In physics, energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume. It may also be used for energy per unit mass, though a more accurate term for this is specific energy (or gravimetric energy density).
|In SI base units||kg·m−1s−2|
|U = E/V|
Often only the useful or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that inaccessible energy (such as rest mass energy) is ignored. In cosmological and other general relativistic contexts, however, the energy densities considered are those that correspond to the elements of the stress–energy tensor and therefore do include mass energy as well as energy densities associated with the pressures described in the next paragraph.
Energy per unit volume has the same physical units as pressure, and in many circumstances is a synonym: for example, the energy density of a magnetic field may be expressed as (and behaves as) a physical pressure, and the energy required to compress a compressed gas a little more may be determined by multiplying the difference between the gas pressure and the external pressure by the change in volume. In short, pressure is a measure of the enthalpy per unit volume of a system. A pressure gradient has the potential to perform work on the surroundings by converting enthalpy to work until equilibrium is reached.
There are different types of energy stored in materials, and it takes a particular type of reaction to release each type of energy. In order of the typical magnitude of the energy released, these types of reactions are: nuclear, chemical, electrochemical, and electrical.
Nuclear reactions take place in stars and nuclear power plants, both of which derive energy from the binding energy of nuclei. Chemical reactions are used by animals to derive energy from food, and by automobiles to derive energy from gasoline. Liquid hydrocarbons (fuels such as gasoline, diesel and kerosene) are today the most dense way known to economically store and transport chemical energy at a very large scale (1 kg of diesel fuel burns with the oxygen contained in ~15 kg of air). Electrochemical reactions are used by most mobile devices such as laptop computers and mobile phones to release the energy from batteries.
Types of energy contentEdit
There are several different types of energy content. One is the theoretical total amount of thermodynamic work that can be derived from a system, with a given temperature and pressure for the surroundings. This is called exergy. Another is the theoretical amount of work that can be derived from reactants that are initially at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This is given by the change in standard Gibbs free energy. But as a source of heat or for use in a heat engine, the relevant quantity is the change in standard enthalpy or the heat of combustion.
There are two kinds of heat of combustion:
- The higher value (HHV), or gross heat of combustion, includes all the heat released as the products cool to room temperature and whatever water vapor is present condenses.
- The lower value (LHV), or net heat of combustion, does not include the heat which could be released by condensing water vapor, and may not include the heat released on cooling all the way down to room temperature.
A convenient table of HHV and LHV of some fuels can be found in the references.
In energy storage and fuelsEdit
In energy storage applications the energy density relates the energy in an energy store to the volume of the storage facility, e.g. the fuel tank. The higher the energy density of the fuel, the more energy may be stored or transported for the same amount of volume. The energy density of a fuel per unit mass is called the specific energy of that fuel. In general an engine using that fuel will generate less kinetic energy due to inefficiencies and thermodynamic considerations—hence the specific fuel consumption of an engine will always be greater than its rate of production of the kinetic energy of motion.
Energy density differs from energy conversion efficiency (net output per input) or embodied energy (the energy output costs to provide, as harvesting, refining, distributing, and dealing with pollution all use energy). Large scale, intensive energy use impacts and is impacted by climate, waste storage, and environmental consequences.
No single energy storage method boasts the best in specific power, specific energy, and energy density. Peukert's law describes how the amount of useful energy that can be obtained (for a lead-acid cell) depends on how quickly it is pulled out. To maximize both specific energy and energy density, one can compute the specific energy density of a substance by multiplying the two values together, where the higher the number, the better the substance is at storing energy efficiently.
- Note: Some values may not be precise because of isomers or other irregularities. See Heating value for a comprehensive table of specific energies of important fuels.
