List of rulers of Bengal
This is a list of rulers of Bengal. For much of its history, Bengal was split up into several independent kingdoms, completely unifying only several times. In ancient times, Bengal consisted of the kingdoms of Pundra, Suhma, Vanga, Samatata and Harikela.
In the 4th century BCE, during the reign of the Nanda Empire, the powerful rulers of Gangaridai sent their forces with the war elephants which led the withdrawal of Alexander the Great from the Indian subcontinent.
As a province of the Mauryan Empire, much of Bengal was part of it except for the far eastern Bengali kingdoms which maintained friendly relationships with Ashoka. The kingdoms of Bengal continued to exist as tributary states before succumbing to the Guptas. With the fall of the Gupta Empire, Bengal was united under a single local ruler, King Shashanka, for the first time. With the collapse of his kingdom, Bengal split up into petty kingdoms once more.
With the rise of Gopala in 750 AD, Bengal was united once more under the Buddhist Pala Empire until the 12th century than being succeeded by the Hindu Chandra dynasty, Sena dynasty and deva dynasty. After them, Bengal was ruled by the Hindu Maharajas of kingdoms such as Chandradwip and Cooch Behar.
After the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Bengal was ruled by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, under whom Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of dawah and number of converts to Islam, which caused the decline of Buddhism. The Islamic Mamluk Sultanate, the Khalji dynasty, the Turko-Indian Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty and the Lodi dynasty ruled Bengal for over 320 years. Notable was Malik Altunia's reign with his wife Razia Sultana, the only female sovereign ruler.
Following Delhi Sultanate's reign, the Bengal Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world, was founded by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, and ruled by the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, succeeded by the Hussain Shahi dynasty founded by Alauddin Husain Shah, which saw the extension of the sultanate to the port of Chittagong, witnessing the arrival of the earliest Portuguese merchants.
After being absorbed to the Bengal Subah by Babur in the 16th century during the defeat of Sultan Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah in the Battle of Ghaghra, Bengal became the most economically advanced region in the world, and started to be ruled by the Subahdars of the Mughal Empire. Emperor Akbar began to preach the newly invented religion of Din-i Ilahi, which was declared by the Qadi of Bengal to be a blasphemy. Islam Khan I declared Dhaka as the capital of Bengal, which was then known as Jahangir Nagar, renamed after emperor Jahangir. The reign of prince Shah Shuja under emperor Shah Jahan's orders represented the height of Mughal architecture. During the period of proto-industrialization, when Bengal was ruled by emperor Aurangzeb's relatives such as Subedar Shaista Khan, Muhammad Azam Shah, and Azim-ush-Shan, the region was fully ruled through Fatwa Alamgiri, a hybrid body of Hanafi law based on sharia and was controversially described as the Paradise of the Nations.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad ruled over Bengal and Odisha. Nawab Alivardi Khan came victorious against the Maratha Empire in the Battle of Burdwan. Following the Battle of Plassey and the execution of Siraj ud-Daulah, the East India Company formally established control over Bengal, and the Bengal Presidency was established by Robert Clive, with the subdivision remaining the economic, cultural and educational hub of the Company and the Raj.
The position of the Prime Minister of Bengal was established in 1937, being held by A. K. Fazlul Huq and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. After the Indian independence movement and Partition of Bengal (1947), the West Bengal became a major state of the Republic of India, while the Muslim majority East Bengal became known as East Pakistan. In 1971 East Bengal became an independent nation, Bangladesh, following the Bangladesh Liberation War, governed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Ziaur Rahman and Hussain Muhammad Ershad.
Ancient kingdoms of BengalEdit
Anga Kingdom (2100–1250 BCE)Edit
The first reference to the Anga's is found in the Atharva-Veda where they find mention along with the Magadhas, Gandharis and the Mujavats, apparently as a despised people. The Jaina Prajnapana ranks Angas and Vangas in the first group of Aryan people. It mentions the principal cities of ancient India. It was also a great center of trade and commerce and its merchants regularly sailed to distant Suwanabhumi. Anga was annexed by Magadha in the time of Bimbisara. This was the one and only conquest of Bimbisara
The earliest mention occurs in the Atharvaveda (V.22.14) where they are listed alongside the Magadhas, Gandharis and the Mujavatas, all apparently as a despised people. Puranic texts place the janapadas of the Angas, Kalingas, Vangas, Pundras (or Pundra Kingdom – now some part of Eastern Bihar, West Bengal and Bangladesh), Vidarbhas, and Vindhya-vasis in the Purva-Dakshina division.
List of rulersEdit
- Anga – (eponymous founder of the kingdom and son of King Vali)
- Vrishaketu – Son. 'Chief of the Angas'.
- Dhatarattha (noted in the Mahabharata).
- Dhadivahana (also noted in the Mahabharata).
- Brahmadatta – Last king of Anga.
Pragjyotisha Kingdom (1870–1550 BCE)Edit
The first mentions of this kingdom are found in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, in the sections not written much earlier than the first century. In the Kishkindha Kanda of the Ramayana, the kingdom is placed near Mount Varaha on the sea and is known as the Kosha-karanam-bhumi ("the country of cocoon rearers"). In Aswamedha-parvan of the Mahabharata, Arjuna faced Vajradatta of Pragjyotisha.
Vanga Kingdom (1500–300 BCE)Edit
Vanga was an ancient kingdom and geopolitical division on the Ganges delta in the Indian subcontinent. The kingdom is one of the namesakes of the Bengal region. It was located in southern Bengal, with the core region including present-day southwestern Bangladesh and southern West Bengal (India). Vanga features prominently in the epics and tales of ancient India as well as in the history of Sri Lanka.
Vanga was probably the center of the Gangaridai Empire mentioned by numerous Greco-Roman writers. The exact capital of ancient Vanga kingdom could not identified. After the rule of Gupta empire, ancient Bengal was divided into two independent states. They were the Gauda Kingdom and Vanga kingdom and archaeologists think that, Kotalipara in present-day Bangladesh was the capital of the independent Vanga kingdom. The religious traditions of the kingdom afflicted with Hinduism.
