List of rulers of Bengal

This is a list of rulers of Bengal. For much of its history, Bengal was split up into several independent kingdoms, completely unifying only several times. In ancient times, Bengal consisted of the kingdoms of Pundra, Suhma, Vanga, Samatata and Harikela.

In the 4th century BCE, during the reign of the Nanda Empire, the powerful rulers of Gangaridai sent their forces with the war elephants which led the withdrawal of Alexander the Great from the Indian subcontinent.

As a province of the Mauryan Empire, much of Bengal was part of it except for the far eastern Bengali kingdoms which maintained friendly relationships with Ashoka. The kingdoms of Bengal continued to exist as tributary states before succumbing to the Guptas. With the fall of the Gupta Empire, Bengal was united under a single local ruler, King Shashanka, for the first time. With the collapse of his kingdom, Bengal split up into petty kingdoms once more.

With the rise of Gopala in 750 AD, Bengal was united once more under the Buddhist Pala Empire until the 12th century than being succeeded by the Hindu Chandra dynasty, Sena dynasty and deva dynasty. After them, Bengal was ruled by the Hindu Maharajas of kingdoms such as Chandradwip and Cooch Behar.

After the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Bengal was ruled by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, under whom Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of dawah and number of converts to Islam, which caused the decline of Buddhism.[1][2] The Islamic Mamluk Sultanate, the Khalji dynasty, the Turko-Indian Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty and the Lodi dynasty ruled Bengal for over 320 years.[3] Notable was Malik Altunia's reign with his wife Razia Sultana, the only female sovereign ruler.

Following Delhi Sultanate's reign, the Bengal Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world,[4] was founded by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, and ruled by the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, succeeded by the Hussain Shahi dynasty founded by Alauddin Husain Shah, which saw the extension of the sultanate to the port of Chittagong, witnessing the arrival of the earliest Portuguese merchants.

After being absorbed to the Bengal Subah by Babur in the 16th century during the defeat of Sultan Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah in the Battle of Ghaghra, Bengal became the most economically advanced region in the world,[5][6][7] and started to be ruled by the Subahdars of the Mughal Empire. Emperor Akbar began to preach the newly invented religion of Din-i Ilahi, which was declared by the Qadi of Bengal to be a blasphemy. Islam Khan I declared Dhaka as the capital of Bengal, which was then known as Jahangir Nagar, renamed after emperor Jahangir. The reign of prince Shah Shuja under emperor Shah Jahan's orders represented the height of Mughal architecture. During the period of proto-industrialization, when Bengal was ruled by emperor Aurangzeb's relatives such as Subedar Shaista Khan, Muhammad Azam Shah, and Azim-ush-Shan, the region was fully ruled through Fatwa Alamgiri, a hybrid body of Hanafi law based on sharia and was controversially described as the Paradise of the Nations.[8]

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad ruled over Bengal and Odisha. Nawab Alivardi Khan came victorious against the Maratha Empire in the Battle of Burdwan. Following the Battle of Plassey and the execution of Siraj ud-Daulah, the East India Company formally established control over Bengal, and the Bengal Presidency was established by Robert Clive, with the subdivision remaining the economic, cultural and educational hub of the Company and the Raj.

The position of the Prime Minister of Bengal was established in 1937, being held by A. K. Fazlul Huq and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. After the Indian independence movement and Partition of Bengal (1947), the West Bengal became a major state of the Republic of India, while the Muslim majority East Bengal became known as East Pakistan. In 1971 East Bengal became an independent nation, Bangladesh, following the Bangladesh Liberation War, governed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Ziaur Rahman and Hussain Muhammad Ershad.

Ancient kingdoms of BengalEdit

 
Ancient Political Divisions

Anga Kingdom (2100–1250 BCE)Edit

The first reference to the Anga's is found in the Atharva-Veda where they find mention along with the Magadhas, Gandharis and the Mujavats, apparently as a despised people. The Jaina Prajnapana ranks Angas and Vangas in the first group of Aryan people. It mentions the principal cities of ancient India.[9] It was also a great center of trade and commerce and its merchants regularly sailed to distant Suwanabhumi. Anga was annexed by Magadha in the time of Bimbisara. This was the one and only conquest of Bimbisara

The earliest mention occurs in the Atharvaveda (V.22.14) where they are listed alongside the Magadhas, Gandharis and the Mujavatas, all apparently as a despised people. Puranic texts place the janapadas of the Angas, Kalingas, Vangas, Pundras (or Pundra Kingdom – now some part of Eastern Bihar, West Bengal and Bangladesh), Vidarbhas, and Vindhya-vasis in the Purva-Dakshina division.[10]

List of rulersEdit

Pragjyotisha Kingdom (1870–1550 BCE)Edit

Pragjyotisha was an ancient kingdom that later came to be associated with the historical Kamarupa.[11]

The first mentions of this kingdom are found in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, in the sections not written much earlier than the first century.[12] In the Kishkindha Kanda of the Ramayana, the kingdom is placed near Mount Varaha on the sea[13] and is known as the Kosha-karanam-bhumi ("the country of cocoon rearers").[14][15][16] In Aswamedha-parvan of the Mahabharata, Arjuna faced Vajradatta of Pragjyotisha.[17]

Vanga Kingdom (1500–300 BCE)Edit

Vanga was an ancient kingdom and geopolitical division on the Ganges delta in the Indian subcontinent. The kingdom is one of the namesakes of the Bengal region.[18] It was located in southern Bengal, with the core region including present-day southwestern Bangladesh and southern West Bengal (India). Vanga features prominently in the epics and tales of ancient India as well as in the history of Sri Lanka.

Vanga was probably the center of the Gangaridai Empire mentioned by numerous Greco-Roman writers. The exact capital of ancient Vanga kingdom could not identified. After the rule of Gupta empire, ancient Bengal was divided into two independent states. They were the Gauda Kingdom and Vanga kingdom and archaeologists think that, Kotalipara in present-day Bangladesh was the capital of the independent Vanga kingdom. The religious traditions of the kingdom afflicted with Hinduism.[19]

Pundravardhana Kingdom (1200–300 BCE)Edit

Pundravardhana or Pundra Kingdom (Sanskrit: Puṇḍravardhana), was an ancient kingdom during the Iron Age period in South Asia with a territory that included parts of present-day Rajshahi, Rangpur and Dhaka Divisions of Bangladesh as well as the West Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India.[20][21][22] The capital of the kingdom, then known as Pundranagara (Pundra city), was located at Mahasthangarh in Bogra District in northern Bangladesh.