- Note: Also it is important to realise that generally the density values for chemical fuels do not include the weight of oxygen required for combustion. This is typically two oxygen atoms per carbon atom, and one per two hydrogen atoms. The atomic weight of carbon and oxygen are similar, while hydrogen is much lighter than oxygen. Figures are presented this way for those fuels where in practice air would only be drawn in locally to the burner. This explains the apparently lower energy density of materials that already include their own oxidiser (such as gunpowder and TNT), where the mass of the oxidiser in effect adds dead weight, and absorbs some of the energy of combustion to dissociate and liberate oxygen to continue the reaction. This also explains some apparent anomalies, such as the energy density of a sandwich appearing to be higher than that of a stick of dynamite.
List of material energy densitiesEdit
This article or section appears to contradict itself.April 2019)(
Some of this section's listed sources may not be reliable. (February 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The following unit conversions may be helpful when considering the data in the tables: 3.6 MJ = 1 kW⋅h ≈ 1.34 hp⋅h. Since 1 J = 10-6 MJ and 1 m3 = 103 L, divide joule/m3 by 109 to get MJ/L = GJ/m3. Divide MJ/L by 3.6 to get kW⋅h/L.
In nuclear reactionsEdit
|Antimatter||89,875,517,874 = ~90 PJ/kg||Depends on the density of the antimatter's form||24,965,421,631,578 = ~25 TWh/kg||Depends on the density of the antimatter's form||Annihilation, counting both the consumed antimatter mass and ordinary matter mass|
|Hydrogen (fusion)||639,780,320 but at least 2% of this is lost to neutrinos.||Depends on conditions||177,716,755,600||Depends on conditions||Reaction 4H→4He|
||571,182,758||Depends on conditions||158,661,876,600||Depends on conditions||Proposed fusion scheme for D+D→4He, by combining D+D→T+H, T+D→4He+n, n+H→D and D+D→3He+n, 3He+D→4He+H, n+H→D|
|Deuterium+tritium||337,387,388||Depends on conditions||93,718,718,800||Depends on conditions||D + T → 4He + n Being developed.|
|Plutonium-239||83,610,000||1,300,000,000–1,700,000,000 (Depends on crystallographic phase)||23,222,915,000||370,000,000,000–460,000,000,000 (Depends on crystallographic phase)||Heat produced in Fission reactor|
|Plutonium-239||31,000,000||490,000,000–620,000,000 (Depends on crystallographic phase)||8,700,000,000||140,000,000,000–170,000,000,000 (Depends on crystallographic phase)||Electricity produced in Fission reactor|
|Uranium||80,620,000||1,539,842,000||22,394,000,000||Heat produced in breeder reactor|
|Thorium||79,420,000||929,214,000||22,061,000,000||Heat produced in breeder reactor (Experimental)|
|Plutonium-238||2,239,000||43,277,631||621,900,000||Radioisotope thermoelectric generator. Note that the heat is only produced at a rate of 0.57 W/g.|
In chemical reactions (oxidation)Edit
|Hydrogen, liquid||141.86 (HHV)
|Energy figures apply after reheating to 25°C.|
|Hydrogen, at 690 bar and 25°C||141.86 (HHV)
|Hydrogen, gas, 1 atm, 25°C||141.86 (HHV)
|Methane (1.013 bar, 15 °C)||55.6||0.0378||15,444.5||10.5|
|LNG (NG at −160 °C)||53.6||22.2||14,888.9||6,166.7|
|CNG (NG compressed to 250 bar/~3,600 psi)||53.6||9||14,888.9||2,500.0|
|Residential heating oil||46.2||37.3||12,833.3||10,361.1|||
|Jet fuel (e.g. Kerosene)||43||35||Aircraft engine|
|Gasohol E10 (10% ethanol 90% gasoline by volume)||43.54||33.18||12,094.5||9,216.7|
|Biodiesel oil (vegetable oil)||42.20||33||11,722.2||9,166.7|
|DMF (2,5-dimethylfuran)||42||37.8||11,666.7||10,500.0||[clarification needed]|
|Crude oil (tonne of oil equivalent)||41.868||37||11,630||10,278|
|Body fat||38||35||10,555.6||9,722.2||Metabolism in human body (22% Efficiency)|
