.
Zhejiang Qianjiang Motorcycle Group Co – Qianjiang Motorcycles was majority acquired by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group in 2016. The company is one of the largest producers of motorcycles in China and own several renowned brands including Italy's Benelli. They are also known for their lithium battery technology.
Education - ZGH has invested hundreds of millions of RMB in establishing universities and colleges across China including the Beijing Geely University, Sanya University, Zhejiang Automotive Technical School, Hunan Geely Automotive Technical etc. The wider group has over 40,000 students enrolled within its schools with the goal of developing Chinese automotive industry talents.
Motorsports – Mitime constructs and operates race tracks for automobiles, motorcycles, and karts around the world. Mitime also organizes motorsport events such as China F4 Championship.
Tourism – Mitime facilitates tourism and manages hospitality services around its tracks.
Headquartered in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Geely has production bases in Lanzhou, Gansu (completed in 2006, Geely construction in the region continued as of August 2010 either for expanding the existing facility or for a new semi-complete knock-down factory); Xiangtan, Hunan; an unnamed location 40 minutes south of Shanghai; Jinan, Shandong province; and at Linhai, Luqiao, and Ningbo, in Zhejiang.
At least four overseas factories assemble Geely models probably from semi-complete or complete knock-down kits. Such facilities are or have been located in Indonesia, (some of its production has been imported back to China), Sri Lanka (in collaboration with Micro Cars), Malaysia, Russia (assembly controlled by local firm Derways), Belarus (BelGee), Tunisia, and Ukraine. These locations are not necessarily affiliated with or owned by Geely.
Establishing a joint venture with this British maker of London Black Cabs in 2007, Geely purchased in 2013 Manganese Bronze Holdings, initially trading as The London Taxi Company, and subsequently as London EV Company.
The joint venture, Shanghai LTI Automobile Components Co Ltd, made the TX4, a licensed London Black Cab, in Fengjing, Shanghai, and exported semi-complete knock-down kits for assembly in the UK.
Drivetrain Systems InternationalEdit
Many of Geely's early products were based on the Xiali, a variant of the 1987 Daihatsu Charade. Models such as the Haoqing (豪情) (five-door), Merrie (美日) (five-door), Uliou (优利欧) (four-door), and Urban Nanny (van and pick-up truck) have Charade bases, but feature a more prominent chromed grille.
A sense of humor imbues the names of some Geely vehicles. One sedan is called the "King Kong", and an early model was named You Li Ou, a play on words that means "better than the Tianjin Xiali or the Buick Sail", two of its competitors.
Geely Auto productsEdit
Geely Auto is the group's original brand. Geely Auto products are divided into three eras from 1.0 era (1997-2007), 2.0 era (2007-2014), 3.0 era (2014–present). Before the current 3.0 era, Geely Auto products were also sold under different brands, including Emgrand, Englon, Gleagle, and Shanghai Maple. After entering the 3.0 era, all other brands were discontinued and their some of their products consolidated under the Geely Auto brand.
Currently Geely cars are manufactured using the below modular architecture platform
Current Geely Auto productsEdit
- New model series
- 2015 – Geely Borui (GC-9) (博瑞 Borui) D-segment sedan
- 2016 – Geely Boyue (博越 BoYue) / 2020 – Geely Boyue Pro compact crossover
- 2018 – Geely Borui GE (博瑞GE Borui) D-segment sedan
- 2018 – Geely Binrui (缤瑞 BinRui) C-segment sedan BMA
- 2018 – Geely Binyue (缤越 BinYue) Subcompact crossover BMA
- 2019 – Geely Xingyue (星越 XingYue) Fastback compact crossover CMA
- 2019 – Geely Jiaji (嘉际 JiaJi) MPV
- 2020 – Geely ICON Subcompact crossover BMA
- 2020 - Geely Haoyue (豪越 HaoYue)
- 2020 - Geely Xingrui (星瑞 XingRui) D-segment sedan CMA
- Emgrand (帝豪 DiHao) series
- Vision (远景 YuanJing) series
Maple brand productsEdit
This brand name was affiliated with Shanghai Maple Automobile, a Geely subsidiary established in 1999 and phased out in 2010. The brand was revived as Geely's budget NEV brand as of 2020.
Products sold under the Maple NEV brand included:
Farzion brand productsEdit
- Farzion FX
Lynk & Co brand productsEdit
Lotus brand productsEdit
Volvo brand productsEdit
- Geometry A- all electric midsize seadan. Geely launches pure electric brand Geometry, plans 10 models by 2025
- Geometry C- all electric compact crossover.
Zhidou Auto brand productsEdit
Current products sold under the Zhidou Auto or ZD Auto brand included:
Discontinued brands/ modelsEdit
Geely has sold cars under at least three separate brands and may have continued to use the brand name of a purchased company for a short time. The Emgrand, Englon, and Gleagle names were phased out in 2014 alongside efforts to reduce sprawl, and the Shanghai Maple brand name was discontinued in 2010 and revived in 2020.
Previous Geely Auto productsEdit
- 1998–2006 HQ/Haoqing/Haoqing SRV (豪情/豪情SRV) 1.0 L, 1.3 L & 1.5 L hatchback
- 2001–2007 PU/Rural Nanny/Urban Nanny
- 2003–2005 MR/Uliou/MS (优利欧)
- 2003–2006 MR/Merrie (美日) hatchback
- 2003–2006 BL/Beauty Leopard/BO (美人豹) 1.5 L coupe
- 2005–2009 Geely 美日之星 1.1 L & 1.3 L hatchback
- 2005–2016 CK/Freedom Cruiser 1.3 L & 1.5 L & 1.6 L sedan
- 2008–2011 Geely China Dragon (中国龙) 1.8 L CVVT coupe
- 2006–2020 MK/LG/KingKong (金刚) – 1.5 L & 1.6 L sedan (also called Micro Sedan in Sri Lanka)
Previous Emgrand modelsEdit
Emgrand (Chinese: 帝豪; pinyin: Dìháo) was launched in 2009 as a medium to high-end luxury brand. In 2014 Emgrand ceased to be a stand-alone brand, and Emgrand became a sub-grand of Geely, which itself adopted an updated version of the Emgrand logo.