Pundravardhana Kingdom (1200–300 BCE)Edit
Pundravardhana or Pundra Kingdom (Sanskrit: Puṇḍravardhana), was an ancient kingdom during the Iron Age period in South Asia with a territory that included parts of present-day Rajshahi, Rangpur and Dhaka Divisions of Bangladesh as well as the West Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India. The capital of the kingdom, then known as Pundranagara (Pundra city), was located at Mahasthangarh in Bogra District in northern Bangladesh.
Suhma Kingdom (900–600 BCE)Edit
Suhma Kingdom was an ancient state during the Late Vedic period on the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. This kingdom was mentioned in the epic Mahabharata along with its neighbouring kingdom Prasuhma.
Samatata kingdom (3rd century BCE −13th century BCE)Edit
Samatata was an ancient geopolitical division of Bengal in the eastern Indian subcontinent. The Greco-Roman account of Sounagoura is linked to the kingdom of Samatata. Its territory corresponded to much of present-day eastern Bangladesh (particularly Dhaka Division, Sylhet Division, Barisal Division and Chittagong Division). The area covers the trans-Meghna part of the Bengal delta. It was a center of Buddhist civilisation before the resurgence of Hinduism and Muslim conquest in the region.
Archaeological evidence in the Wari-Bateshwar ruins, particularly punch-marked coins, indicate that Samatata was a province of the Mauryan Empire. The region attained a distinct Buddhist identity following the collapse of Mauryan rule. The Allahabad pillar inscriptions of the Indian emperor Samudragupta describe Samatata as a tributary state.
Samatata gained prominence as an independent kingdom during the reigns of the Khadga dynasty and Chandra dynasty between the 7th and 9th centuries. During this period, the rulers of Samatata also reigned over parts of Arakan, Tripura and Assam. Chinese travellers provide an elaborate description of the kingdom during the 7th century. Xuanzang visited the kingdom.
Harikela Kingdom (3rd century BCE −15th century BCE)Edit
Harikela was a kingdom in ancient Bengal encompassing much of the eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent and Arakan. There are numerous references to the kingdom in historical texts as well as archeological artifacts including silver coinage.
Yiling in the seventh century mentions kingdom of Ali-ki-lo or Harikela. The kingdom was ruled by the Chandra dynasty during the 10th century CE. They were overthrown by the Varman Dynasty, who were in turn overthrown by the Deva dynasty. In the 17th century the Mughal Empire absorbed and brought Harikela under the province of Bengal.
Magadha Empire in BengalEdit
Brihadratha dynasty (.c 1700 – 682 BCE)Edit
(founder of Brihadratha dynasty)
(Greatest King of Brihadratha dynasty)
(son of Jarasandha)
- Somadhi (1661–1603 BCE)
- Srutasravas (1603–1539 BCE)
- Ayutayus (1539–1503 BCE)
- Niramitra (1503–1463 BCE)
- Sukshatra (1463–1405 BCE)
- Brihatkarman ( 1405–1382 BCE)
- Senajit ( 1382–1332 BCE)
- Srutanjaya ( 1332–1292 BCE)
- Vipra (1292–1257 BCE)
- Suchi (1257–1199 BCE)
- Kshemya (1199–1171 BCE)
- Subrata (1171–1107BCE)
- Dharma ( 1107–1043 BCE)
- Susuma (1008–970 BCE)
- Dridhasena (970–912 BCE)
- Sumati (912–879 BCE)
- Subala (879–857 BCE)
- Sunita (857–817 BCE)
- Satyajit (817–767 BCE)
- Viswajit (767–732 BCE)
- Ripunjaya (732–682 BCE),
(Ripunjaya last king of Brihadratha dynasty, killed by his minister Pulika, Pradyota was son of Pulika.)
Pradyota dynasty (c. 682–544 BCE)Edit
- Pradyota Mahasena
Haryanka dynasty (c. 544–413 BCE)Edit
(415–413 BCE) (last ruler of the Haryanka dynasty)
Shishunaga dynasty (c. 413–345 BCE)Edit
- Mahanandin (349–345 BCE),his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda
Nanda dynasty (345–322 BCE)Edit
- Mahapadma Nanda (345-335 BCE), (also known as Ugrasena according to Buddhist texts)
- Dhana Nanda (Agrammes, Xandrammes) (until 322 BCE)
Maurya dynasty (322–185 BCE)Edit
- Chandragupta Maurya (322–298 BCE)
- Bindusara Amitraghata (298–273 BCE)
- Ashoka Vardhana (Ashoka the Great) (268–232 BCE)
- Dasharatha (232–224 BCE)
- Samprati (224–215 BCE)
- Shalishuka (215–202 BCE)
- Devavarman (202–195 BCE)
- Shatadhanvan (195–187 BCE)
- Brihadratha (187–185 BCE)
Shunga dynasty (185–73 BCE)Edit
- Pushyamitra Shunga (185–149 BCE)
- Agnimitra (149–141 BCE)
- Vasujyeshtha (141–131 BCE)
- Vasumitra (131–124 BCE)
- Andhraka (124–122 BCE)
- Pulindaka (122–119 BCE)
- Devabhuti (83–73 BCE)
Kanva dynasty (73–43 BCE)Edit
Gupta Empire (240–600 CE )Edit
- Sri-Gupta I (c. 240–280)
- Ghatotkacha (280–319)
- Chandra Gupta I (320–335)
- Samudra Gupta (335–380)
- Rama Gupta (6 Months)
- Chandra Gupta II (Chandragupta Vikramaditya) (380–413/415)
- Kumara Gupta I (415–455)
- Skanda Gupta (455–467)
- Puru Gupta(467–473)
- Kumara Gupta II (473–476)
- Buddha Gupta (476–495)
- Narasimha Gupta(495–550)
- Kumara Gupta III (500–540)
- Vishnugupta (540–550)
- Vainya Gupta (550–580)
- Bhanu Gupta(580–600)
Chandra Kingdom (6th century BCE–1050 CE)Edit
The Chandra Kingdom was a Kayastha kingdom, originating from the Indian subcontinent, which ruled the Samatata region of Bengal, as well as northern Arakan. Later it was a neighbor to the Pala Empire to the north. Rulers of Chandra kingdom were followers of Sanatan dharma.