|Gasohol E85 (85% ethanol 15% gasoline by volume)||33.1||25.65||9,194.5||7,125.0|
|Coal, anthracite||26–33||34–43||7,222.2–9,166.7||9,444.5–11,944.5||Figures represent perfect combustion not counting oxidizer, but efficiency of conversion to electricity is ~36%|
|Silicon||1.790||4.5||500||1,285||Energy stored through solid to liquid phase change of silicon|
|PET plastic (impure)||23.5||6,527.8|
|Hydrazine (combusted to N2+H2O)||19.5||19.3||5,416.7||5,361.1|
|Liquid ammonia (combusted to N2+H2O)||18.6||11.5||5,166.7||3,194.5|
|PVC plastic (improper combustion toxic)||18.0||25.2||5,000.0||7,000.0||[clarification needed]|
|Sugars, carbohydrates, and protein||17||26.2 (dextrose)||4,722.2||7,277.8||Metabolism in human body (22% Efficiency)|
|Dry cow dung and camel dung||15.5||4,305.6|
|Coal, lignite||10–20||2,777.8–5,555.6|||
|Sodium||13.3||12.8||3,694.5||3,555.6||burned to wet sodium hydroxide|
|Sulfur||9.23||19.11||2,563.9||5,308.3||burned to sulfur dioxide|
|Sodium||9.1||8.8||2,527.8||2,444.5||burned to dry sodium oxide|
|Battery, lithium-air rechargeable||9.0||2,500.0||Controlled electric discharge|
|Iron||5.2||40.68||1,444.5||11,300.0||burned to iron(III) oxide|
|Teflon plastic||5.1||11.2||1,416.7||3,111.1||combustion toxic, but flame retardant|
|Iron||4.9||38.2||1,361.1||10,611.1||burned to iron(II) oxide|
Other release mechanismsEdit
|Battery, zinc-air||1.59||6.02||441.7||1,672.2||Controlled electric discharge|
|Liquid nitrogen||0.77||0.62||213.9||172.2||Maximum reversible work at 77.4K with 300K reservoir|
|Sodium sulfur battery||0.54–0.86||150–240|
|Compressed air at 300 bar||0.5||0.2||138.9||55.6||Potential energy|
|Latent heat of fusion of ice (thermal)||0.335||0.335||93.1||93.1|
|Lithium metal battery||1.8||4.32||Controlled electric discharge|
|Lithium-ion battery||0.36–0.875||0.9–2.63||100.00–243.06||250.00–730.56||Controlled electric discharge|
|Alkaline battery||0.48||1.3||Controlled electric discharge|
|Nickel-metal hydride battery||0.41||0.504–1.46||Controlled electric discharge|
|Lead-acid battery||0.17||0.56||Controlled electric discharge|
|Supercapacitor (EDLC)||0.01–0.030||0.006–0.06||up to 8.57||Controlled electric discharge|
|Water at 100 m dam height||0.000981||0.000978||0.272||0.272||Figures represent potential energy, but efficiency of conversion to electricity is 85–90%|
|Electrolytic capacitor||0.00001–0.0002||0.00001–0.001||Controlled electric discharge|
In material deformationEdit
The mechanical energy storage capacity, or resilience, of a Hookean material when it is deformed to the point of failure can be computed by calculating tensile strength times the maximum elongation dividing by two. The maximum elongation of a Hookean material can be computed by dividing stiffness of that material by its ultimate tensile strength. The following table lists these values computed using the Young's modulus as measure of stiffness:
|Material||Energy density by mass
|Resilience: Energy density by volume
|Tensile yield strength
|Steel, ASTM A228 (yield, 1 mm diameter)||1,440–1,770||11,200–13,800||7.80||210||2,170–2,410|
|Copper Beryllium 25-1/2 HT (yield)||684||5,720||8.36||131||1,224|
|ABS plastics||241–534||258–571||1.07||1.4–3.1||40 (ultimate)|
|Aluminum 7077-T8 (yield)||399||1120||2.81||71.0||400|
|Steel, stainless, 301-H (yield)||301||2,410||8.0||193||965|
|Epoxy resins||113–1810||2–3||26–85 (ultimate)|
|Douglas fir Wood||158–200||96||.481–.609||13||50 (compression)|
|Steel, Mild AISI 1018||42.4||334||7.87||205||370 (440 Ultimate)|
|Aluminum (not alloyed)||32.5||87.7||2.70||69||110 (ultimate)|
|Pine (American Eastern White, flexural)||31.8–32.8||11.1–11.5||.350||8.30–8.56 (flexural)||41.4 (flexural)|
