Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC[3] is a Swedish automotive manufacturer that produces electric vehicles under the Polestar brand. Owned by Volvo Cars, the company is headquartered in Torslanda outside Gothenburg, Sweden.[4]

Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC
Company typePublic limited company
NasdaqPSNY
Founded2017; 7 years ago (2017)
HeadquartersGothenburg, Sweden
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
ProductsElectric vehicle
RevenueIncrease US$2.46 billion (2022)
DecreaseUS$1.3 billion (2022)
IncreaseUS$466 million (2022)
Total assetsIncrease US$3.94 billion (2022)
Total equityIncrease US$134 million (2022)
OwnerVolvo Cars (49.5%)
Number of employees
2,377 (December 2022)
Websitepolestar.com
Footnotes / references
[1][2]
Polestar
OwnerVolvo Cars
CountrySweden
Introduced2005; 19 years ago (2005)
Previous ownersPolestar Racing (2005–2015)

The brand originated from Flash Engineering, a Swedish motorsport team established in 1996 that competed in the Scandinavian Touring Car Championship. In 2005, the team was sold then rebranded to Polestar Racing, which later operates a production car tuning division called Polestar Performance AB.[5][6] In July 2015, the Polestar brand was acquired by Volvo Cars.[7] The racing team was then rebranded to Cyan Racing, while still maintaining close ties to Volvo.[8]

The current holding company of Polestar was jointly formed in 2017 by Volvo Cars and Zhejiang Geely Holding Group.[3] Polestar shares began trading on the Nasdaq exchange under the symbol PSNY on 24 June 2022 through a business combination agreement with Gores Guggenheim, Inc., a special-purpose acquisition company.[9][10]

Polestar produces cars in several countries, including China, the US, and South Korea, in facilities owned by Volvo Cars and Geely.[11][12]

History edit

Racing team and tuning brand (1996–2017) edit

The company origins can be traced to the 1996 foundation of Flash Engineering, a Swedish racing team competing in Swedish Touring Car Championship (STCC). The team was sold and rebranded as Polestar Racing, which began modifying Volvos for racing in the late 2000s. In 2009, the brand became the official Volvo partner to modify existing models, under the brand Polestar Performance. Volvo eventually bought the company in July 2015 and began selling Polestar-enhanced models directly through their resellers.[13]

Polestar has also produced prototype cars, with the first being the C30 Polestar Performance Concept Prototype (2010) with over 400 bhp (300 kW) and 510 N⋅m (380 lbf⋅ft).[14]

 
Volvo V60 Polestar

The Volvo S60 Polestar Concept is the heir to the C30 Polestar, featuring 508 BHP from a modified T6 engine, launched in June 2012.[15] The car sprints from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) in 3.9 seconds with a top speed of over 300 km/h (190 mph).[16] Motor Trend tested the car at Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca, where it broke the lap record for four-door cars, matching the lap time of an Audi R8.[17]

Selection of petrol and hybrid powered Volvo-based Polestar models:

Introduced Model Type Engine Drivetrain
2009 Volvo C30 Polestar Concept[18] Concept 5-cylinder, 2500 cc, turbocharged, 451 PS AWD, 6-speed manual
2012 Volvo S60 Polestar Concept[19] Concept 6-cylinder, 3000 cc, turbocharged, 508 PS AWD, 6-speed manual
2013 Volvo S60/V60 Polestar Production 6-cylinder, 3000 cc, turbocharged, 350 PS AWD, 6-speed auto
2016 Volvo S60/V60 Polestar Drive-E Production 4-cylinder, 1969 cc, turbocharged, 367 PS AWD, 8-speed auto
2018 Volvo S60 T8 Polestar Engineered Production 4-cylinder, 1969 cc, plug-in hybrid, 415 PS AWD, 8-speed auto
2020 Volvo V60 T8 Polestar Engineered Production 4-cylinder, 1969 cc, plug-in hybrid, 415 PS AWD, 8-speed auto
2020 Volvo XC60 T8 Polestar Engineered Production 4-cylinder, 1969 cc, plug-in hybrid, 415 PS AWD, 8-speed auto

Standalone brand (2017–present) edit

 
Polestar's showroom in Oslo, Norway

In October 2017, Volvo Cars and Geely Holding announced that Polestar would become a standalone brand focusing on electric cars.[20] The brand introduced the Polestar 1 on 17 October 2017, a 2+2 coupé inspired by Volvo's Concept Coupé introduced in 2013, which includes influences from the Volvo P1800. The Polestar 1 was built between 2019 and 2021, and was built in a new purpose-built Polestar Production Centre in Chengdu, China,[21] from 2019 at a rate of up to 500 per year.[22] During its final year of production, a limited-production gold-painted version of Polestar 1 was released. Only 25 units were produced.[23]