The reign of the dynasty was-
- Early or Ancient period from (500 BCE–200 CE)
- Middle or Imperial period from (200–750 CE)
- Later or Harikela dynasty from (900–1050 CE)
List of rulersEdit
|–||Bahubali chandra||55||5th century BCE|
|–||Raghupati chandra||60||5th & 4th century BCE|
|28||Narendravijaya||2 yr 9 months||701–703|
Gauda Kingdom (4th century–626)Edit
- Shashanka (590–625), first recorded independent king of Bengal, created the first unified political entity in Bengal
- Manava (625–626), ruled for 8 months before being conquered by Harshavardana and Bhaskarvarmana
Pushyabhuti dynasty (606–647)Edit
- Harshavardhana (606–647), unified Northern India and ruled it for over 40 years, he was the last non-Muslim emperor to rule a unified Northern India
Khadga dynasty (625–730 CE)Edit
|Khadgodyama (খড়্গদ্যোম)||625-640||Father of Jatakhadga|
|Jatakhadga (জাতখড়্গ)||640-658||Father of Devakhadga|
|Devakhadga (দেবখড়্গ)||658-673||Queen Prabhavati (প্রভাবতী)|
|Rajabhatta (রাজভট্ট)||673-707||Son of Devakhadga|
|Balabhata (বলভট্ট)||707-716||Son of Devakhadga|
Bhadra dynasty (6th–7th century)Edit
The Bhadra dynasty was a South Asian royal house of Brahmin origin, their rule flourished during the first half of the 7th century, though little is known about their history. The kings of the dynasty bore names with the suffix "Bhadra".
List of rulersEdit
Mallabhum Kingdom (694 – 1947 CE)Edit
|Name of the king||Reign||Notes|
|Dha (Jhau) Malla||764–775|
|Durjan (Durjay) Malla||862–906|
|Rup II (Jhap) Malla||1084–1097|
|Prithwi Malla||1295 -1319|
|Kinu/Kanu II Malla||1345–1358|
|Shur Malla II||1358–1370|
|Shiv Singh Malla||1370–1407|
|Durjan II (Durjay) Malla||1420–1437|
|Hambir Malla Dev (Bir Hambir)||1565–1620|
|Dhari Hambir Malla Dev||1620–1626|
|Raghunath Singha Dev||1626–1656|
|Bir Singha Dev||1656–1682|
|Durjan Singha Dev||1682–1702|
|Raghunath Singha Dev II||1702–1712|
|Gopal Singha Dev||1712–1748|
|Chaitanya Singha Dev||1748–1801|
|Madhav Singha Dev||1801–1809|
|Gopal Singha Dev II||1809–1876|
|Ramkrishna Singha Dev||1876–1885|
|Dwhaja Moni Devi||1885–1889|
|Nilmoni Singha Dev||1889–1903|
|Churamoni Devi (Regency)||1903–1930|
|Kalipada Singha Thakur||1930–1947|
Pala Empire (750–1050 CE)Edit
Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine. Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:
|RC Majumdar (1971)||AM Chowdhury (1967)||BP Sinha (1977)[failed verification]||DC Sircar (1975–76)||D. K. Ganguly (1994)|
|Mahendrapala||NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.)||845–860|
|Vigrahapala II||960–c. 986||969–995||967–980||972–977||976–977|
|Mahipala I||988–c. 1036||995–1043||980–1035||977–1027||977–1027|
|Govindapala||1155–1159||NA||1162–1176 or 1158–1162||1161–1165||1161–1165|
- Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
- AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
- According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.
Chola dynasty (ruled Bengal from 1000–1024 CE)Edit
- Rajendra Chola I (1019–1024)
Sena dynasty (1070–1230)Edit
Deva dynasty (1150–1281)Edit
Delhi Sultanates eraEdit
Khalji dynasty under Delhi (1204–1227)Edit
The Khalji governors of Bengal were at times independent, and at times subordinate to the Delhi Sultanate.
|Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji||1204–1206||Began the Khalji dynasty|
|Muhammad Shiran Khalji||1206–1208|
|Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah Khalji||1208–1210|
|Ali Mardan Khalji||1210–1212|
|Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah Khalji||1212–1227||second term as Husamuddin Iwaj Khalji, killed for gaining independence from Sultan of Delhi Iltutmish|
|Nasiruddin Mahmud||1227–1229||Not from the Khalji tribe, appointed by his father Iltutmish|
|Alauddin Daulat Shah Khalji||1229–1230|
|Malik Balkha Khalji||1230–1231||Last Khalji ruler|
Governors of Bengal under Mamluk Sultanate (1227–1281)Edit
|Awar Khan Aibak||1236||Usurper|
|Tughral Tughan Khan||1236–1246||Restored Mamluk governor|
|Tughlaq Tamar Khan||1246–1247|
|Jalaluddin Masud Jani||1247–1251|
|Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Iuzbak||1251–1257||Claimed independence.|
|Ijjauddin Balban Iuzbaki||1257–1259|
|Tatar Khan||1259–1268||Claimed independence.|
|Tughral Tughan Khan||1272–1281||Second term as Mughisuddin Tughral|
|Nasiruddin Bughra Khan||1281–1287||Governor of Lakhnauti|
|Nasiruddin Bughra Khan||1287–1291||Declared independence|
|Rukunuddin Kaikaus||1291–1300||First Muslim ruler to conquer Satgaon kingdom, expanding Lakhnauti.|
|Shamsuddin Firoz Shah||1300–1322||First Muslim ruler to conquer Sonargaon, Mymensingh and Srihatta. Completed Kaikaus' Conquest of Satgaon.|
|Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah||1322–1324||Lost independence of Bengal to Delhi Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.|
Governors of Bengal under Tughlaq Sultanate (1324–1339)Edit
|Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah||Sonargaon||1324–1328||Appointed as governor by Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq, but later declared independence|
Bengal Sultanate eraEdit
Independent Sultans of Bengal during Tughlaq Sultanate (1338–1352)Edit
|Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah||Sonargaon||1338–1349||First independent ruler of Sonargaon|
|Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah||Sonargaon||1349–1352|
|Alauddin Ali Shah||Lakhnauti||1339–1342|
|Ilyas Shah||Lakhnauti and Satgaon||1342–1352|
Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1352–1414)Edit
|Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah||1352–1358||Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal comprising Sonargaon, Satgaon and Lakhnauti.|
|Sikandar Shah||1358–1390||Killed in battle with his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah|
|Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah||1390–1411|
|Saifuddin Hamza Shah||1411–1412|
|Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah||1412–1414|
House of Raja Ganesha (1414–1435)Edit
|Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah||1415–1416||Son of Raja Ganesha and converted into Islam|
|Raja Ganesha||1416–1418||Second Phase|
|Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah||1418–1433||Second Phase|
|Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah||1433–1435|
Mahmud Shahi dynasty (1435–1487)Edit
|Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah||1435–1459|
|Rukunuddin Barbak Shah||1459–1474|
|Shamssuddin Yusuf Shah||1474–1481|
|Sikandar Shah II||1481|
|Jalaaluddin Fateh Shah||1481–1487|
Habshi rule (1487–1494)Edit
|Saifuddin Firuz Shah||1487–1489|
|Mahmud Shah II||1489–1490|
|Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah||1490–1494|
Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494–1538)Edit
|Alauddin Hussain Shah||1494–1518|
|Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah||1518–1533|
|Alauddin Firuz Shah||1533|
|Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah||1533–1538|
Governors of Bengal under Suri Empire (1532–1556)Edit
|Sher Shah Suri||1532–1538||Defeated Mughals and became the ruler of Delhi in 1540.|
|Muhammad Khan Sur||1545–1554|
Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554–1564)Edit
|Muhammad Khan Sur||1554–1555||Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah|
|Khizr Khan Suri||1555–1561|
|Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah||1561–1563|
|Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah III||1563–1564|
Karrani dynasty (1564–1576)Edit
|Taj Khan Karrani||1564–1566|
|Sulaiman Khan Karrani||1566–1572|
|Bayazid Khan Karrani||1572|
|Daud Khan Karrani||1572–1576|
Mughal Subahdars of Bengal Subah (1565–1717)Edit
|Hussain Quli Khan||1575–1578|
|Muzaffar Khan Turbati||1579–1580|
|Mirza Aziz Koka||1582–1583|
|Wazir Khan Tajik||1583–1583|
|Shahbaz Khan Kamboh||1583–1585|
|Shahbaz Khan Kamboh||1586–1587|
|Raja Man Singh I||1597 – 1606|
|Qutubuddin Koka||2 Sep 1606 – 1607||killed in a battle against Sher Afghan. (Local history of Burdwan, West Bengal, India says that Qutub-ud-din Kokah died in a battle against Ali Quli Istajlu alias Sher Afgan in 1610 CE. The tomb where both of them were buried is presently under the surveillance of Archaeological Survey of India.)|
|Jahangir Quli Beg||1607–1608||In early life, a slave of Akbar's brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim|
|Islam Khan Chishti||1608–1613||first governor to transfer the Bengal capital to Dhaka in April 1612|
|Qasim Khan Chishti||1613–1617||younger brother of Islam Khan Chishti|
|Ibrahim Khan Fath-i-Jang||1617–1624||died in an attack by Prince Shahjahan|
During the reign of Shah JahanEdit
|Qasim Khan Juvayni||1628–1632|
|Mir Muhammad Baqir||1632–1635||Known as Azam Khan|
|Mir Abdus Salam||1635–1639||Known as Islam Khan Mashadi|
|Prince Shah Shuja||1639–1647 again 1652–1660|
|Mir Jumla II||1660–1663|
|Azam Khan Koka||1678–1678||Known as Fidai Khan II|
|Prince Muhammad Azam||20 July 1678 – 6 October 1679|
|Ibrahim Khan II||1689–1697|
Later Hindu dynasties in BengalEdit
Maharaja of Lower Bengal regionEdit
- Raja Sitaram Ray (1688–1714)
Maharajas of BhurshutEdit
- Maharaja Rudranarayan, Maharaja (16th century)
- Bhavashankari, Maharani (16th century)
- Pratapnarayan, Maharaja (17th century)
- Naranarayan, Maharaja (17th century)
- Lakshminarayan, Maharaja (c.1695–1712)
Maharajas of Koch Behar (Cooch Behar State) (1586–1947 CE)Edit
- 1586 – 1621 Lakshmi Narayan
- 1621 – 1626 Bir Narayan
- 1626 – 1665 Pran Narayan
- 1665 – 1680 Madan Narayan
- 1680 – 1682 Basudev Narayan
- 1682 – 1693 Mahendra Narayan
- 1693 – 1714 Rup Narayan (died 1714)
- 1714 – 1763 Upendra Narayana (died 1763)
- 1763 – 12 August 1765 Debendra Narayana (1759–1765)
- 1763 – 12 August 1765 .... -Regent
- 1765 – 1770 Dhairjendra Narayan (1st time) (died 1783)
- 1770 – 1772 Rajendra I Narayan (died 1772)
- 1770 – 1772 Pensuthma -Bhutanese Regent
- 1772 Dharendra Narayan (1st time) (died 1775)
- 1772 – 1774 Bijendra Narayan (died 1774)
- 1774 – 1775 Dharendra Narayan (2nd time) (s.a.)