|Storage device||Energy content
(diameter × height in mm)
|Typical volume (mL)||Energy density
by volume (MJ/L)
by mass (MJ/kg)
|Alkaline AA battery||9,360||Electrochemical||24||14.2 × 50||7.92||1.18||0.39|
|Alkaline C battery||34,416||Electrochemical||65||26 × 46||24.42||1.41||0.53|
|NiMH AA battery||9,072||Electrochemical||26||14.2 × 50||7.92||1.15||0.35|
|NiMH C battery||19,440||Electrochemical||82||26 × 46||24.42||0.80||0.24|
|Lithium-ion 18650 battery||28,800–46,800||Electrochemical||44–49||18 × 65||16.54||1.74–2.83||0.59–1.06|
Nuclear energy sourcesEdit
The greatest energy source by far is mass itself. This energy, E = mc2, where m = ρV, ρ is the mass per unit volume, V is the volume of the mass itself and c is the speed of light. This energy, however, can be released only by the processes of nuclear fission (0.1%), nuclear fusion (1%), or the annihilation of some or all of the matter in the volume V by matter-antimatter collisions (100%). Nuclear reactions cannot be realized by chemical reactions such as combustion. Although greater matter densities can be achieved, the density of a neutron star would approximate the most dense system capable of matter-antimatter annihilation possible. A black hole, although denser than a neutron star, does not have an equivalent anti-particle form, but would offer the same 100% conversion rate of mass to energy in the form of Hawking radiation. In the case of relatively small black holes (smaller than astronomical objects) the power output would be tremendous.
The highest density sources of energy aside from antimatter are fusion and fission. Fusion includes energy from the sun which will be available for billions of years (in the form of sunlight) but so far (2018), sustained fusion power production continues to be elusive.
Power from fission of uranium and thorium in nuclear power plants will be available for many decades or even centuries because of the plentiful supply of the elements on earth, though the full potential of this source can only be realised through breeder reactors, which are, apart from the BN-600 reactor, not yet used commercially. Coal, gas, and petroleum are the current primary energy sources in the U.S. but have a much lower energy density. Burning local biomass fuels supplies household energy needs (cooking fires, oil lamps, etc.) worldwide.
Thermal power of nuclear fission reactorsEdit
The density of thermal energy contained in the core of a light water reactor (PWR or BWR) of typically 1 GWe (1 000 MW electrical corresponding to ~3 000 MW thermal) is in the range of 10 to 100 MW of thermal energy per cubic meter of cooling water depending on the location considered in the system (the core itself (~30 m3), the reactor pressure vessel (~50 m3), or the whole primary circuit (~300 m3)). This represents a considerable density of energy which requires under all circumstances a continuous water flow at high velocity in order to be able to remove the heat from the core, even after an emergency shutdown of the reactor. The incapacity to cool the cores of three boiling water reactors (BWR) at Fukushima in 2011 after the tsunami and the resulting loss of the external electrical power and of the cold source was the cause of the meltdown of the three cores in only a few hours, even though the three reactors were correctly shut down just after the Tōhoku earthquake. This extremely high power density distinguishes nuclear power plants (NPP's) from any thermal power plants (burning coal, fuel or gas) or any chemical plants and explains the large redundancy required to permanently control the neutron reactivity and to remove the residual heat from the core of NPP's.
