June 1996 Bangladeshi general election

General elections were held in Bangladesh on 12 June 1996. The result was a victory for the Bangladesh Awami League, which won 146 of the 300 seats, beginning Sheikh Hasina's first-term as Prime Minister. Voter turnout was 74.96%, the highest to date.[1] This election was the second to be held in 1996, following controversial elections held in February a few months earlier.

June 1996 Bangladeshi general election

← 1996 12 June 1996 2001 →

All 300 seats in the Jatiya Sangsad
151 seats were needed for a majority
Registered56,716,935
Turnout74.96 Increase 53.96 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Sheikh Hasina 2009 cropped 3by2.jpg Begum Zia Book-opening Ceremony, 1 Mar, 2010.jpg Hussain Muhammad Ershad.jpg
Leader Sheikh Hasina Khaleda Zia Hussain Muhammad Ershad
Party Awami League BNP JP(E)
Leader since 1981 1984 1986
Leader's seat Gopalganj-3 Feni-1 Rangpur-3
Last election Boycotted 100%, 300 seats Boycotted
Seats won 146 116 32
Seat change Increase 146 Decrease184 Increase32
Popular vote 15,882,792 14,255,986 6,954,981
Percentage 37.4% 33.6% 16.4%
Swing Decrease66.4%

Prime Minister before election

Khaleda Zia
BNP

Subsequent Prime Minister

Sheikh Hasina
Awami League

Electoral systemEdit

In 1996, the 330 members of the Jatiya Sangsad consisted of 300 directly elected seats using first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies,[2] and an additional 30 seats reserved for women. The reserved seats are distributed based on the election results.[3] Each parliament sits for a five-year term.

BackgroundEdit

The June 1996 election marked the second general election to be held within only a four-month period. Previously in February, a general election had been held which was boycotted by all major opposition parties. The opposition were demanding the installation of a neutral caretaker government to oversee the election, citing a 1994 by-election (which they alleged to have been rigged) as evidence of the BNP's inability to hold a free and fair election. Despite the boycott the February election went ahead and the incumbent Prime Minister Khaleda Zia's BNP was re-elected for the second term in a landslide victory, with the majority of seats uncontested. The voting was denounced as unfair by the three main opposition parties and the voter turnout was the lowest in Bangladesh's parliamentary electoral history at only 21%.

Following the election, President Abdur Rahman Biswas invited Zia to form a government, but this administration was short lived, lasting only 12 days.[4] A series of hartals (strikes) were called by the other parties and an indefinite non-cooperation movement was called until demands for a new, free election was met. On 25 March 1996, following escalating political turmoil, the sitting Parliament enacted the thirteenth constitutional amendment to allow a neutral caretaker government to assume power and conduct new parliamentary elections. On 30 March the President appointed former Chief Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman as Chief Advisor (a position equivalent to prime minister) in the interim government. A new election was scheduled for 12 June 1996.

CampaignEdit

During the election campaign there was an attempted coup d'état by the military.[5] On 12 May, President Biswas fired General Abu Saleh Mohammad Nasim, Chief of the Staff of the Army, due to his refusal to carry out a presidential order to retire two of his generals who were alleged to be consorting with political parties in violation of military rules. Nasim revolted against the President and organised troops loyal to him. Consequently, President Biswas dismissed Nasim and appointed a new chief of staff. Troops loyal to the President were mobilised to protect Government institutions in the capital and Nasim was arrested by military police and the attempted coup d'état failed.