Suhma Kingdom (900–600 BCE)Edit

Suhma Kingdom was an ancient state during the Late Vedic period on the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. This kingdom was mentioned in the epic Mahabharata along with its neighbouring kingdom Prasuhma.

Samatata kingdom (3rd century BCE −13th century BCE)Edit

Samatata was an ancient geopolitical division of Bengal in the eastern Indian subcontinent. The Greco-Roman account of Sounagoura is linked to the kingdom of Samatata. Its territory corresponded to much of present-day eastern Bangladesh (particularly Dhaka Division, Sylhet Division, Barisal Division and Chittagong Division). The area covers the trans-Meghna part of the Bengal delta. It was a center of Buddhist civilisation before the resurgence of Hinduism and Muslim conquest in the region.

Archaeological evidence in the Wari-Bateshwar ruins, particularly punch-marked coins, indicate that Samatata was a province of the Mauryan Empire. The region attained a distinct Buddhist identity following the collapse of Mauryan rule. The Allahabad pillar inscriptions of the Indian emperor Samudragupta describe Samatata as a tributary state.

Samatata gained prominence as an independent kingdom during the reigns of the Khadga dynasty and Chandra dynasty between the 7th and 9th centuries. During this period, the rulers of Samatata also reigned over parts of Arakan, Tripura and Assam. Chinese travellers provide an elaborate description of the kingdom during the 7th century. Xuanzang visited the kingdom.

Harikela Kingdom (3rd century BCE −15th century BCE)Edit

Harikela was a kingdom in ancient Bengal encompassing much of the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent and Arakan. There are numerous references to the kingdom in historical texts as well as archeological artifacts including silver coinage.

Yiling in the seventh century mentions kingdom of Ali-ki-lo or Harikela. The kingdom was ruled by the Chandra dynasty during the 10th century CE. They were overthrown by the Varman Dynasty, who were in turn overthrown by the Deva dynasty. In the 17th century the Mughal Empire absorbed and brought Harikela under the province of Bengal.[23]

Magadha Empire in BengalEdit

 
Magadha

Brihadratha dynasty (.c 1700 – 682 BCE)Edit

(founder of Brihadratha dynasty)

(Greatest King of Brihadratha dynasty)

(son of Jarasandha)

  • Somadhi (1661–1603 BCE)
  • Srutasravas (1603–1539 BCE)
  • Ayutayus (1539–1503 BCE)
  • Niramitra (1503–1463 BCE)
  • Sukshatra (1463–1405 BCE)
  • Brihatkarman ( 1405–1382 BCE)
  • Senajit ( 1382–1332 BCE)
  • Srutanjaya ( 1332–1292 BCE)
  • Vipra (1292–1257 BCE)
  • Suchi (1257–1199 BCE)
  • Kshemya (1199–1171 BCE)
  • Subrata (1171–1107BCE)
  • Dharma ( 1107–1043 BCE)
  • Susuma (1008–970 BCE)
  • Dridhasena (970–912 BCE)
  • Sumati (912–879 BCE)
  • Subala (879–857 BCE)
  • Sunita (857–817 BCE)
  • Satyajit (817–767 BCE)
  • Viswajit (767–732 BCE)
  • Ripunjaya (732–682 BCE),

(Ripunjaya last king of Brihadratha dynasty, killed by his minister Pulika, Pradyota was son of Pulika.)

Pradyota dynasty (c. 682–544 BCE)Edit

(682–659 BCE)

  • Palaka

(659–635 BCE)

  • Visakhayupa

(635–585 BCE)

  • Ajaka

(585–564 BCE)

  • Varttivarddhana

(564–544 BCE)

Haryanka dynasty (c. 544–413 BCE)Edit

(461–428 BCE)

  • Anirudha

(428–419 BCE)

  • Munda

(419–417 BCE)

  • Darshaka

(417–415 BCE)

(415–413 BCE) (last ruler of the Haryanka dynasty)

Shishunaga dynasty (c. 413–345 BCE)Edit

(395–377 BCE)

  • Kshemadharman

(377–365 BCE)

  • Kshatraujas

(365–355 BCE)

  • Nandivardhana

(355–349 BCE)

  • Mahanandin (349–345 BCE),his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda

Nanda dynasty (345–322 BCE)Edit

Maurya dynasty (322–185 BCE)Edit

Shunga dynasty (185–73 BCE)Edit

Kanva dynasty (73–43 BCE)Edit

Gupta Empire (240–600 CE )Edit

Classical eraEdit

Chandra Kingdom (6th century BCE–1050 CE)Edit

The Chandra Kingdom was a Kayastha kingdom, originating from the Indian subcontinent, which ruled the Samatata region of Bengal, as well as northern Arakan. Later it was a neighbor to the Pala Empire to the north. Rulers of Chandra kingdom were followers of Sanatan dharma.

The reign of the dynasty was-

  • Early or Ancient period from (500 BCE–200 CE)
  • Middle or Imperial period from (200–750 CE)
  • Later or Harikela dynasty from (900–1050 CE)

List of rulersEdit

List of Chandra dynasty rulers
# King Period Reign (CE)
Unknown Name 70
Unknown Name 50
Bahubali chandra 55 5th century BCE
Raghupati chandra 60 5th & 4th century BCE
1 Chandrodaya 27 202–229
2 Annaveta 5 229–234
3 ?? 77 234–311
4 Rimbhiappa 23 311–334
5 Kuverami (Queen) 7 334–341
6 Umavira (Queen) 20 341–361
7 Jugna 7 361–368
8 Lanki 2 368–370
9 Dvenchandra 55 370–425
10 Rajachandra 20 425–445
11 Kalachandra 9 445–454
12 Devachandra 22 454–476
13 Yajnachandra 7 476–483
14 Chandrabandu 6 483–489
15 Bhumichandra 7 489–496
16 Bhutichandra 24 496–520
17 Nitichandra (Queen) 55 520–575
18 Virachandra 3 575–578
19 Pritichandra (Queen) 12 578-90
20 Prithvichandra 7 590–597
21 Dhirtichandra 3 597–600
22 Mahavira 12 600-12
23 Virayajap 12 612-24
24 Sevinren 12 624-36
25 Dharmasura 13 636-49
26 Vajrashakti 16 649-65
27 Dharmavijaya 36 665–701
28 Narendravijaya 2 yr 9 months 701–703
29 Dharmachandra 16 703–720
30 Anandachandra 9+ 720-729+
Harikela Dynasty
1 Traillokyachandra 30 900–930
2 Srichandra 45 930–975
3 Kalyanachandra 25 975–1000
4 Ladahachandra 20 1000–1020
5 Govindachandra 30 1020–1050

Gauda Kingdom (4th century–626)Edit

Pushyabhuti dynasty (606–647)Edit

  • Harshavardhana (606–647), unified Northern India and ruled it for over 40 years, he was the last non-Muslim emperor to rule a unified Northern India

Khadga dynasty (625–730 CE)Edit

Titular Name Reign Notes
Khadgodyama (খড়্গদ্যোম) 625-640 Father of Jatakhadga
Jatakhadga (জাতখড়্গ) 640-658 Father of Devakhadga
Devakhadga (দেবখড়্গ) 658-673 Queen Prabhavati (প্রভাবতী)
Rajabhatta (রাজভট্ট) 673-707 Son of Devakhadga
Balabhata (বলভট্ট) 707-716 Son of Devakhadga
Udirnakhadga (উদীর্ণখড়্গ) ??