Energy density of electric and magnetic fieldsEdit
where E is the electric field and B is the magnetic field. The solution will be (in SI units) in Joules per cubic metre. In the context of magnetohydrodynamics, the physics of conductive fluids, the magnetic energy density behaves like an additional pressure that adds to the gas pressure of a plasma.
In normal (linear and nondispersive) substances, the energy density (in SI units) is
In the case of absence of magnetic fields, by exploiting Fröhlich's relationships it is also possible to extend these equations to anisotropic and nonlinear dielectrics, as well as to calculate the correlated Helmholtz free energy and entropy densities.
- "The Two Classes of SI Units and the SI Prefixes". NIST Guide to the SI. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Fossil and Alternative Fuels - Energy Content (2008)". Engineering ToolBox. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
- Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Park, Jong Hwan; Jeon, Jaehwan; Jin, Xing; Song, Juhye; Kim, Bo-Ram; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Ji Man; Kim, Young-Jun (2015). "Nanotechnology enabled rechargeable Li–SO2 batteries: Another approach towards post-lithium-ion battery systems". Energy & Environmental Science. 8 (11): 3173–3180. doi:10.1039/C5EE01659B.
- "Panasonic Develops New Higher-Capacity 18650 Li-Ion Cells." Green Car Congress. N.p., 25 Dec. 2009. Web.
- Stura, Enrico; Nicolini, Claudio (2006). "New nanomaterials for light weight lithium batteries". Analytica Chimica Acta. 568 (1–2): 57–64. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2005.11.025. PMID 17761246.
- Fisher, Julia (2003). Elert, Glenn (ed.). "Energy density of coal". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
- "Heat Values of Various Fuels - World Nuclear Association." World Nuclear Association. N.p., Sept. 2016. Web.
- "Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program." Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. N.p., May 2000. Web.
- Wong, Kaufui; Dia, Sarah (2017). "Nanotechnology in Batteries". Journal of Energy Resources Technology. 139. doi:10.1115/1.4034860.
- Ionescu-Zanetti, C.; et., al. (2005). "Nanogap capacitors: Sensitivity to sample permittivity changes". Journal of Applied Physics. 99 (2): 024305. Bibcode:2006JAP....99b4305I. doi:10.1063/1.2161818. S2CID 120910476.
- Naoi, K.; et., al. (2013). "New generation "nanohybrid supercapacitor"". Accounts of Chemical Research. 46 (5): 1075–1083. doi:10.1021/ar200308h. PMID 22433167.
- Hubler, A.; Osuagwu, O. (2010). "Digital quantum batteries: Energy and information storage in nanovacuum tube arrays". Complexity. 15 (5): NA. doi:10.1002/cplx.20306. S2CID 6994736.
- Lyon, D.; et., al. (2013). "Gap size dependence of the dielectric strength in nano vacuum gaps". IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 2 (4): 1467–1471. doi:10.1109/TDEI.2013.6571470. S2CID 709782.
- Calculated from fractional mass loss times c squared.
- Calculated from fractional mass loss times c squared. Ball, Justin (2019). "Maximizing specific energy by breeding deuterium". Nuclear Fusion. 59 (10): 106043. arXiv:1908.00834. Bibcode:2019NucFu..59j6043B. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/ab394c. S2CID 199405246.
- Calculated from fractional mass loss times c squared.
- "Computing the energy density of nuclear fuel". whatisnuclear.com. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
- College of the Desert, “Module 1, Hydrogen Properties”, Revision 0, December 2001 Hydrogen Properties. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997), Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed) (page 164)
- "Boron: A Better Energy Carrier than Hydrogen? (28 February 2009)". Eagle.ca. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- Envestra Limited. Natural Gas Archived 2008-10-10 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2008-10-05.