- 1775 – 1783 Dhairjendra Narayan (2nd time) (s.a.)
- 1783 – 29 May 1839 Harendra Narayan (1780–1839)
- 1783 – 1801 .... -Regents
- 1836 – 1839 Bajendra Narayan -Regent (1st time) (died 1857)
- 29 May 1839 – 23 August 1847 Shivendra Narayan (1796–1847)
- 23 August 1847 – 6 August 1863 Narendra Narayan (1841–1863) (personal style Maharaja from 1862)
- 30 March 1847 – 1857 Bajendra Narayan -Regent (2nd time) (s.a.)
- 1857 – 1860 Regents
- – Maharani Vrisundeshwari (f)
- – Maharani Kameshwari (f) (died 1889)
- 6 August 1863 – 16 October 1884 Nripendra Narayan (1862–1911) (personal style Maharaja from 25 February 1880)
- 6 August 1863 – 8 November 1883 Regents
- – Maharani Kameswari (f) (s.a.)
- – Maharani Vrisundeshwari (f)
- Raja Ram Bahadur Singh
- – Maharani Nistarini Deo (f)
|Nripendra Narayan||16 October 1884 – 18 September 1911|
|Rajendra II Narayan||18 September 1911 – 1 September 1913|
|Jitendra Narayan||1 September 1913 – 20 December 1922|
|Jagaddipendra Narayan||20 December 1922 – 15 August 1947|
Maharajas of Jessore KingdomEdit
Maharajas of NadiaEdit
- Raja Bhabananda
- Raja Sri Krishna Ray
- Raja Gopal Ray
- Raja Raghab Ray
- Maharaja Rudra Ray
- Raja Ramjiban Ray
- Raja Ramjiban Ray II
- Raja Raghuram Ray
- Raja Krishnachandra Ray 1727–1772
Many illustrious Maharajas ruled much of East Bengal and the Sundarbans and conquered Jessore Their surname was Basu – they came to Bengal during the Sena Dynasty to conquer the Palas and take over from them. A famous literary novel was written about the Chandradwip Basu family by Tagore called Bou Thakuranis Haat and a film was made from this book.
Rulers of Gazipur and Madhupur forest area, in central Bangladesh.
Independent Nawabs of BengalEdit
|Portrait||Titular Name||Personal Name||Birth||Reign||Death|
|Ala ud-Daula||Murshid Quli Jafar Khan||1665||1717– 1727||30 June 1727|
|Mirza Asadullah||Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur||?||1727–1727||April 1740|
|Shuja ud-Daula||Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan||1670||July 1727 – 26 August 1739||26 August 1739|
|Mirza Asadullah||Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur||?||13 March 1739 – April 1740||April 1740|
|Husam ud-Daula||Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur||10 May 1671||29 April 1740 – 16 April 1756||16 April 1756|
|Siraj ud-Daulah||Mîrzâ Muhammad Sirâj-ud-Daulah||1733||April 1756 – 2 June 1757||June 1757|
Nawabs of Bengal under British EmpireEdit
|Portrait||Titular Name||Personal Name||Birth||Reign||Death|
|Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur||Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan||1691||June 1757 – October 1760||17 January 1765|
|Itimad ud-Daulah||Mir Kasim Ali Khan Bahadur||?||1760–1763||1777|
|Ja'afar 'Ali Khan Bahadur||Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan||1691||25 July 1763 – 17 January 1765||17 January 1765|
|Nazam-ud-Daulah||Najimuddin Ali Khan||1750||5 February 1765 – 8 May 1766||8 May 1766|
|Saif ud-Daulah||Najabut Ali Khan||1749||22 May 1766 – 10 March 1770||10 March 1770|
|Ashraf Ali Khan||Before 1759||10 March 1770 – 24 March 1770||24 March 1770|
|Mubarak ud-Daulah||Mubarak Ali Khan||1759||21 March 1770 – 6 September 1793||6 September 1793|
|Azud ud-Daulah||Babar Ali Khan Bahadur||?||1793 – 28 April 1810||28 April 1810|
|Ali Jah||Zain-ud-Din Ali Khan||?||5 June 1810 – 6 August 1821||6 August 1821|
|Walla Jah||Ahmad Ali Khan||?||1810 – 30 October 1824||30 October 1824|
|Humayun Jah||Mubarak Ali Khan II||29 September 1810||1824 – 3 October 1838||3 October 1838|
|Feradun Jah||Mansur Ali Khan||29 October 1830||29 October 1838 –1881 (abdicated)||5 November 1884|
Nawabs of MurshidabadEdit
|Picture||Titular Name||Personal Name||Birth||Reign||Death|
|Ali Kadir||Syed Hassan Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur||25 August 1846||17 February 1882 – 25 December 1906||25 December 1906|
|Amir ul-Omrah||Syed Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur||7 January 1875||December 1906 – 23 October 1959||23 October 1959|
|Raes ud-Daulah||Syed Waris Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur||14 November 1901||23 October 1959 – 20 November 1969||20 November 1969|
|N/A||N/A||Disputed/In abeyance||N/A||20 November 1969 – 13 August 2014||N/A|
|N/A||Syed Mohammed Abbas Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur||Circa 1942||13 August 2014 – Present(titular)||N/A|
East India Company governors in BengalEdit
Governors of British East India Company in Bengal (1757–1793)Edit
- Robert Clive 1757 – 1760
- Henry Vansittart 1760 – 1764
- Robert Clive (again) 1765 – 1766
- Harry Verelst 1767 – 1769
- John Cartier 1769 – 1772
- Warren Hastings 1772 – 1773 see below
As per the treaty of Allahabad in 1765, the British East India Company (BEIC) was given the right to collect revenue (Diwani right). From 1769, the company collected revenue from Bengal.
Governors-General of British East India Company in Bengal – Dual government (1773–1774)Edit
Following the Regulating Act of 1773, the Governor of Bengal was officially called Governor-General of Fort William.