Bhadra dynasty (6th–7th century)Edit

The Bhadra dynasty was a South Asian royal house of Brahmin origin, their rule flourished during the first half of the 7th century, though little is known about their history. The kings of the dynasty bore names with the suffix "Bhadra".

List of rulersEdit

Mallabhum Kingdom (694 – 1947 CE)Edit

Name of the king[24][25] Reign Notes
Adi Malla 694–710
Jay Malla 710–720
Benu Malla 720–733
Kinu Malla 733–742
Indra Malla 742–757
Kanu Malla 757–764
Dha (Jhau) Malla 764–775
Shur Malla 775–795
Kanak Malla 795–807
Kandarpa Malla 807–828
Sanatan Malla 828–841
Kharga Malla 841–862
Durjan (Durjay) Malla 862–906
Yadav Malla 906–919
Jagannath Malla 919–931
Birat Malla 931–946
Mahadev Malla 946–977
Durgadas Malla 977–994
Jagat Malla 994–1007
Ananta Malla 1007–1015
Rup Malla 1015=1029
Sundar Malla 1029–1053
Kumud Malla 1053–1074
Krishna Malla 1074–1084
Rup II (Jhap) Malla 1084–1097
Prakash Malla 1097–1102
Pratap Malla 1102–1113
Sindur Malla 1113–1129
Sukhomoy(Shuk) Malla 1129–1142
Banamali Malla 1142–1156
Yadu/Jadu Malla 1156–1167
Jiban Malla 1167–1185
Ram Malla 1185=1209
Gobinda Malla 1209–1240
Bhim Malla 1240–1263
Katar(Khattar) Malla 1263–1295
Prithwi Malla 1295 -1319
Tapa Malla 1319–1334
Dinabandhu Malla 1334–1345
Kinu/Kanu II Malla 1345–1358
Shur Malla II 1358–1370
Shiv Singh Malla 1370–1407
Madan Malla 1407–1420
Durjan II (Durjay) Malla 1420–1437
Uday Malla 1437–1460
Chandra Malla 1460–1501
Bir Malla 1501–1554
Dhari Malla 1554–1565
Hambir Malla Dev (Bir Hambir) 1565–1620
Dhari Hambir Malla Dev 1620–1626
Raghunath Singha Dev 1626–1656
Bir Singha Dev 1656–1682
Durjan Singha Dev 1682–1702
Raghunath Singha Dev II 1702–1712
Gopal Singha Dev 1712–1748
Chaitanya Singha Dev 1748–1801
Madhav Singha Dev 1801–1809
Gopal Singha Dev II 1809–1876
Ramkrishna Singha Dev 1876–1885
Dwhaja Moni Devi 1885–1889
Nilmoni Singha Dev 1889–1903
Churamoni Devi (Regency) 1903–1930
Kalipada Singha Thakur 1930–1947

Post-Classical eraEdit

Pala Empire (750–1050 CE)Edit

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine.[26] Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[27]

RC Majumdar (1971)[28] AM Chowdhury (1967)[29] BP Sinha (1977)[30][failed verification] DC Sircar (1975–76)[31] D. K. Ganguly (1994)[26]
Gopala I 750–770 756–781 755–783 750–775 750–774
Dharmapala 770–810 781–821 783–820 775–812 774–806
Devapala 810–c. 850 821–861 820–860 812–850 806–845
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.) 845–860
Shurapala I 850–853 861–866 860–865 850–858 860–872
Vigrahapala I 858–60 872–873
Narayanapala 854–908 866–920 865–920 860–917 873–927
Rajyapala 908–940 920–952 920–952 917–952 927–959
Gopala II 940–957 952–969 952–967 952–972 959–976
Vigrahapala II 960–c. 986 969–995 967–980 972–977 976–977
Mahipala I 988–c. 1036 995–1043 980–1035 977–1027 977–1027
Nayapala 1038–1053 1043–1058 1035–1050 1027–1043 1027–1043
Vigrahapala III 1054–1072 1058–1075 1050–1076 1043–1070 1043–1070
Mahipala II 1072–1075 1075–1080 1076–1078/9 1070–1071 1070–1071
Shurapala 1075–1077 1080–1082 1071–1072 1071–1072
Ramapala 1077–1130 1082–1124 1078/9–1132 1072–1126 1072–1126
Kumarapala 1130–1125 1124–1129 1132–1136 1126–1128 1126–1128
Gopala III 1140–1144 1129–1143 1136–1144 1128–1143 1128–1143
Madanapala 1144–1162 1143–1162 1144–1161/62 1143–1161 1143–1161
Govindapala 1155–1159 NA 1162–1176 or 1158–1162 1161–1165 1161–1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165–1199 1165–1200

Note:[27]

  • Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
  • AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
  • According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Chola dynasty (ruled Bengal from 1000–1024 CE)Edit

Sena dynasty (1070–1230)Edit

Deva dynasty (1150–1281)Edit

Delhi Sultanates eraEdit

Khalji dynasty under Delhi (1204–1227)Edit

The Khalji governors of Bengal were at times independent, and at times subordinate to the Delhi Sultanate.