- IOR Energy. List of common conversion factors (Engineering conversion factors). Retrieved 2008-10-05.
- Paul A. Kittle, Ph.D. "ALTERNATE DAILY COVER MATERIALS AND SUBTITLE D - THE SELECTION TECHNIQUE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-27. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "537.PDF" (PDF). June 1993. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- Gofman, Evelyn (2003). Elert, Glenn (ed.). "Energy density of aviation fuel". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
- "Handbook of Products" (PDF). Air BP. pp. 11–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-08.
- Characteristics of Petroleum Products Stored and Dispensed (PDF), Petroleum Products Division - GN, p. 132, archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2017, retrieved 15 January 2017
- Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Barrett, Christopher J.; Liu, Zhen Y.; Dumesic, James A. (21 June 2007). "Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates". Nature. 447 (7147): 982–985. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..982R. doi:10.1038/nature05923. PMID 17581580. S2CID 4366510.
- Justin Lemire-Elmore (2004-04-13). "The Energy Cost of Electric and Human-Powered Bicycles" (PDF). p. 5. Retrieved 2009-02-26.
properly trained athlete will have efficiencies of 22 to 26%
- Meroueh, Laureen (2020). "Thermal energy storage in Silicon". doi:10.1016/j.renene.2019.06.036. Cite journal requires
- Bossel, Ulf (July 2003). "The Physics of the Hydrogen Economy" (PDF). European Fuel Cell News. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-19. Retrieved 2019-04-06.
The Higher Heating Values are 22.7, 29.7 or 31.7 MJ/kg for methanol, ethanol and DME, respectively, while gasoline contains about 45 MJ per kg.
- "Dimethyl Ether (DME)" (PDF). European Biofuels Technology Platform. 2013-11-18. Retrieved 2019-04-06. DME density and lower heating value were obtained from the table on the first page.
- "Elite_bloc.indd" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- "Biomass Energy Foundation: Fuel Densities". Woodgas.com. Archived from the original on 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- "Bord na Mona, Peat for Energy" (PDF). Bnm.ie. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- Justin Lemire-elmore (April 13, 2004). "The Energy Cost of Electric and Human-Powered Bicycle" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "energy buffers". Home.hccnet.nl. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- Anne Wignall and Terry Wales. Chemistry 12 Workbook, page 138 Archived 2011-09-13 at the Wayback Machine. Pearson Education NZ ISBN 978-0-582-54974-6
- Mitchell, Robert R.; Betar M. Gallant; Carl V. Thompson; Yang Shao-Horn (2011). "All-carbon-nanofiber electrodes for high-energy rechargeable Li–O2 batteries". Energy & Environmental Science. 4 (8): 2952–2958. doi:10.1039/C1EE01496J. S2CID 96799565.
- David E. Dirkse. energy buffers. "household waste 8..11 MJ/kg"
- Lu, Gui-e; Chang, Wen-ping; Jiang, Jin-yong; Du, Shi-guo (May 2011). "Study on the Energy Density of Gunpowder Heat Source". 2011 International Conference on Materials for Renewable Energy & Environment. IEEE: 1185–1187. doi:10.1109/ICMREE.2011.5930549. ISBN 978-1-61284-749-8. S2CID 36130191.
- "Technical bulletin on Zinc-air batteries". Duracell. Archived from the original on 2009-01-27. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
- C. Knowlen, A.T. Mattick, A.P. Bruckner and A. Hertzberg, "High Efficiency Conversion Systems for Liquid Nitrogen Automobiles", Society of Automotive Engineers Inc, 1988.
- "Overview of lithium ion batteries" (PDF). Panasonic. Jan 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 7, 2011.
- "Panasonic NCR18650B" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-22.
- "Test of Duracell Ultra Power AA". lygte-info.dk. Retrieved 2019-02-16.
- "Energizer EN91 AA alkaline battery datasheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "Test of GP ReCyko+ AA 2700mAh (Green)". lygte-info.dk. Retrieved 2019-02-16.
- "Maxwell supercapacitor comparison" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "Nesscap ESHSP series supercapacitor datasheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-29. Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "Cooper PowerStor XL60 series supercapacitor datasheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "Kemet S301 series supercapacitor datasheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "Nichicon JJD series supercapatcitor datasheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "skelcap High Energy Ultracapacitor" (PDF). Skeleton Technologies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- "3.0V 3400F ULTRACAPACITOR CELL DATASHEET BCAP3400 P300 K04/05" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-01-12.
- "Hydroelectric Power Generation". www.mpoweruk.com. Woodbank Communications Ltd. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
- "2.1 Power, discharge, head relationship | River Engineering & Restoration at OSU | Oregon State University". rivers.bee.oregonstate.edu. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
Let ε = 0.85, signifying an 85% efficiency rating, typical of an older powerplant.
- "Vishay STE series tantalum capacitors datasheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "nichicon TVX aluminum electrolytic capacitors datasheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "nichicon LGU aluminum electrolytic capacitors datasheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-01-10.
- "How Much Energy Can You Store in a Rubber Band?". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
- "MatWeb - The Online Materials Information Resource". www.matweb.com. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
- PubChem. "Acetal". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
- "Young's Modulus - Tensile and Yield Strength for common Materials". www.engineeringtoolbox.com. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
- Brush Wellman Alloy Products. "Elastic Resilience" (PDF). Technical Tidbits. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
- "C17200 Alloy Specifications | E. Jordan Brookes Company". www.ejbmetals.com. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
- "polycarbonate information and properties". www.polymerprocessing.com. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
- "ASM Material Data Sheet". asm.matweb.com. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
- Sutherland, Karen; Martin, Monica (2004). Elert, Glenn (ed.). "Density of steel". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2020-06-18.
- "Wood Species - Moisture Content and Weight". www.engineeringtoolbox.com. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
- "AISI 1018 Mild/Low Carbon Steel". AZoM.com. 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "ASM Material Data Sheet". asm.matweb.com. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
- "American Eastern White Pine Wood". www.matweb.com. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
- "Mass, Weight, Density or Specific Gravity of Different Metals". www.simetric.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
- "Physical properties of glass | Saint Gobain Building Glass UK". uk.saint-gobain-building-glass.com. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
- "Battery Energy Tables". Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
- "18650 Battery capacities".
- "Supply of Uranium". world-nuclear.org. 2014-10-08. Retrieved 2015-06-13.
- "Facts from Cohen". Formal.stanford.edu. 2007-01-26. Archived from the original on 2007-04-10. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- "U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Annual Energy Review". Eia.doe.gov. 2009-06-26. Archived from the original on 2010-05-06. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- Parravicini, J. (2018). "Thermodynamic potentials in anisotropic and nonlinear dielectrics". Physica B. 541: 54–60. Bibcode:2018PhyB..541...54P. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2018.04.029.
- "Terminology". Regenerative Laser Therapy.
- The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins by Alan H. Guth (1998) ISBN 0-201-32840-2
- Cosmological Inflation and Large-Scale Structure by Andrew R. Liddle, David H. Lyth (2000) ISBN 0-521-57598-2
- Richard Becker, "Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions", Dover Publications Inc., 1964
- ^ "Aircraft Fuels." Energy, Technology and the Environment Ed. Attilio Bisio. Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995. 257–259
- "Fuels of the Future for Cars and Trucks" – Dr. James J. Eberhardt – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy – 2002 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop San Diego, California - August 25–29, 2002
- "Heat values of various fuels – World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
- "Energy and Energy Types – Springer" (PDF). Retrieved 4 November 2018.