In 2019, Polestar announced their second car, the Polestar 2 electric car.[24] It was unveiled on 27 February 2019, in an online unveiling which was broadcast from the Polestar headquarters in Gothenburg, Sweden. Directly after, it had its public debut at the 2019 Geneva Motor Show.[25] It is produced at Volvo Cars's existing plant in Taizhou, China.[26] It will be receiving a mid-life refresh for its 2024 year-model, switching to a rear-wheel drive layout for its single-motor option, and various performance and cosmetic changes for the base model and performance package, respectively. It will also replace the existing front grille with a body-color front-end treatment that houses new safety hardware, including a front-facing camera and a new mid-range radar, matching the Polestar 3, dubbed the "SmartZone".[27]

In March 2022, Polestar launched a roadster concept named the Polestar O2, and later in August 2022, Polestar announced a sixth new roadster model dubbed Polestar 6 based on the O2 concept car, expected to enter production in 2026.[28][29]

In 2023, Polestar announced construction of new headquarters – a 80,000 m2 (860,000 sq ft) building in central Gothenburg.[30][31]

Products edit

Current and future vehicles edit

Image Name Introduction
(cal. year)
Platform Powertrain Vehicle description Assembly location
  Polestar 2 2020 CMA Battery electric Compact executive car with a 5-door liftback body style.
  Polestar 3 2024 (Planned) SPA2 Battery electric Mid-size luxury crossover SUV, related to the Volvo EX90. China: Chengdu (Polestar Plant)[33]|United States: Ridgeville, South Carolina (South Carolina Factory)[34]
  Polestar 4 2024 SEA Battery electric Compact luxury crossover SUV with a coupe SUV body style.
  Polestar 5 2025 (planned) SEA Battery electric Executive car
Polestar 6 2026 (planned) SEA Battery electric Grand tourer

Discontinued vehicles edit

Image Name(s) Production
(cal. year)
Platform Powertrain Vehicle description Assembly location
  Polestar 1 2019–2022 SPA Plug-in hybrid Sports car / grand tourer, 1,500 units produced.

Performance optimisation edit

 
Polestar Precept

Under the label Polestar Engineered, Polestar offers enhancements for Volvo cars which deliver upgraded performance. Examples are engine optimizations with retained warranty and unchanged fuel consumption and emissions. The engine optimization increases the power and torque output, varying depending on engine model. The response of the throttle can be modified and the character of the transmission is tweaked.

In 2022, a special version of Polestar 2 was released as a Polestar Engineered product: the limited-production Polestar 2 BST edition 270, of which only 270 will exist.[36]

Racing edit

Polestar has been working with Volvo since 1996, starting with racing Volvo cars and being involved in the development of race cars for Cyan Racing. In 2014, Polestar was involved in the development of a V8 powered Volvo S60 that was raced by Garry Rogers Motorsport in the Australian V8 Supercars series.[37] Robert Dahlgren was seconded to Australia in 2014 as part of this programme and pulled out in the end of 2016.[38]

Logo dispute in France edit

In 2019, French brand Citroën considered that the Polestar company logo – also formed of chevrons – is too close to those of its Citroën and DS Automobiles brands. In the absence of an amicable agreement, Citroën took to the Tribunal de grande instance in July 2019. The latter, in a decision dated 4 June 2020, found in favor of the French manufacturer,[39] decision confirmed on appeal on 14 June 2020. December 2021. As a result, Polestar vehicles cannot be purchased in France.[40] In September 2022, it was reported that Citroën and Polestar had settled their dispute.[41]