Name Reign Notes
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji 1204–1206 Began the Khalji dynasty
Muhammad Shiran Khalji 1206–1208
Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah Khalji 1208–1210
Ali Mardan Khalji 1210–1212
Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah Khalji 1212–1227 second term as Husamuddin Iwaj Khalji, killed for gaining independence from Sultan of Delhi Iltutmish
Nasiruddin Mahmud 1227–1229 Not from the Khalji tribe, appointed by his father Iltutmish
Alauddin Daulat Shah Khalji 1229–1230[32]
Malik Balkha Khalji 1230–1231 Last Khalji ruler

Governors of Bengal under Mamluk Sultanate (1227–1281)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Alauddin Jani 1232–1233
Saifuddin Aibak 1233–1236
Awar Khan Aibak 1236 Usurper
Tughral Tughan Khan 1236–1246 Restored Mamluk governor
Tughlaq Tamar Khan 1246–1247
Jalaluddin Masud Jani 1247–1251
Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Iuzbak 1251–1257 Claimed independence.
Ijjauddin Balban Iuzbaki 1257–1259
Tatar Khan 1259–1268 Claimed independence.
Sher Khan 1268–1272
Amin Khan 1272–1272
Tughral Tughan Khan 1272–1281 Second term as Mughisuddin Tughral
Nasiruddin Bughra Khan 1281–1287 Governor of Lakhnauti

Balban dynasty (Independent Lakhnauti kingdom)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Bughra Khan 1287–1291 Declared independence
Rukunuddin Kaikaus 1291–1300 First Muslim ruler to conquer Satgaon kingdom, expanding Lakhnauti.
Shamsuddin Firoz Shah 1300–1322 First Muslim ruler to conquer Sonargaon, Mymensingh and Srihatta. Completed Kaikaus' Conquest of Satgaon.
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah 1322–1324 Lost independence of Bengal to Delhi Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

Governors of Bengal under Tughlaq Sultanate (1324–1339)Edit

Name Region Reign Notes
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah Sonargaon 1324–1328 Appointed as governor by Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq, but later declared independence
Bahram Khan Sonargaon 1328–1338
Qadar Khan Lakhnauti 1328–1336
Mukhlis Lakhnauti 1336–1339
Azam Khan Satgaon 1324–1328
Izzuddin Yahya Satgaon 1328–1339

Bengal Sultanate eraEdit

Independent Sultans of Bengal during Tughlaq Sultanate (1338–1352)Edit

Name Region Reign Notes
Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah Sonargaon 1338–1349 First independent ruler of Sonargaon
Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah Sonargaon 1349–1352
Ilyas Shah Satgaon 1339–1342
Alauddin Ali Shah Lakhnauti 1339–1342
Ilyas Shah Lakhnauti and Satgaon 1342–1352

Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1352–1414)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 1352–1358 Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal comprising Sonargaon, Satgaon and Lakhnauti.
Sikandar Shah 1358–1390 Killed in battle with his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah 1390–1411
Saifuddin Hamza Shah 1411–1412
Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah 1412–1414

House of Raja Ganesha (1414–1435)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Raja Ganesha 1414–1415
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1415–1416 Son of Raja Ganesha and converted into Islam
Raja Ganesha 1416–1418 Second Phase
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1418–1433 Second Phase
Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 1433–1435

Mahmud Shahi dynasty (1435–1487)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah 1435–1459
Rukunuddin Barbak Shah 1459–1474
Shamssuddin Yusuf Shah 1474–1481
Sikandar Shah II 1481
Jalaaluddin Fateh Shah 1481–1487

Habshi rule (1487–1494)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Shahzada Barbak 1487
Saifuddin Firuz Shah 1487–1489
Mahmud Shah II 1489–1490
Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah 1490–1494

Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494–1538)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Alauddin Hussain Shah 1494–1518
Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah 1518–1533
Alauddin Firuz Shah 1533
Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah 1533–1538

Governors of Bengal under Suri Empire (1532–1556)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Sher Shah Suri 1532–1538 Defeated Mughals and became the ruler of Delhi in 1540.
Khidr Khan 1538–1541
Qazi Fazilat 1541–1545
Muhammad Khan Sur 1545–1554
Shahbaz Khan 1555

Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554–1564)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Muhammad Khan Sur 1554–1555 Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah
Khizr Khan Suri 1555–1561
Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah 1561–1563
Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah III 1563–1564[33]

Karrani dynasty (1564–1576)Edit

Name Reign Notes
Taj Khan Karrani 1564–1566
Sulaiman Khan Karrani 1566–1572
Bayazid Khan Karrani 1572
Daud Khan Karrani 1572–1576

Mughal Subahdars of Bengal Subah (1565–1717)Edit

During the reign of AkbarEdit

Name Reign Notes
Munim Khan 1574–1575 Khan-i-Khanan
Hussain Quli Khan 1575–1578
Muzaffar Khan Turbati 1579–1580
Mirza Aziz Koka 1582–1583
Wazir Khan Tajik 1583–1583
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh 1583–1585
Sadiq Khan 1585–1586
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh 1586–1587
Sa'id Khan 1587–1594
Raja Man Singh I 1597 – 1606[34]

During the reign of JahangirEdit

Name Reign Notes
Qutubuddin Koka 2 Sep 1606 – 1607 killed in a battle against Sher Afghan. (Local history of Burdwan, West Bengal, India says that Qutub-ud-din Kokah died in a battle against Ali Quli Istajlu alias Sher Afgan in 1610 CE. The tomb where both of them were buried is presently under the surveillance of Archaeological Survey of India.)
Jahangir Quli Beg 1607–1608 In early life, a slave of Akbar's brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim
Islam Khan Chishti 1608–1613 first governor to transfer the Bengal capital to Dhaka in April 1612
Qasim Khan Chishti 1613–1617 younger brother of Islam Khan Chishti
Ibrahim Khan Fath-i-Jang 1617–1624 died in an attack by Prince Shahjahan
Mahabat Khan 1625–1626
Mukarram Khan 1626–1627
Fidai Khan 1627–1628

During the reign of Shah JahanEdit

Name Reign Notes
Qasim Khan Juvayni 1628–1632
Mir Muhammad Baqir 1632–1635 Known as Azam Khan
Mir Abdus Salam 1635–1639 Known as Islam Khan Mashadi
Prince Shah Shuja 1639–1647 again 1652–1660

During the reign of AurangzebEdit

Name Reign Notes
Mir Jumla II 1660–1663
Shaista Khan 1664–1678
Azam Khan Koka 1678–1678 Known as Fidai Khan II
Prince Muhammad Azam 20 July 1678 – 6 October 1679[35]
Shaista Khan 1680–1688
Ibrahim Khan II 1689–1697
Prince Azim-us-Shan 1697–1712

