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Mirza Abu Talib, (c. 1600–1694) better known as Shaista Khan (Bengali: শায়েস্তা খান) was a subahdar and a general in the Mughal army. A maternal uncle to Emperor Aurangzeb, he served as the Mughal governor of Bengal from 1664 to 1688, and was a key figure during the rule of his nephew. Under Shaista Khan's authority, the city of Dhaka and Mughal power in the province attained its greatest heights. One of this notable achievements was the Mughal conquest of Chittagong. In the year 1660, he was sent to participate in the struggle against the Maratha king Shivaji. However, he was defeated in a surprise attack and lost one of his sons. He then left Pune and shifted his camp to Aurangabad.
|Mirza Abu Talib|
|Amir-ul-Umara, Shaista Khan|
|Subahdar of Bengal|
|Reign||1664 – 1688 as Bengal 1658–1669 as Khandesh(Deccan)|
|Died||1694 (aged 93–94)|
|Father||Asaf Khan IV|
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Shaista Khan was of Persian origin. His grandfather Mirza Ghiyas Beg and father Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan were the wazirs of the Mughal Emperors Jahangir and Shah Jahan, respectively. Emperor Jahangir awarded the title of Shaista Khan to Mirza in recognition of his family's service and position in the Mughal court.He is said as being the brother of Shahjahan's wife though it is not clear if he was cousin or real.
Shaista Khan trained and served with the Mughal army and court, winning multiple promotions and being appointed governor of various provinces. He also developed a reputation as a successful military commander and grew close to the prince Aurangzeb when the duo fought against the kingdom of Golconda.
Confrontation with ShivajiEdit
After Aurangzeb's accession to the throne and the dramatic death of Afzal Khan at Shivaji's hand, Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan as viceroy of the Deccan with a large army to defeat Shivaji. In January 1660 Shaista Khan arrived at Aurangabad and quickly advanced, seizing Pune, the centre of Shivaji's realm. He also captured the fort of Chakan and Kalyan and north Konkan after heavy fighting with the Maratha.:243, 259–60 The Maratha were banned from entering the city of Pune and Mughal distance from the locals turned out to be an error. On the evening of 5 April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for holding a procession.Shivaji and many of his nearly 400 men disguised as the bridegroom's procession members entered Pune. Others entered in small parties dressed as labourers and soldiers of Maratha generals serving under Shaista Khan. After midnight, they raided the Nawab's compound and then entered the palace in an attempt to assassinate Shaista Khan.
Shaista Khan was clearly unaware and unprepared. The Marathas broke into the courtyard of the palace and slaughtered the palace guards. Shaista Khan lost three fingers in a skirmish with Shivaji, while his son was killed in an encounter with the Marathas in the palace courtyard. Taking advantage of the confusion and darkness, the Marathas escaped the palace and Pune, despite the widespread camping of Mughal forces. Shocked by the sudden and bold attack in Pune, Aurangzeb angrily transferred Shaista Khan to Bengal, even refusing to give him an interview at the time of transfer as was the custom.
Subahdar of BengalEdit
Shaista Khan was appointed the Subahdar of Bengal upon the death of Mir Jumla II in 1663. As governor, he encouraged trade with Europe, Southeast Asia and other parts of India. He consolidated his power by signing trade agreements with European powers. Despite his powerful position he remained loyal to Aurangzeb, often mediating trade disputes and rivalries. He banned the British East India Company from Bengal, sparking Child's War in 1686.
Shaista Khan encouraged the construction of modern townships and public works in Dhaka, leading to a massive urban and economic expansion. He was a patron of the arts and encouraged the construction of majestic monuments across the province, including mosques, mausoleums and palaces that represented the finest in Indo-Sarcenic and Mughal architecture. Khan greatly expanded Lalbagh Fort, Chowk Bazaar Mosque, Saat Masjid and Choto Katra. He also supervised the construction of the mausoleum for his daughter Bibi Pari.
Conquest of ChittagongEdit
|Conquest of Chittagong|
|Commanders and leaders|
Shaista Khan |
Buzurg Ummed Khan
6,500 troops |
|Casualties and losses|
several ships sunk |
135 ships captured
Upon his arrival in Bengal, Shaista Khan was faced with putting down the Arakan pirates. He began by rebuilding the Mughal navy, increasing its Bengal fleet to 300 battle-ready ships within a year. He also made strenuous diplomatic efforts to win the support of the Dutch East India Company as well as Portugal, which was supporting Arakan with resources and troops. With active Dutch military support, Shaista Khan led Mughal forces on an assault on the island of Sandwip, which lay in Arakanese control. Mughal forces succeeded in capturing the island in November 1665.
Shaista Khan gained a considerable advantage when a conflict erupted between the Arakanese and the Portuguese. By promptly offering protection and support, Khan secured the aid of the Portuguese against the Arakanese.
In December 1665 Shaista Khan launched a major military campaign against Chittagong, which was the mainstay of the Arakenese kingdom. The imperial fleet consisted of 288 vessels of their own and about 40 vessels of the Ferinigis (Portuguese) as auxiliaries. Ibn Hussain, Shaista Khan's admiral, was asked to lead the navy, while the subahdar himself took up the responsibility of supplying provisions for the campaign. The overall command was given to Buzurg Ummed Khan, a son of Shaista Khan.:230 The Mughals and the Portuguese held sway in the following naval battle. The conquered territory to the western bank of Kashyapnadi (Kaladan river) was placed under direct imperial administration. The name of Chittagong was changed to Islamabad and it became the headquarters of a Mughal faujdar.:230 Khan also re-asserted Mughal control over Cooch Behar and Kamarupa.
Upon his victory against the Arakanese, he ordered the release of thousands of Bengali peasants being held captive by the Arakanese forces.
In his late years, Shaista Khan left Dhaka and returned to Delhi. His legacy was the expansion of Dhaka into a regional centre of trade, politics and culture; a thriving and prosperous city from a small township. The Shaista Khan Mosque is a massive standing monument to Shaista Khan, built on his palace grounds. Incorporating unique elements of Bengali and Mughal architecture, it is a major tourist attraction and a valued historical monument protected by the Government of Bangladesh today.
The rule of Shaista Khan is, sometimes, considered as golden age of Bengal. It is said that eight 'mon' (around 295 kilogram) processed rice or 'chaal' could be bought with one taka. Still in Bangladesh, cheap price conditions are known as Reign of Shaista Khan ('Shayesta Khan-r aamol').
- Sir Jadunath Sarkar, History of Aurangzib: Mainly Based on Persian Sources, Volume 5 (1974), p.283
- Hossain, AKM Yakub; Haque, AKM Khademul (2012). "Buzurg Umed Khan". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Hossain, AKM Yakub; Chowdhury, AM (2012). "Bibi Pari". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Samaren Roy (May 2005). Calcutta: Society and Change 1690–1990. iUniverse. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-0-595-34230-3. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Pusalker, A. D.; Majumdar, A. K., eds. (2007) [First published 1974]. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume VII: The Mughal Empire. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
- ড. মুহম্মদ আব্দুল করিম. বাংলাদেশের ইতিহাস. মগ বিতাড়ন ও চট্টগ্রাম জয়. ২৬৯–২৭০.
- Trudy, Ring; M. Salkin,Robert; La Boda,Sharon; Edited by Trudy Ring (1996). International dictionary of historic places. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Sarkar, Jadunath, ed. (1973) [First published 1948]. The History of Bengal. Volume II: Muslim Period, 1200-1757. Patna: Academica Asiatica. p. 379. OCLC 924890.
It was Shāista Khan's task to put an end to this terror [the Arakan pirates] ... The Bengal flotilla (nawwāra) had been wofully depleted ... Shāista Khan's energy and persistence overcame every obstacle. A new navy was created, manned and equipped in a little over a year ... In a short time 300 vessels were ... ready in war-trim ... The island of Sondip ... [was] captured ... (November 1665.) A still more important gain was the seduction of the Feringis of Chātgāon from the side of the Arakanese ... A feud had just then broken out between the Magh ruler of Chātgāon and the local Portuguese ... Shāista Khan gave their chief captain a bounty ... and their other leaders were all enlisted in the Mughal service.