Products sold under the Emgrand brand included:
- 2009–2014 Emgrand EC7 1.8 L CVVT sedan/hatchback
- 2010–2014 Emgrand EC8 2.0 L, 2.4 L sedan
- 2010–2014 Emgrand EC7-RV 1.5L, 1.8L hatchback
- 2011–2014 Emgrand EX7 SUV
Previous Maple modelsEdit
This brand name was affiliated with Shanghai Maple Automobile, a Geely subsidiary established in 1999. It was replaced by the Englon brand in 2010. The brand was revived as Geely's budget NEV brand as of 2020.
Products sold under the Shanghai Maple brand included:
- 2003–2010 Maple Hisoon (海迅) AA & AB 5-door hatchback
- 2003–2010 Maple Huapu (华普) M203 1.5 L 5-door hatchback
- 2004–2010 Maple Marindo (海域) M303 1.5 L & 1.8 L sedan
- 2005–2010 Maple Hysoul (海尚) M305 5-door hatchback
- 2006–2010 Maple Hysoul (海尚) M206/Haixuan (海炫) car aimed specially at female consumers
Launched in 2010 and replacing the Shanghai Maple brand, the company claimed Englon (Chinese: 英伦; pinyin: yīng lún) emulated classic, British style, and its model line included a TX4 sold on the Chinese market. Some of its cars were built by Geely subsidiary Shanghai LTI. As Geely fully acquired The London Taxi Company in 2013, the emblem of Englon also became the new logo of The London Taxi Company.
Some Gleagle cars, such as the Gleagle Panda, were available for sale on the Internet in China via the Taobao Mall, a popular e-commerce site. While Geely would deliver the car to the customer's address, buying one of the Panda models on offer did necessitate a trip to a traditional dealer.
Products sold under the Gleagle brand included:
- 2008–2016 Gleagle Panda (熊猫) 1.0 L & 1.3 L CVVT hatchback, also known as the Geely LC
- 2010 Gleagle GX2 (Panda Cross) 1.3 L & 1.5 L
- 2011 Gleagle CK 1.0 L & 1.5 L, a rebadging of the Geely CK
- 2012 Gleagle GC7 1.8 L four-door sedan
- 2012 Gleagle GX7 compact SUV
Geely sells commercial vehicles under the brand LEVC, through its British subsidiary London Electric Vehicle Company currently.
LEVC brand productsEdit
Current products sold under the LEVC brand included:
Geely manufactures a number of motor scooters and motorcycles from 50 to 250 cc displacement.
In addition to China, Geely vehicles have been sold in Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Egypt, Indonesia, India, Iran, Kuwait, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Syria, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Venezuela. In a number of markets, Geely vehicles are assembled in local factories from complete knock-down kits. Geely is also marketed in Lebanon, through the Rasamny Younes dealership network.
The Geely automobile brand was touted to be launched in the United Kingdom in late 2012. However, this plan was not pursued to date anymore and the official website had been offline since mid-2014.
In 2010, Geely surpassed its 400,000-vehicle sales target goal for the first time selling 415,286 cars of its 680,000 units/year production capacity prompting the company to set its 2011 sales target at 480,000 cars, a 16% increase.
Geely Auto Group reported annual sales of 1,24 million cars in 2017, an increase of 63% from the previous year. Due to strong 2017 sales, Geely Auto Group has subsequently set its 2018 sales volume target to 1.58 million.
Geely Auto Group reported annual sales of 1,500,838 units in 2018. This year marks the first time that Geely Auto has reached sales of 1.5 million units.
|Calendar year||Sales||Growth||Market share|
Design and R&DEdit
Geely Auto Group has four independent design centres in Shanghai, Gothenburg, Barcelona and California as well as four R&D centres in Hangzhou, Ningbo, Coventry, and Gothenburg capable of independently researching and producing full car parts, engines, transmissions and electrical systems. In Gothenburg, the group has established CEVT, a joint research and development centre between Volvo Cars and Geely Auto to create an industry leading compact modular architecture. The company has also invested in establishing colleges across China including the Beijing Geely University, Zhejiang Automotive Technical School, Hunan Geely Automotive Technical. The company has students enrolled within its schools with the goal of developing Chinese automotive industry talents. In 2013, 16 trainees from this program started their careers in Geely Group.
A small Geely sedan, the CK, performed badly in an informal crash test conducted by a Russian magazine in 2007. As a result, Geely reviewed its expansion plans. A 2009 1.3-liter Geely CK 1 model without airbags earned a zero-star rating in a Latin NCAP crash test on protecting adult occupants in front seats.
In 2010, the Geely LC scored 45.3 points of a possible 51 in the China-NCAP crash tests, making it China's first locally researched and developed mini car to be awarded a 5-star rating, and the safest Chinese hatchback as of 2011.
An unsuccessful lawsuit was brought against the company in the early 2000s by Toyota, which claimed Geely had "implied in ads that some of the parts [used in Geely vehicles] were made by Toyota". Geely may also have previously used a logo that resembled that of Toyota.
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