Later Hindu dynasties in BengalEdit

Maharaja of Lower Bengal regionEdit

Maharajas of BhurshutEdit

Maharajas of Koch Behar (Cooch Behar State) (1586–1947 CE)Edit

  • 1586 – 1621 Lakshmi Narayan
  • 1621 – 1626 Bir Narayan
  • 1626 – 1665 Pran Narayan
  • 1665 – 1680 Madan Narayan
  • 1680 – 1682 Basudev Narayan
  • 1682 – 1693 Mahendra Narayan
  • 1693 – 1714 Rup Narayan (died 1714)
  • 1714 – 1763 Upendra Narayana (died 1763)
  • 1763 – 12 August 1765 Debendra Narayana (1759–1765)
  • 1763 – 12 August 1765 .... -Regent
  • 1765 – 1770 Dhairjendra Narayan (1st time) (died 1783)
  • 1770 – 1772 Rajendra I Narayan (died 1772)
  • 1770 – 1772 Pensuthma -Bhutanese Regent
  • 1772 Dharendra Narayan (1st time) (died 1775)
  • 1772 – 1774 Bijendra Narayan (died 1774)
  • 1774 – 1775 Dharendra Narayan (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1775 – 1783 Dhairjendra Narayan (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1783 – 29 May 1839 Harendra Narayan (1780–1839)
  • 1783 – 1801 .... -Regents
  • 1836 – 1839 Bajendra Narayan -Regent (1st time) (died 1857)
  • 29 May 1839 – 23 August 1847 Shivendra Narayan (1796–1847)
  • 23 August 1847 – 6 August 1863 Narendra Narayan (1841–1863) (personal style Maharaja from 1862)
  • 30 March 1847 – 1857 Bajendra Narayan -Regent (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1857 – 1860 Regents
    • – Maharani Vrisundeshwari (f)
    • – Maharani Kameshwari (f) (died 1889)
  • 6 August 1863 – 16 October 1884 Nripendra Narayan (1862–1911) (personal style Maharaja from 25 February 1880)
  • 6 August 1863 – 8 November 1883 Regents
    • – Maharani Kameswari (f) (s.a.)
    • – Maharani Vrisundeshwari (f)
    • Raja Ram Bahadur Singh
    • – Maharani Nistarini Deo (f)
Name Reign Image Notes
Nripendra Narayan 16 October 1884 – 18 September 1911  
Rajendra II Narayan 18 September 1911 – 1 September 1913
Jitendra Narayan 1 September 1913 – 20 December 1922  
Jagaddipendra Narayan 20 December 1922 – 15 August 1947  

Maharajas of Jessore KingdomEdit

Maharajas of NadiaEdit

Maharajas of ChandradwipEdit

Many illustrious Maharajas ruled much of East Bengal and the Sundarbans and conquered Jessore Their surname was Basu – they came to Bengal during the Sena Dynasty to conquer the Palas and take over from them. A famous literary novel was written about the Chandradwip Basu family by Tagore called Bou Thakuranis Haat and a film was made from this book.

Bhawal EstateEdit

Rulers of Gazipur and Madhupur forest area, in central Bangladesh.

Independent Nawabs of BengalEdit

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Nasiri Dynasty
  Ala ud-Daula Murshid Quli Jafar Khan 1665 1717– 1727 30 June 1727
  Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 1727–1727 April 1740
  Shuja ud-Daula Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan 1670 July 1727 – 26 August 1739 26 August 1739
  Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 13 March 1739 – April 1740 April 1740
Afshar Dynasty
  Husam ud-Daula Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur 10 May 1671 29 April 1740 – 16 April 1756 16 April 1756
  Siraj ud-Daulah Mîrzâ Muhammad Sirâj-ud-Daulah 1733 April 1756 – 2 June 1757 June 1757

Nawabs of Bengal under British EmpireEdit

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Najafi Dynasty
  Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 June 1757 – October 1760 17 January 1765
  Itimad ud-Daulah Mir Kasim Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1760–1763 1777
  Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 25 July 1763 – 17 January 1765 17 January 1765
  Nazam-ud-Daulah Najimuddin Ali Khan 1750 5 February 1765 – 8 May 1766 8 May 1766
  Saif ud-Daulah Najabut Ali Khan 1749 22 May 1766 – 10 March 1770 10 March 1770
  Ashraf Ali Khan Before 1759 10 March 1770 – 24 March 1770 24 March 1770
  Mubarak ud-Daulah Mubarak Ali Khan 1759 21 March 1770 – 6 September 1793 6 September 1793
  Azud ud-Daulah Babar Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1793 – 28 April 1810 28 April 1810
  Ali Jah Zain-ud-Din Ali Khan ? 5 June 1810 – 6 August 1821 6 August 1821
  Walla Jah Ahmad Ali Khan ? 1810 – 30 October 1824 30 October 1824
  Humayun Jah Mubarak Ali Khan II 29 September 1810 1824 – 3 October 1838 3 October 1838
  Feradun Jah Mansur Ali Khan 29 October 1830 29 October 1838 –1881 (abdicated) 5 November 1884

Nawabs of MurshidabadEdit

Picture Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Najafi Dynasty
  Ali Kadir Syed Hassan Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 25 August 1846 17 February 1882 – 25 December 1906 25 December 1906[36]
  Amir ul-Omrah Syed Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 7 January 1875 December 1906 – 23 October 1959 23 October 1959[37]
  Raes ud-Daulah Syed Waris Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 14 November 1901 23 October 1959 – 20 November 1969 20 November 1969[38]
N/A N/A Disputed/In abeyance[39][40] N/A 20 November 1969 – 13 August 2014 N/A
  N/A Syed Mohammed Abbas Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur Circa 1942 13 August 2014 – Present(titular)[39][40] N/A

East India Company governors in BengalEdit

Governors of British East India Company in Bengal (1757–1793)Edit

As per the treaty of Allahabad in 1765, the British East India Company (BEIC) was given the right to collect revenue (Diwani right). From 1769, the company collected revenue from Bengal.

Governors-General of British East India Company in Bengal – Dual government (1773–1774)Edit

Following the Regulating Act of 1773, the Governor of Bengal was officially called Governor-General of Fort William.

Governors-General of British East India Company in Bengal (1793–1854)Edit

In 1793, the British East India Company abolished Nizamat, i.e. local rule by Mughal emperor- appointed Nawabs and annexed Bengal.

Governor-Generals of British East India Company (1833–1858)Edit

As per Charter Act of 1833, the Governor-General of Bengal would be called Governor-General of India

British Raj eraEdit

 
1855 British Bengal missions
 
1880 British Bengal province

With the establishment of the Empire of India in 1858, the position of Governor-General was replaced with Governor-General and Viceroy of India. Calcutta, the capital of Bengal also became the capital of India. As a result, the position of Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal was established to look after provincial matters.