Other ventures edit

In August 2022, the company announced it would supply batteries and charging hardware to Candela for electric boats that would "fly" on hydrofoils.[42][43]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC 2022 Annual Report (Form 20-F)". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 14 April 2023. pp. 98, F-5, F-6. Archived from the original on 29 June 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  2. ^ "Volvo Cars increases shareholding in Polestar to 49.5 per cent" (Press release). Media.volvocars.com. Archived from the original on 19 December 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Report of Foreign Private Issuer Pursuant to Rule 13a-16 Or 15d-16 Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the Month of July, 2022 - Commission File Number: 001-41431 - Polestar Automotive Holding UK PLC". Polestar. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  4. ^ "Polestar inaugurates new headquarters in Sweden" (Press release). Polestar. Retrieved 29 November 2019.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "Volvo S60 Polestar Limited Edition". Polestar AB. 2013. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  6. ^ "Polestar Performance gives your Volvo more performance". Polestar AB. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  7. ^ "Polestar announces new management team" (Press release). Polestar. Retrieved 29 November 2019.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ "History". Cyan Racing. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  9. ^ "Polestar lists successfully on Nasdaq" (Press release). investors.polestar.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  10. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (27 September 2021). "Electric car company Polestar is going public via SPAC". The Verge. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  11. ^ "Polestar Bets on US, Korea to Avoid 'Made in China' EV Tariffs". Bloomberg.com. 9 November 2023. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  12. ^ Cole, Dani (17 November 2023). "Polestar 4 China production starts". Just Auto. Retrieved 4 January 2024.
  13. ^ "Volvo Cars buys 100 per cent of Polestar". www.media.volvocars.com. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  14. ^ Yarrow, Richard (24 May 2010). "Volvo C30 Polestar review". www.evo.co.uk. Dennis Publishing Ltd. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  15. ^ Meissner, Johan (7 June 2012). "Polestar presents Volvo S60 Polestar at the TTA Gothenburg City Race". ttagroup.se. Touring Car Team Association. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  16. ^ "Polestar presents Volvo S60 Polestar performance concept". Polestar AB. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  17. ^ Kiino, Ron (8 January 2013). "Volvo S60 Polestar Track Test – 'Vette, Viper, Volvo?". www.motortrend.com. Pictures by William Walker. MotorTrend. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  18. ^ "Polestar to become the new electrified performance brand for Volvo Cars". www.polestar.com. Polestar AB. 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  19. ^ "Polestar to become the new electrified performance brand for Volvo Cars". www.polestar.com. Polestar AB. 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  20. ^ "Volvo Cars and Geely Holdings invest 5 billion RMB to develop Polestar". www.media.volvocars.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  21. ^ Lambert, Fred (17 October 2017). "Volvo's Polestar unveils performance electric car, announces new 'Tesla Model 3 competitor'". Archived from the original on 26 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  22. ^ Valle, Marius (17 October 2017). "Avduket i dag: Slik blir de elektriske sportsbilene fra Volvo" [Unveiled today: This is what will be the electric sports cars from Volvo] (in Swedish). Teknisk Ukeblad. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  23. ^ "The golden goodbye to Polestar 1". The golden goodbye to Polestar 1. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  24. ^ "Polestar 2 electric powertrains | Polestar UK". Polestar 2 electric powertrains | Polestar UK. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  25. ^ Baldwin, Roberto (27 February 2019). "The stylish Polestar 2 takes on the Model 3 with a 275-mile range". Engadget. Archived from the original on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  26. ^ "Polestar unveils its first car – the Polestar 1 – and reveals its vision to be the new electric performance brand". www.media.volvocars.com. Volvo Car Corporation. 17 October 2017. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  27. ^ "2024 Polestar 2 brings more power, performance and range". media.polestar.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2023. Retrieved 28 January 2023.
  28. ^ "The emotions of performance: Polestar 6 to enter production". The emotions of performance: Polestar 6 to enter production. Archived from the original on 18 August 2022. Retrieved 16 August 2022.
  29. ^ Doll, Scooter (16 August 2022). "Polestar (PSNY) announces its O₂ roadster concept will enter production as the Polestar 6". Electrek. Archived from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  30. ^ Valdemar Lönnroth, Paul Wennerholm (2 June 2023). "Polestar bygger nytt, stort huvudkontor i Frihamnen". gp.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  31. ^ Engström, Fredrik (9 June 2023). "80.000 kvm Polestar-projekt till salu". Fastighetsvärlden (in Swedish). Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  32. ^ "Polestar 2 production begins in Luqiao, China" (Press release). Polestar. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  33. ^ Chilton, Chris (12 October 2022). "2024 Polestar 3 Is An Electric Luxury SUV Priced From $84k With Up To 510 HP And A 379-Mile Range". Carscoops. Archived from the original on 12 October 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  34. ^ Golson, Daniel (12 October 2022). "2023 Polestar 3 Electric SUV Debuts with Groundbreaking Tech, Fabulous Style". CNET. Archived from the original on 12 October 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  35. ^ "Polestar expands manufacturing footprint to South Korea with production of Polestar 4 set to start in Busan in 2025". Polestar.
  36. ^ "Polestar 2 BST edition 270 | Polestar UK". Polestar UK. Archived from the original on 22 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  37. ^ Bartholomaeus, Stefan (17 June 2013). "Volvo launches V8 Supercar campaign in Brisbane". www.speedcafe.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  38. ^ Bartholomaeus, Stefan (16 January 2014). "Robert Dahlgren confirmed for Volvo V8 seat". www.speedcafe.com. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  39. ^ "Tribunal de grande instance de Paris, 4 juin 2020, 19/08639". legifrance.gouv.fr. 4 June 2020. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022..
  40. ^ "CA Paris, pôle 5 – ch. 1, 14 déc. 2021, n° 20/12598". Doctrine.fr. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  41. ^ "Entre Citroën et Polestar, les chevrons de la réconciliation". lemonde.fr. 31 August 2022. Archived from the original on 30 September 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  42. ^ Frangoul, Anmar. "EV maker Polestar to provide batteries for 'flying' electric boats". CNBC. Archived from the original on 6 September 2022. Retrieved 7 September 2022.
  43. ^ Toll, Micah (23 May 2023). "Candela and Polestar unveil new flying electric boat based on Scandinavian design". Electrek. Retrieved 6 January 2024.

External links edit

  • Official website
  • Business data for Polestar AB: