Hydrogen fuel is a zero carbon fuel burned with oxygen. It can be used in fuel cells or internal combustion engines. It has begun to be used in commercial fuel cell vehicles, such as passenger cars, and has been used in fuel cell buses for many years. It is also used as a fuel for spacecraft propulsion.
In the early 2020s, most hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming of fossil gas. Only a small quantity is made by alternative routes such as biomass gasification or electrolysis of water or solar thermochemistry, a solar fuel with no carbon emissions.
Hydrogen is found in the first group and first period in the periodic table, i.e. it is the lightest and first element of all. Since the weight of hydrogen is less than air, it rises in the atmosphere and is therefore rarely found in its pure form, H2. In a flame of pure hydrogen gas, burning in air, the hydrogen (H2) reacts with oxygen (O2) to form water (H2O) and releases energy.
- 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (g) + energy
If carried out in atmospheric air instead of pure oxygen, as is usually the case, hydrogen combustion may yield small amounts of nitrogen oxides, along with the water vapor.
The energy released enables hydrogen to act as a fuel. In an electrochemical cell, that energy can be used with relatively high efficiency. If it is used simply for heat, the usual thermodynamics limits on the thermal efficiency apply.
Hydrogen is usually considered an energy carrier, like electricity, as it must be produced from a primary energy source such as solar energy, biomass, electricity (e.g. in the form of solar PV or via wind turbines), or hydrocarbons such as natural gas or coal. Conventional hydrogen production using natural gas induces significant environmental impacts; as with the use of any hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide is emitted. At the same time, the addition of 20% of hydrogen (an optimal share that does not affect gas pipes and appliances) to natural gas can reduce CO2 emissions caused by heating and cooking.
Because pure hydrogen does not occur naturally on Earth in large quantities, it usually requires a primary energy input to produce on an industrial scale. Hydrogen fuel can be produced from methane or by electrolysis of water. As of 2020, the majority of hydrogen (∼95%) is produced from fossil fuels by steam reforming or partial oxidation of methane and coal gasification with only a small quantity by other routes such as biomass gasification or electrolysis of water.
Steam-methane reforming, the current leading technology for producing hydrogen in large quantities, extracts hydrogen from methane. However, this reaction releases fossil carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide into the atmosphere which are greenhouse gases exogenous to the natural carbon cycle, and thus contribute to climate change. In electrolysis, electricity is run through water to separate the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. This method can use wind, solar, geothermal, hydro, fossil fuels, biomass, nuclear, and many other energy sources. Obtaining hydrogen from this process is being studied as a viable way to produce it domestically at a low cost.
The world's largest facility for producing hydrogen fuel is claimed to be the Fukushima Hydrogen Energy Research Field (FH2R), a 10MW-class hydrogen production unit, inaugurated on 7 March 2020, in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture. The site occupies 180,000 square meters of land, much of which is occupied by a solar array; but power from the grid is also used to conduct electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen fuel.
Production is usually classed in terms of colour; 'grey hydrogen' is produced as a by-product of an industrial process, 'blue hydrogen' is produced through a production process where CO2 is also produced then subsequently captured via CCS, and finally 'green hydrogen' is produced entirely from renewable sources.
Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water, hydrocarbons, and other organic matter. One of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel comes from being able to extract hydrogen efficiently from these compounds. Now, steam reforming, which combines high-temperature steam with natural gas, accounts for the majority of the hydrogen produced. This method of hydrogen production occurs at temperatures between 700-1100 °C, and has a resultant efficiency of between 60-75%. Hydrogen can also be produced from water through electrolysis, which is less carbon intensive if the electricity used to drive the reaction does not come from fossil-fuel power plants but rather renewable or nuclear energy instead. The efficiency of water electrolysis is between about 70-80%, with a goal set to reach 82-86% efficiency by 2030 using proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers. Once produced, hydrogen can be used in much the same way as natural gas - it can be delivered to fuel cells to generate electricity and heat, used in a combined cycle gas turbine to produce larger quantities of centrally produced electricity or burned to run a combustion engine; all methods producing no carbon or methane emissions. In each case hydrogen is combined with oxygen to form water. This is also one of its most important advantages as hydrogen fuel is environmentally friendly. The heat in a hydrogen flame is a radiant emission from the newly formed water molecules. The water molecules are in an excited state on initial formation and then transition to a ground state; the transition releasing thermal radiation. When burning in air, the temperature is roughly 2000 °C (the same as natural gas). Historically, carbon has been the most practical carrier of energy, as hydrogen and carbon combined are more volumetrically dense, although hydrogen itself has three times the energy density per mass as methane or gasoline. Although hydrogen is the smallest element and thus has a slightly higher propensity to leak from venerable natural gas pipes such as those made from iron, leakage from plastic (polyethylene PE100) pipes is expected to be very low at about 0.001%.
The reason steam methane reforming has traditionally been favoured over electrolysis is because whereas methane reforming directly uses natural gas, electrolysis requires electricity. As the cost of producing electricity (via wind turbines and solar PV) falls below the cost of natural gas, electrolysis becomes cheaper than SMR.
Hydrogen fuel can provide motive power for liquid-propellant rockets, cars, trucks, trains, boats and airplanes, portable fuel cell applications or stationary fuel cell applications, which can power an electric motor. The problems of using hydrogen fuel in cars arise from the fact that hydrogen is difficult to store in either a high pressure tank or a cryogenic tank. Alternative storage media such as within complex metal hydrides are in development. In general batteries are more suitable for vehicles the size of cars or smaller, but hydrogen may be better for larger vehicles such as heavy lorries.
Hydrogen fuel can also be used to power stationary power generation plants, or provide an alternative to natural gas for heating applications.
Fuel cells present the most attractive choice for energy conversion from hydrogen directly towards electricity, due to their high efficiency, low noise, and limited number of moving parts. Fuel cells are of interest for both stationary and mobile power generation from hydrogen. Fuel cells are often considered as part of a vehicle propulsion system.
Using a fuel cell to power an electrified powertrain including a battery and an electric motor is two to three times more efficient than using a combustion engine, although some of this benefit is related to the electrified powertrain (i.e. Including regenerative braking). This means that much greater fuel economy is available using hydrogen in a fuel cell, compared to that of a hydrogen combustion engine.
Internal combustion engine conversions to hydrogenEdit
Alongside mono-fuel hydrogen combustion, combustion engines in commercial vehicles have the potential to be converted to run on a hydrogen-diesel mix. This has been demonstrated in prototypes in the UK, where up to 40% of CO2 emissions have been reduced during normal driving conditions. This dual-fuel flexibility eliminates range anxiety as the vehicles can alternatively fill up only on diesel, when no hydrogen refuelling is available. Relatively minor modifications are needed to the engines, as well as the addition of hydrogen tanks at a compression of 350 bars. Trials are also underway to test the efficiency of the 100% conversion of a Volvo FH16 heavy-duty truck to use only hydrogen. The range is expected to be 300 km/17 kg; which means an efficiency better than a standard diesel engine (where the embodied energy of 1 gallon of gasoline is equal to 1 kilogram of hydrogen).
Compared to conventional fuels, if a low cost price for hydrogen (€5/kg), significant fuel savings could be made via such a conversion in Europe or the UK. A lower price would be needed to compete with diesel/gasoline in the US, since these fuels are not exposed to high taxes at the pump.
Combustion engines using hydrogen are of interest since the technology offers a less substantial change to the automotive industry, and potentially a lower up-front cost of the vehicle compared to fully electric or fuel cell alternatives. However, the non -zero emission nature of the engine means it will not be able to operate in city zero emission zones, unless part of a hybrid powertrain.
Although hydrogen has a high energy content per unit mass, at room temperature and atmospheric pressure it has a very low energy content per unit volume, compared to liquid fuels or even to natural gas. For this reason it is usually either compressed or liquefied by lowering its temperature to less than 33 K. High-pressure tanks weigh much more than the hydrogen they can hold. For example in the 2014 Toyota Mirai, a full tank contains only 5.7% hydrogen, the rest of the weight being the tank.
Hydrogen fuel is hazardous because of the low ignition energy and high combustion energy of hydrogen, and because it tends to leak easily from tanks. Explosions at hydrogen filling stations have been reported. Hydrogen fuelling stations generally receive deliveries of hydrogen by truck from hydrogen suppliers. An interruption at a hydrogen supply facility can shut down multiple hydrogen fuelling stations.
- Roberts, David (2018-02-16). "This company may have solved one of the hardest problems in clean energy". Vox. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
- Ogden, J.M. (1999). "Prospects for building a hydrogen energy infrastructure". Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 24: 227–279. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.24.1.227.
- "Q & A: DLR's Christian Sattler on the Role of Solar Thermochemistry in Green Hydrogen Production". SolarPACES.org.
- Altork, L.N. & Busby, J. R. (2010 Oct). Hydrogen fuel cells: part of the solution. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 70(2), 22-27.