Lieutenant-Governors (1858–1912)Edit

Governors (1912–1947)Edit

In late 1911, the Indian Government decided to move the capital to New Delhi. As a result, the Governorship of Bengal Presidency was now necessary.

Name Took office Left office
Thomas Gibson-Carmichael, 1st Baron Carmichael 1912 1917
Lawrence Dundas, Earl of Ronaldshay 1917 1922
Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton 1922 1927
Sir Stanley Jackson 1927 1932
Sir John Anderson 1932 1937
Michael Knatchbull, 5th Baron Brabourne 1937 1938
Sir John Arthur Herbert 1939 1943
Richard Casey 1944 1946
Sir Frederick Burrows 1946 1947

Prime Minister of Bengal (1937–1947)Edit

The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy in India and the position of Chief Minister or Premier of Bengal became very prominent.

Office holdersEdit

 
Writer's Building in Kolkata, the former seat of the Government of undivided Bengal
 
The mausoleum of Huq, Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy in Dhaka
No Name Image Term(s)[41] Party Governor Viceroy
1 Sher-e-Bangla
A. K. Fazlul Huq
  1 April 1937 – 1 December 1941
12 December 1941 – 29 March 1943
Krishak Praja Party Sir John Arthur Herbert The Marquess of Linlithgow
2 Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin   29 April 1943 – 31 March 1945 Bengal Provincial Muslim League Sir John Arthur Herbert (−1944)
Sir Richard Casey (1944–)
The Marquess of Linlithgow
The Viscount Wavell
3 H. S. Suhrawardy   23 April 1946 – 14 August 1947 Bengal Provincial Muslim League Sir Richard Casey (−1946)
Sir Frederick Burrows
The Viscount Wavell
Earl Mountbatten

Subsequently, all three Bengali chief ministers moved to East Pakistan, where they continued to be influential statesmen. Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy became Prime Ministers of Pakistan, while Huq served as the Chief Minister and Governor of East Pakistan.

After Independence of India and PakistanEdit

British colonial period ended when India and Pakistan became independent nations in 1947. Bengal fell into two parts – one in India, named West Bengal and the other part in Pakistan as East Bengal, later renamed to East Pakistan in 1955.

Pakistani (east) Bengal (1947–1971)Edit

Governors of East Bengal (1947–1955)Edit

Tenure Governor of East Bengal[citation needed]
15 August 1947 – 31 March 1950 Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne
31 March 1950 – 31 March 1953 Sir Feroz Khan Noon
31 March 1953 – 29 May 1954 Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman
29 May 1954 – May 1955 Iskandar Ali Mirza
May 1955 – June 1955 Muhammad Shahabuddin (acting)
June 1955 – 14 October 1955 Amiruddin Ahmad

Chief Minister of East Bengal (1947–1955)Edit

Tenure Chief Minister of East Bengal Political Party
August 1947 – September 1948 Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin Muslim League
September 1948 – April 1954 Nurul Amin Muslim League
April 1954 – 1955 Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq United Front

Governors of East Pakistan (1955–1971)Edit

In late 1954, the prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra initiated the One Unit policy which resulted in East Bengal province being renamed to East Pakistan.

Tenure Governor of East Pakistan[citation needed] Political Affiliation
14 October 1955 – March 1956 Amiruddin Ahmad Muslim League
March 1956 – 13 April 1958 A. K. Fazlul Huq Muslim League
13 April 1958 – 3 May 1958 Hamid Ali (acting) Awami League
3 May 1958 – 10 October 1958 Sultanuddin Ahmad Awami League
10 October 1958 – 11 April 1960 Zakir Husain Muslim League
11 April 1960 – 11 May 1962 Lieutenant-General Azam Khan, PA Military Administration
11 May 1962 – 25 October 1962 Ghulam Faruque Independent
25 October 1962 – 23 March 1969 Abdul Monem Khan Civil Administration
23 March 1969 – 25 March 1969 Mirza Nurul Huda Civil Administration
25 March 1969 – 23 August 1969 Major-General Muzaffaruddin,[42] PA Military Administration
23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PA Military Administration
1 September 1969 – 7 March 1971 Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, PN Military Administration
7 March 1971 – 6 April 1971 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PA Military Administration
6 April 1971 – 31 August 1971 Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, PA Military Administration
31 August 1971 – 14 December 1971 Abdul Motaleb Malik Independent
14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971 Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, PA Military Administration

Chief Minister of East Pakistan (1955–1971)Edit

Tenure Chief Minister of East Pakistan Political Party
August 1955 – September 1956 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
September 1956 – March 1958 Ataur Rahman Khan Awami League
March 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
March 1958 – 18 June 1958 Ataur Rahman Khan Awami League
18 June 1958 – 22 June 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
22 June 1958 – 25 August 1958 Governor's Rule
25 August 1958 – 7 October 1958 Ataur Rahman Khan Awami League

On 7 October 1958, the post of Chief Minister of East Pakistan was abolished. And after the independence of Bangladesh on 16 December 1971, the Province of East Pakistan was dissolved.

Indian (West) Bengal (1947–present)Edit

Governors of West BengalEdit

Sl. No. Name Took office Left office
1 Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari 15 August 1947 21 June 1948
2 Kailash Nath Katju 21 June 1948 1 November 1951
3 Harendra Coomar Mookerjee 1 November 1951 8 August 1956
4 Phani Bhusan Chakravartti 8 August 1956 3 November 1956
5 Padmaja Naidu 3 November 1956 1 June 1967
6 Dharma Vira 1 June 1967 1 April 1969
7 Deep Narayan Sinha (acting) 1 April 1969 19 September 1969
8 Shanti Swaroop Dhavan 19 September 1969 21 August 1971
9 Anthony Lancelot Dias 21 August 1971 6 November 1979
10 Tribhuvana Narayana Singh 6 November 1979 12 September 1981
11 Bhairab Dutt Pande 12 September 1981 10 October 1983
12 Anant Prasad Sharma 10 October 1983 16 August 1984
13 Satish Chandra (acting) 16 August 1984 1 October 1984
14 Uma Shankar Dikshit 1 October 1984 12 August 1986
15 Saiyid Nurul Hasan 12 August 1986 20 March 1989
16 T. V. Rajeswar 20 March 1989 7 February 1990
17 Saiyid Nurul Hasan 7 February 1990 12 July 1993
18 B. Satyanarayan Reddy (additional charge) 13 July 1993 14 August 1993
18 K. V. Raghunatha Reddy 14 August 1993 27 April 1998
20 Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai 27 April 1998 18 May 1999
21 Shyamal Kumar Sen 18 May 1999 4 December 1999
22 Viren J. Shah 4 December 1999 14 December 2004
23 Gopalkrishna Gandhi 14 December 2004 14 December 2009
24 Devanand Konwar (additional charge) 14 December 2009 23 January 2010
25 M.K. Narayanan 24 January 2010 30 June 2014
26 D. Y. Patil (acting charge)[43] 3 July 2014 17 July 2014
27 Keshari Nath Tripathi 24 July 2014 29 July 2019
28 Jagdeep Dhankhar[44] 30 July 2019 Incumbent

Chief Ministers of West BengalEdit

Key: INC
Indian National Congress
BC (UF)
Bangla Congress (United Front)
CPI(M)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
AITC
All India Trinamool Congress
# Name Took Office Left Office Political Party
1 Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 15 August 1947 14 January 1948 INC
2 Bidhan Chandra Roy 14 January 1948 1 July 1962 INC
President's rule 1 July 1962 8 July 1962
3 Prafulla Chandra Sen 8 July 1962 15 March 1967 INC
4 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 15 March 1967 2 November 1967 BC (UF)
(1) Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 2 November 1967 20 February 1968 Independent (Progressive Democratic Alliance)
President's rule 20 February 1968 25 February 1969
(4) Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 25 February 1969 19 March 1970 BC (UF)
President's rule 19 March 1970 2 April 1971
(4) Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 2 April 1971 28 June 1971 INC
President's rule 28 June 1971 19 March 1972
5 Siddhartha Shankar Ray 19 March 1972 21 June 1977 INC
6 Jyoti Basu 21 June 1977 6 November 2000 CPI(M) (Left Front)
7 Buddhadeb Bhattacharya 6 November 2000 13 May 2011 CPI(M) (Left Front)
8 Mamata Banerjee 20 May 2011 Incumbent AITC

After independence of BangladeshEdit

East Pakistan seceded from West Pakistan on 16 December 1971 after the end of Bangladesh Liberation War and was named Bangladesh as an independent nation.

The President was the executive Head of state of Bangladesh during Presidential system of government from 1975 to 1991. Thereafter, the Prime Minister is the executive head of government of this parliamentary republic while the President is the ceremonial Head of state, elected by the parliament.

KeyEdit

Political parties
Other factions
Status
  •   Acting President

PresidentsEdit

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Elected Term of office Time in office Party
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)[a]
  17 April 1971 12 January 1972 270 days Bangladesh Awami League
Syed Nazrul Islam
(1925–1975)[b]
  17 April 1971 12 January 1972 270 days Bangladesh Awami League
Abu Sayeed Chowdhury
(1921–1987)
12 January 1972 24 December 1973 1 year, 346 days Bangladesh Awami League
Mohammad Mohammadullah
(1921–1999)
  24 December 1973 27 January 1974 1 year, 32 days Bangladesh Awami League
1974 27 January 1974 25 January 1975
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)
  25 January 1975 15 August 1975
(assassinated in a coup d'état.)
202 days BAKSAL
Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
(1918–1996)
15 August 1975 6 November 1975
(deposed.)
83 days Bangladesh Awami League
Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem
(1916–1997)[c]
  6 November 1975 21 April 1977 1 year, 166 days Bangladesh Awami League
Ziaur Rahman
(1936–1981)[d]
  1977[e]
1978[f]
21 April 1977 30 May 1981
(assassinated.)
4 years, 39 days Military /
Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Abdus Sattar
(1906–1985)
  30 May 1981 20 November 1981 298 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
1981[f] 20 November 1981 24 March 1982
(deposed.)
Post vacant (24 – 27 March 1982)[g]
Ahsanuddin Chowdhury
(1915–2001)
27 March 1982 10 December 1983 1 year, 258 days Independent
Hussain Muhammad Ershad
(1930–2019)[h]
  1985[e]
1986[f]
11 December 1983 6 December 1990 6 years, 360 days Military /
Jatiya Party
Shahabuddin Ahmed
(born 1930)
  6 December 1990 10 October 1991 308 days Independent
Abdur Rahman Biswas
(1926–2017)
1991 10 October 1991 9 October 1996 4 years, 365 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Shahabuddin Ahmed
(born 1930)
  1996 9 October 1996 14 November 2001 5 years, 36 days Independent
Badruddoza Chowdhury
(born 1932)
  2001 14 November 2001 21 June 2002 219 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Muhammad Jamiruddin Sircar
(born 1931)
  21 June 2002 6 September 2002 77 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Iajuddin Ahmed
(1931–2012)
  2002 6 September 2002 12 February 2009 6 years, 159 days Independent
Zillur Rahman
(1929–2013)
  2009 12 February 2009 20 March 2013
(died in office.)
4 years, 36 days Bangladesh Awami League
Abdul Hamid
(born 1944)[i]
  14 March 2013 24 April 2013 8 years, 192 days Bangladesh Awami League
2013 24 April 2013 24 April 2018
2018 24 April 2018 Incumbent

Prime Ministers of BangladeshEdit

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Election Term of office Tenure Party
Tajuddin Ahmad
(1925–1975)
  11 April 1971 12 January 1972 276 days Bangladesh Awami League
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
(1920–1975)
  1973 12 January 1972 25 January 1975 3 years, 13 days Bangladesh Awami League
Muhammad Mansur Ali
(1919–1975)
  25 January 1975 15 August 1975
(deposed.)
202 days BAKSAL
Post abolished (15 August 1975 – 29 June 1978)
Mashiur Rahman
(1924–1979)[j]
  29 June 1978 12 March 1979
(died in office.)
256 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Shah Azizur Rahman
(1925–1988)
  1979 15 April 1979 24 March 1982
(deposed.)
2 years, 343 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Post abolished (24 March 1982 – 30 March 1984)
Ataur Rahman Khan
(1907–1991)
  30 March 1984 9 July 1986 2 years, 101 days Jatiya Party
Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury
(1928–2006)
  1986 9 July 1986 27 March 1988 1 year, 262 days Jatiya Party
Moudud Ahmed
(born 1940)
  1988 27 March 1988 12 August 1989 1 year, 138 days Jatiya Party
Kazi Zafar Ahmed
(1939–2015)
  12 August 1989 6 December 1990 1 year, 116 days Jatiya Party
Post abolished (6 December 1990 – 20 March 1991)
Khaleda Zia
(born 1945)
  1991
1996 (Feb)
20 March 1991 30 March 1996 5 years, 10 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Muhammad Habibur Rahman
(1928–2014)
  30 March 1996 23 June 1996 85 days Independent
Sheikh Hasina
(born 1947)
  1996 (Jun) 23 June 1996 15 July 2001 5 years, 22 days Bangladesh Awami League
Latifur Rahman
(1936–2017)
  15 July 2001 10 October 2001 87 days Independent
Khaleda Zia
(born 1945)
  2001 10 October 2001 29 October 2006 5 years, 19 days Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Iajuddin Ahmed
(1931–2012)[k]
  29 October 2006 11 January 2007 74 days Independent
Fazlul Haque
(born 1938)[l]
  11 January 2007 12 January 2007 1 day Independent
Fakhruddin Ahmed
(born 1940)
  12 January 2007 6 January 2009 1 year, 360 days Independent
Sheikh Hasina
(born 1947)
  2008
2014
2018
6 January 2009 Incumbent 12 years, 259 days Bangladesh Awami League

See moreEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Pakistani prisoner to 8 January 1972.
  2. ^ Acting for Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
  3. ^ Also Chief Martial Law Administrator (24 August 1975 – 4 November 1975 and 7 November 1975 – 29 November 1976).
  4. ^ Also Chief Martial Law Administrator (29 November 1976 – 6 April 1979).
  5. ^ a b Referendum.
  6. ^ a b c Direct election.
  7. ^ During this period, Chief of Army Staff Lt. Gen. Hussain Muhammad Ershad served as Chief Martial Law Administrator and de facto head of state.
  8. ^ Served as Chief Martial Law Administrator until 30 March 1984.
  9. ^ Acting for Zillur Rahman until 20 March 2013.
  10. ^ Senior Minister.
  11. ^ Simultaneously served as President.
  12. ^ Acting Chief Adviser.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 227–228
  2. ^ Majumdar, Dr. R.C., History of Mediaeval Bengal, First published 1973, Reprint 2006,Tulshi Prakashani, Kolkata, ISBN 81-89118-06-4
  3. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 68–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  4. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals, and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  5. ^ "The paradise of nations | Dhaka Tribune". Archive.dhakatribune.com. 20 December 2014. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  6. ^ M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-98564-9.
  7. ^ Khandker, Hissam (31 July 2015). "Which India is claiming to have been colonised?". The Daily Star (Op-ed).
  8. ^ Lex Heerma van Voss; Els Hiemstra-Kuperus; Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk (2010). "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India". The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000. Ashgate Publishing. p. 255. ISBN 9780754664284.
  9. ^ Digha Nikaya
  10. ^ The Garuda Purana 55.12; V.D. I.9.4; the Markendeya Purana 56.16–18
  11. ^ Mukunda Madhava Sharma (1978),Inscriptions of Ancient Assam, p.221, p.p.366, Department of Publication, Gauhati University
  12. ^ "...the passages in questions may not be much earlier than the first century." (Barpujari 1990, p. 81)
  13. ^ (Barpujari 1990, p. 81)
  14. ^ Sharma,S.K.,Discovery of North-East India, p.315.
  15. ^ Deka, Phani. The Great Indian Corridor in the East, p.63.
  16. ^ M, Mignonette. Society and Economy in North-east India, Volume 2", 2004, p.316.
  17. ^ (Barpujari 1990, p. 81)
  18. ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/West-Bengal#ref486986
  19. ^ Malaẏaśaṅkara Bhaṭṭācārya (2008). Glimpses of Buddhist Bengal. Indian Institute of Oriental Studies & Research. ISBN 978-81-901371-7-1.
  20. ^ Hossain, Md. Mosharraf, Mahasthan: Anecdote to History, 2006, pp. 69–73, Dibyaprakash, 38/2 ka Bangla Bazar, Dhaka, ISBN 984-483-245-4
  21. ^ Ghosh, Suchandra. "Pundravardhana". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
  22. ^ Majumdar, Dr. R.C., History of Ancient Bengal, First published 1971, Reprint 2005, p. 10, Tulshi Prakashani, Kolkata, ISBN 81-89118-01-3.
  23. ^ Ray, Niharranjan (1994). History of the Bengali People. Calcutta: Orient Longman Ltd. p. 84.
  24. ^ Dasgupta, Biswas & Mallik 2009, p. 31-43.
  25. ^ Mallik, Abhaya Pada (1921). History of Bishnupur-Raj: An Ancient Kingdom of West Bengal (the University of Michigan ed.). Calcutta. pp. 128–130. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  26. ^ a b Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1994). Ancient India, History and Archaeology. Abhinav. pp. 33–41. ISBN 978-81-7017-304-5.
  27. ^ a b Susan L. Huntington (1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. pp. 32–39. ISBN 90-04-06856-2.
  28. ^ R. C. Majumdar (1971). History of Ancient Bengal. G. Bharadwaj. p. 161–162.
  29. ^ Abdul Momin Chowdhury (1967). Dynastic history of Bengal, c. 750-1200 CE. Asiatic Society of Pakistan. pp. 272–273.
  30. ^ Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450–1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. pp. 253–. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4.
  31. ^ Dineshchandra Sircar (1975–76). "Indological Notes - R.C. Majumdar's Chronology of the Pala Kings". Journal of Ancient Indian History. IX: 209–10.
  32. ^ Ahmed, ABM Shamsuddin (2012). "Iltutmish". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  33. ^ Encyclopedia Of Bangladesh (Set Of 30 Vols.) By Nagendra Kr. Singh
  34. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1984, reprint 1994). A History of Jaipur, New Delhi: Orient Longman ISBN 81-250-0333-9, pp.86–87
  35. ^ Karim, Abdul (2012). "Muhammad Azam, Prince". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  36. ^ Paul, Gautam. "Murshidabad History – Hassan Ali". murshidabad.net. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  37. ^ Company, East India (1807). Papers Presented to the House of Commons Concerning the Late Nabob of the Carnatic. p. 118.
  38. ^ Paul, Gautam. "Murshidabad History – Waresh Ali". murshidabad.net. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  39. ^ a b Mahato, Sukumar (20 August 2014). "Murshidabad gets a Nawab again, but fight for assets ahead". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  40. ^ a b "Portrait of an accidental Nawab". The Times of India. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 23 August 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  41. ^ "Premier of Bengal". West Bengal Legislative Assembly. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  42. ^ (acting martial law administrator and governor as he was the GOC 14th Infantry Division)
  43. ^ "Dr D y Patil appointed West Bengal's acting Governor". The Economic Times. 3 July 2014.
  44. ^ "Senior Advocate Jagdeep Dhankhar Made West Bengal Governor". 20 July 2019.

SourcesEdit