Governors-General of British East India Company in Bengal (1793–1854)Edit
In 1793, the British East India Company abolished Nizamat, i.e. local rule by Mughal emperor- appointed Nawabs and annexed Bengal.
- Sir John Shore 1793 – 1798
- Richard Wellesley 1798 – 1805
- Charles Cornwallis 1805 – 1805
- Sir George Barlow, 1st Baronet 1805 – 1807
- Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto 1807 – 1813
- Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings 1813 – 1823
- John Adam 1823 – 1823
- William Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst 1823 – 1828
- William Butterworth Bayley 1828 – 1828
- Lord William Bentinck 1828 – 1833
Governor-Generals of British East India Company (1833–1858)Edit
As per Charter Act of 1833, the Governor-General of Bengal would be called Governor-General of India
British Raj eraEdit
With the establishment of the Empire of India in 1858, the position of Governor-General was replaced with Governor-General and Viceroy of India. Calcutta, the capital of Bengal also became the capital of India. As a result, the position of Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal was established to look after provincial matters.
- Frederick James Halliday 1858–1859
- John Grant 1859–1862
- Sir Cecil Beadon 1862–1866
- Sir William Grey 1866–1871
- George Campbell 1871–1874
- Sir Richard Temple 1874–1877
- Sir Ashley Eden 1877–1879
- Steuart Bayley 1879–1882
- Sir Augustus Thompson 1882–1885
- Horace Cockerell 1885–1887
- Sir Steuart Bayley 1887–1890
- Charles Eliott 1890–1893
- Anthony MacDonnell 1893–1895
- Alexander Mackenzie 1895–1897
- Charles Cecil Stevens 1897–1898
- Sir John Woodburn 1898–1902
- James Bourdillon 1902–1903
- Sir Andrew Fraser 1903–1906
- Lancelot Hare 1906–1906
- Francis Slacke 1906–1908
- Sir Edward Baker 1908–1911
- Sir William Duke 1911–1912
In late 1911, the Indian Government decided to move the capital to New Delhi. As a result, the Governorship of Bengal Presidency was now necessary.
|Name||Took office||Left office|
|Thomas Gibson-Carmichael, 1st Baron Carmichael||1912||1917|
|Lawrence Dundas, Earl of Ronaldshay||1917||1922|
|Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton||1922||1927|
|Sir Stanley Jackson||1927||1932|
|Sir John Anderson||1932||1937|
|Michael Knatchbull, 5th Baron Brabourne||1937||1938|
|Sir John Arthur Herbert||1939||1943|
|Sir Frederick Burrows||1946||1947|
Prime Minister of Bengal (1937–1947)Edit
The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy in India and the position of Chief Minister or Premier of Bengal became very prominent.
A. K. Fazlul Huq
|1 April 1937 – 1 December 1941
12 December 1941 – 29 March 1943
|Krishak Praja Party||Sir John Arthur Herbert||The Marquess of Linlithgow|
|2||Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin||29 April 1943 – 31 March 1945||Bengal Provincial Muslim League||Sir John Arthur Herbert (−1944)
Sir Richard Casey (1944–)
|The Marquess of Linlithgow|
The Viscount Wavell
|3||H. S. Suhrawardy||23 April 1946 – 14 August 1947||Bengal Provincial Muslim League||Sir Richard Casey (−1946)
Sir Frederick Burrows
|The Viscount Wavell|
Subsequently, all three Bengali chief ministers moved to East Pakistan, where they continued to be influential statesmen. Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy became Prime Ministers of Pakistan, while Huq served as the Chief Minister and Governor of East Pakistan.
After Independence of India and PakistanEdit
British colonial period ended when India and Pakistan became independent nations in 1947. Bengal fell into two parts – one in India, named West Bengal and the other part in Pakistan as East Bengal, later renamed to East Pakistan in 1955.
Pakistani (east) Bengal (1947–1971)Edit
Governors of East Bengal (1947–1955)Edit
|Tenure||Governor of East Bengal|
|15 August 1947 – 31 March 1950||Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne|
|31 March 1950 – 31 March 1953||Sir Feroz Khan Noon|
|31 March 1953 – 29 May 1954||Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman|
|29 May 1954 – May 1955||Iskandar Ali Mirza|
|May 1955 – June 1955||Muhammad Shahabuddin (acting)|
|June 1955 – 14 October 1955||Amiruddin Ahmad|
Chief Minister of East Bengal (1947–1955)Edit
|Tenure||Chief Minister of East Bengal||Political Party|
|August 1947 – September 1948||Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin||Muslim League|
|September 1948 – April 1954||Nurul Amin||Muslim League|
|April 1954 – 1955||Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq||United Front|
Governors of East Pakistan (1955–1971)Edit
|Tenure||Governor of East Pakistan||Political Affiliation|
|14 October 1955 – March 1956||Amiruddin Ahmad||Muslim League|
|March 1956 – 13 April 1958||A. K. Fazlul Huq||Muslim League|
|13 April 1958 – 3 May 1958||Hamid Ali (acting)||Awami League|
|3 May 1958 – 10 October 1958||Sultanuddin Ahmad||Awami League|
|10 October 1958 – 11 April 1960||Zakir Husain||Muslim League|
|11 April 1960 – 11 May 1962||Lieutenant-General Azam Khan, PA||Military Administration|
|11 May 1962 – 25 October 1962||Ghulam Faruque||Independent|
|25 October 1962 – 23 March 1969||Abdul Monem Khan||Civil Administration|
|23 March 1969 – 25 March 1969||Mirza Nurul Huda||Civil Administration|
|25 March 1969 – 23 August 1969||Major-General Muzaffaruddin, PA||Military Administration|