- Florida Solar Energy Center. (n.d.). Hydrogen Basics. Retrieved from: http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/hydrogen/basics/index.htm
- Zehner, Ozzie (2012). Green Illusions. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 1–169, 331–42.
- "Climate change hope for hydrogen fuel". BBC News. 2 January 2020.
- Wang, Feng (March 2015). "Thermodynamic analysis of high-temperature helium heated fuel reforming for hydrogen production". International Journal of Energy Research. 39 (3): 418–432. doi:10.1002/er.3263.
- Jones, J.C. (March 2015). "Energy-return-on-energy-invested for hydrogen fuel from the steam reforming of natural gas". Fuel. 143: 631. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2014.12.027.
- "Life cycle emissions of hydrogen". 4thgeneration.energy. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
- U.S. Department of Energy. (2007 Feb). Potential for hydrogen production from key renewable resources in the United States. (Technical Report NREL/TP-640-41134). National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO: Milbrandt, A. & Mann, M. Retrieved from: http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/41134.pdf
- "The world´s largest-class hydrogen production, Fukushima Hydrogen Energy Research Field (FH2R) now is completed at Namie town in Fukushima". Toshiba Energy Press Releases. Toshiba Energy Systems and Solutions Corporations. 7 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- "Opening Ceremony of Fukushima Hydrogen Energy Research Field (FH2R) Held with Prime Minister Abe and METI Minister Kajiyama". METI News Releases. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
- "Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics". www.afdc.energy.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
- Kalamaras, Christos M.; Efstathiou, Angelos M. (2013). "Hydrogen Production Technologies: Current State and Future Developments". Conference Papers in Energy. 2013: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2013/690627.
- Stolten, Detlef (Jan 4, 2016). Hydrogen Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 898. ISBN 9783527674299. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- "ITM - Hydrogen Refuelling Infrastructure - February 2017" (PDF). level-network.com. p. 12. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
- "Cost reduction and performance increase of PEM electrolysers" (PDF). fch.europa.eu. Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking. p. 9. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
- Ono, Katsutoshi (January 2015). "Fundamental Theories on a Combined Energy Cycle of an Electrostatic Induction Electrolytic Cell and Fuel Cell to Produce Fully Sustainable Hydrogen Energy". Electrical Engineering in Japan. 190 (2): 1–9. doi:10.1002/eej.22673.
- "Energy Thoughts and Surprises". 2016-11-17. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Sadler, Dan (2018-04-06). "100% hydrogen unlocks everything". medium.com. cH2ange. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Philibert, Cédric. "Commentary: Producing industrial hydrogen from renewable energy". iea.org. International Energy Agency. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Colella, W.G. (October 2005). "Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases". Journal of Power Sources. 150 (1/2): 150–181. Bibcode:2005JPS...150..150C. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.05.092.
- Zubrin, Robert (2007). Energy Victory: Winning the War on Terror by Breaking Free of Oil. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-59102-591-7.
- "Hyundai raises hydrogen game as new trucks roll into Europe". Reuters. 2021-05-24. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- "ULEMCo signs MoU with ENGV Pty Ltd to open the market for hydrogen conversions in Australia". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
- Dalagan, Maria Theresa. "ULEMCO developing hydrogen-fuelled vehicles". freightwaves.com. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- "UK firm to demonstrate "world's first" hydrogen-fuelled combustion engine truck". theengineer.co.uk. Centaur Media plc. 2018-04-17. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Mårtensson, Lars. "Emissions from Volvo's trucks" (PDF). volvotrucks.com. p. 3. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- André Løkke, Jon. "Wide Spread Adaption of Competitive Hydrogen Solution" (PDF). nelhydrogen.com/. Nel ASA. p. 16. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
- Mike Millikin (2014-11-18). "Toyota FCV Mirai launches in LA; initial TFCS specs; $57,500 or $499 lease; leaning on Prius analogy". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-11-23.
- Utgikar, Vivek P; Thiesen, Todd (2005). "Safety of compressed hydrogen fuel tanks: Leakage from stationary vehicles". Technology in Society. 27 (3): 315–320. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2005.04.005.
- Dobson, Geoff (12 June 2019). "Exploding hydrogen station leads to FCV halt". EV Talk.
- Woodrow, Melanie. "Bay Area experiences hydrogen shortage after explosion", ABC news, June 3, 2019
- McCarthy, John. "Hydrogen".
- Energy Information Administration. "Hydrogen explained to a juvenile audience". EIA Official Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government.
- Milbrandt, A. "Hydrogen Production from Key Renewable Resources in the United States" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Hydrogen as the fuel of the future, report by the DLR