|23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969||Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PA||Military Administration|
|1 September 1969 – 7 March 1971||Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, PN||Military Administration|
|7 March 1971 – 6 April 1971||Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, PA||Military Administration|
|6 April 1971 – 31 August 1971||Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, PA||Military Administration|
|31 August 1971 – 14 December 1971||Abdul Motaleb Malik||Independent|
|14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971||Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, PA||Military Administration|
Chief Minister of East Pakistan (1955–1971)Edit
|Tenure||Chief Minister of East Pakistan||Political Party|
|August 1955 – September 1956||Abu Hussain Sarkar||Krishan Sramik Party|
|September 1956 – March 1958||Ataur Rahman Khan||Awami League|
|March 1958||Abu Hussain Sarkar||Krishan Sramik Party|
|March 1958 – 18 June 1958||Ataur Rahman Khan||Awami League|
|18 June 1958 – 22 June 1958||Abu Hussain Sarkar||Krishan Sramik Party|
|22 June 1958 – 25 August 1958||Governor's Rule|
|25 August 1958 – 7 October 1958||Ataur Rahman Khan||Awami League|
Indian (West) Bengal (1947–present)Edit
Governors of West BengalEdit
|Sl. No.||Name||Took office||Left office|
|1||Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari||15 August 1947||21 June 1948|
|2||Kailash Nath Katju||21 June 1948||1 November 1951|
|3||Harendra Coomar Mookerjee||1 November 1951||8 August 1956|
|4||Phani Bhusan Chakravartti||8 August 1956||3 November 1956|
|5||Padmaja Naidu||3 November 1956||1 June 1967|
|6||Dharma Vira||1 June 1967||1 April 1969|
|7||Deep Narayan Sinha (acting)||1 April 1969||19 September 1969|
|8||Shanti Swaroop Dhavan||19 September 1969||21 August 1971|
|9||Anthony Lancelot Dias||21 August 1971||6 November 1979|
|10||Tribhuvana Narayana Singh||6 November 1979||12 September 1981|
|11||Bhairab Dutt Pande||12 September 1981||10 October 1983|
|12||Anant Prasad Sharma||10 October 1983||16 August 1984|
|13||Satish Chandra (acting)||16 August 1984||1 October 1984|
|14||Uma Shankar Dikshit||1 October 1984||12 August 1986|
|15||Saiyid Nurul Hasan||12 August 1986||20 March 1989|
|16||T. V. Rajeswar||20 March 1989||7 February 1990|
|17||Saiyid Nurul Hasan||7 February 1990||12 July 1993|
|18||B. Satyanarayan Reddy (additional charge)||13 July 1993||14 August 1993|
|18||K. V. Raghunatha Reddy||14 August 1993||27 April 1998|
|20||Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai||27 April 1998||18 May 1999|
|21||Shyamal Kumar Sen||18 May 1999||4 December 1999|
|22||Viren J. Shah||4 December 1999||14 December 2004|
|23||Gopalkrishna Gandhi||14 December 2004||14 December 2009|
|24||Devanand Konwar (additional charge)||14 December 2009||23 January 2010|
|25||M.K. Narayanan||24 January 2010||30 June 2014|
|26||D. Y. Patil (acting charge)||3 July 2014||17 July 2014|
|27||Keshari Nath Tripathi||24 July 2014||29 July 2019|
|28||Jagdeep Dhankhar||30 July 2019||Incumbent|
Chief Ministers of West BengalEdit
Indian National Congress
Bangla Congress (United Front)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
All India Trinamool Congress
|#||Name||Took Office||Left Office||Political Party|
|1||Prafulla Chandra Ghosh||15 August 1947||14 January 1948||INC|
|2||Bidhan Chandra Roy||14 January 1948||1 July 1962||INC|
|President's rule||1 July 1962||8 July 1962|
|3||Prafulla Chandra Sen||8 July 1962||15 March 1967||INC|
|4||Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee||15 March 1967||2 November 1967||BC (UF)|
|(1)||Prafulla Chandra Ghosh||2 November 1967||20 February 1968||Independent (Progressive Democratic Alliance)|
|President's rule||20 February 1968||25 February 1969|
|(4)||Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee||25 February 1969||19 March 1970||BC (UF)|
|President's rule||19 March 1970||2 April 1971|
|(4)||Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee||2 April 1971||28 June 1971||INC|
|President's rule||28 June 1971||19 March 1972|
|5||Siddhartha Shankar Ray||19 March 1972||21 June 1977||INC|
|6||Jyoti Basu||21 June 1977||6 November 2000||CPI(M) (Left Front)|
|7||Buddhadeb Bhattacharya||6 November 2000||13 May 2011||CPI(M) (Left Front)|
|8||Mamata Banerjee||20 May 2011||Incumbent||AITC|
After independence of BangladeshEdit
The President was the executive Head of state of Bangladesh during Presidential system of government from 1975 to 1991. Thereafter, the Prime Minister is the executive head of government of this parliamentary republic while the President is the ceremonial Head of state, elected by the parliament.
- Political parties
- Other factions
- Acting President
|Portrait||Elected||Term of office||Time in office||Party|
|Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
|—||17 April 1971||12 January 1972||270 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|Syed Nazrul Islam
|—||17 April 1971||12 January 1972||270 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|Abu Sayeed Chowdhury
|—||12 January 1972||24 December 1973||1 year, 346 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|—||24 December 1973||27 January 1974||1 year, 32 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|1974||27 January 1974||25 January 1975|
|Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
|—||25 January 1975||15 August 1975
(assassinated in a coup d'état.)
|Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
|—||15 August 1975||6 November 1975
|83 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem
|—||6 November 1975||21 April 1977||1 year, 166 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|21 April 1977||30 May 1981
|4 years, 39 days||Military / |
Bangladesh Nationalist Party
|—||30 May 1981||20 November 1981||298 days||Bangladesh Nationalist Party|
|1981[f]||20 November 1981||24 March 1982|
|Post vacant (24 – 27 March 1982)[g]|
|—||27 March 1982||10 December 1983||1 year, 258 days||Independent|
|Hussain Muhammad Ershad
|11 December 1983||6 December 1990||6 years, 360 days||Military / |
|—||6 December 1990||10 October 1991||308 days||Independent|
|Abdur Rahman Biswas
|1991||10 October 1991||9 October 1996||4 years, 365 days||Bangladesh Nationalist Party|
|1996||9 October 1996||14 November 2001||5 years, 36 days||Independent|
|2001||14 November 2001||21 June 2002||219 days||Bangladesh Nationalist Party|
|Muhammad Jamiruddin Sircar
|—||21 June 2002||6 September 2002||77 days||Bangladesh Nationalist Party|
|2002||6 September 2002||12 February 2009||6 years, 159 days||Independent|
|2009||12 February 2009||20 March 2013
(died in office.)
|4 years, 36 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|—||14 March 2013||24 April 2013||8 years, 192 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|2013||24 April 2013||24 April 2018|
|2018||24 April 2018||Incumbent|
Prime Ministers of BangladeshEdit
|Portrait||Election||Term of office||Tenure||Party|
|—||11 April 1971||12 January 1972||276 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
|1973||12 January 1972||25 January 1975||3 years, 13 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|Muhammad Mansur Ali
|—||25 January 1975||15 August 1975
|Post abolished (15 August 1975 – 29 June 1978)|
|—||29 June 1978||12 March 1979
(died in office.)
|256 days||Bangladesh Nationalist Party|
|Shah Azizur Rahman
|1979||15 April 1979||24 March 1982
|2 years, 343 days||Bangladesh Nationalist Party|
|Post abolished (24 March 1982 – 30 March 1984)|
|Ataur Rahman Khan
|—||30 March 1984||9 July 1986||2 years, 101 days||Jatiya Party|
|Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury
|1986||9 July 1986||27 March 1988||1 year, 262 days||Jatiya Party|
|1988||27 March 1988||12 August 1989||1 year, 138 days||Jatiya Party|
|Kazi Zafar Ahmed
|—||12 August 1989||6 December 1990||1 year, 116 days||Jatiya Party|
|Post abolished (6 December 1990 – 20 March 1991)|
|20 March 1991||30 March 1996||5 years, 10 days||Bangladesh Nationalist Party|
|Muhammad Habibur Rahman
|—||30 March 1996||23 June 1996||85 days||Independent|
|1996 (Jun)||23 June 1996||15 July 2001||5 years, 22 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
|—||15 July 2001||10 October 2001||87 days||Independent|
|2001||10 October 2001||29 October 2006||5 years, 19 days||Bangladesh Nationalist Party|
|—||29 October 2006||11 January 2007||74 days||Independent|
|—||11 January 2007||12 January 2007||1 day||Independent|
|—||12 January 2007||6 January 2009||1 year, 360 days||Independent|
|6 January 2009||Incumbent||12 years, 259 days||Bangladesh Awami League|
- Pakistani prisoner to 8 January 1972.
- Acting for Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
- Also Chief Martial Law Administrator (24 August 1975 – 4 November 1975 and 7 November 1975 – 29 November 1976).
- Also Chief Martial Law Administrator (29 November 1976 – 6 April 1979).
- Direct election.
- During this period, Chief of Army Staff Lt. Gen. Hussain Muhammad Ershad served as Chief Martial Law Administrator and de facto head of state.
- Served as Chief Martial Law Administrator until 30 March 1984.
- Acting for Zillur Rahman until 20 March 2013.
- Senior Minister.
- Simultaneously served as President.
- Acting Chief Adviser.
- The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. 227–228
- Majumdar, Dr. R.C., History of Mediaeval Bengal, First published 1973, Reprint 2006,Tulshi Prakashani, Kolkata, ISBN 81-89118-06-4
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 68–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
- Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2.
Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals, and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
- "The paradise of nations | Dhaka Tribune". Archive.dhakatribune.com. 20 December 2014. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-98564-9.
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- Digha Nikaya
- The Garuda Purana 55.12; V.D. I.9.4; the Markendeya Purana 56.16–18
- Mukunda Madhava Sharma (1978),Inscriptions of Ancient Assam, p.221, p.p.366, Department of Publication, Gauhati University
- "...the passages in questions may not be much earlier than the first century." (Barpujari 1990, p. 81)
- (Barpujari 1990, p. 81)
- Sharma,S.K.,Discovery of North-East India, p.315.
- Deka, Phani. The Great Indian Corridor in the East, p.63.
- M, Mignonette. Society and Economy in North-east India, Volume 2", 2004, p.316.
- (Barpujari 1990, p. 81)
- Malaẏaśaṅkara Bhaṭṭācārya (2008). Glimpses of Buddhist Bengal. Indian Institute of Oriental Studies & Research. ISBN 978-81-901371-7-1.
- Hossain, Md. Mosharraf, Mahasthan: Anecdote to History, 2006, pp. 69–73, Dibyaprakash, 38/2 ka Bangla Bazar, Dhaka, ISBN 984-483-245-4
- Ghosh, Suchandra. "Pundravardhana". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 10 November 2007.
- Majumdar, Dr. R.C., History of Ancient Bengal, First published 1971, Reprint 2005, p. 10, Tulshi Prakashani, Kolkata, ISBN 81-89118-01-3.
- Ray, Niharranjan (1994). History of the Bengali People. Calcutta: Orient Longman Ltd. p. 84.
- Dasgupta, Biswas & Mallik 2009, p. 31-43.
- Mallik, Abhaya Pada (1921). History of Bishnupur-Raj: An Ancient Kingdom of West Bengal (the University of Michigan ed.). Calcutta. pp. 128–130. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
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- R. C. Majumdar (1971). History of Ancient Bengal. G. Bharadwaj. p. 161–162.
- Abdul Momin Chowdhury (1967). Dynastic history of Bengal, c. 750-1200 CE. Asiatic Society of Pakistan. pp. 272–273.
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- (acting martial law administrator and governor as he was the GOC 14th Infantry Division)
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