A total of 2,574 candidates contested the elections. The Awami League, Bangladesh Nationalist Party and Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh all put forward full slates of 300 candidates. The Jatiya Party ran 293 candidate, Islami Oikkya Jote 166 and Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab) 67, with other minor parties nominating a combined 864 candidates. 284 candidates ran as independents.[6]

ResultsEdit

The elections were won by the Bangladesh Awami League, who were just shy of a simple parliamentary majority, winning 146 (of the required 151 for a majority) seats. The election was close in terms of popular vote share between Awami League and BNP, with a difference of less than 4%. However, as a result of first-past-the-post voting, Awami League secured a 30-seat lead above BNP. The election saw a high voter turnout of ~74%.[7]

With the support of Jatiya Party,[8] the leader of Awami League, Sheikh Hasina, was invited to form a government on 23 June, beginning her first term as Prime Minister. The first sitting of the seventh parliament of Bangladesh was subsequently held on 14 July 1996.[4]

Of the 300 directly elected seats, only eight were won by female candidates.[9][7] An additional 30 seats were reserved in the Jatiya Sangsad for women, of which 27 were awarded to Awami League.[9][7]

Percentage of the seats won

  Awami League (48.7%)
  Bangladesh Nationalist Party (38.7%)
  Jatiya Party (10.7%)
  Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (1%)
  All other parties & Independents (1%)

Popular vote share

  Awami League (37.4%)
  Bangladesh Nationalist Party (33.6%)
  Jatiya Party (16.4%)
  Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (8.6%)
  All other parties & Independents (4%)
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Bangladesh Awami League 15,882,792 37.4 146 New
Bangladesh Nationalist Party 14,255,986 33.6 116 –184
Jatiya Party 6,954,981 16.4 32 New
Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh 3,653,013 8.6 3 New
Islami Oikkya Jote 461,517 1.1 1 New
Jaker Party 167,597 0.4 0 New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab) 97,916 0.2 1 New
Workers Party of Bangladesh 56,404 0.1 0 New
Gano Forum 54,250 0.1 0 New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Inu) 50,944 0.1 0 New
Communist Party 48,549 0.1 0 New
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam 45,585 0.1 0 New
Sammilita Sangram Parishad 40,803 0.1 0 New
Freedom Party 38,974 0.1 0 New
Samridhya Bangladesh Andolon 27,083 0.1 0 New
Bangladesh Islami Front 23,696 0.1 0 New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan 18,397 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Jatiyabadi Awami League 11,190 0.0 0 New
Islami Shasantantra Andolon 11,159 0.0 0 New
Bangladesher Samajtantrik Dal (Khalekuzzaman) 10,234 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal (Mahbub) 6,791 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh National Awami Party (Nap Vasani) 5,948 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Jamir Ali) 4,580 0.0 0 New
Gonatantry Party 4,114 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh National Awami Party (NAP) 3,620 0.0 0 New
Democratic Republican Party 3,605 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Janata Party 3,364 0.0 0 New
Jatiya Janata Party (Nurul Islam) 2,986 0.0 0 New
Jatiya Janata Party (Sheikh Asad) 2,395 0.0 0 New
Social Democratic Party 1,938 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Gono Azadi League 1,683 0.0 0 New
Progotisil Jatiata Badi Dal 1,515 0.0 0 New
Hak Kathar Mancha 1,340 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Samaybadi dal (Marxist-Leninst) 1,148 0.0 0 New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal 964 0.0 0 New
Communist Kendra 888 0.0 0 New
Jatiya Biplobi Front 631 0.0 0 New
Saat Dalya Jote (Mirpur) 602 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Hindu League 570 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Peoples Party 558 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Bekar Samaj 548 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Tafsil Jati Federation (S.K. Mandal) 537 0.0 0 New
Desh Prem Party 532 0.0 0 New
Gontantrik Sarbara Party 502 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Jatiya League (Sobhan) 418 0.0 0 New
Jana Dal 395 0.0 0 New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Mahiuddin) 393 0.0 0 New
Jatiya Seba Dal 365 0.0 0 New
National Damocratic Party 353 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Krisak Sramik Janata Party 294 0.0 0 New
Islami Al Zihad Dal 288 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Sarbahara Party 248 0.0 0 New
Jatiya Daridra Party 244 0.0 0 New
Sramajibi Oikya Forum 229 0.0 0 New
Islamic Dal Bangladesh (Saifur) 221 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh People's League 213 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Samsad (Darshan Shava) 209 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Krisak Sramik Mukti Andolon 189 0.0 0 New
Gono Oikkya Front (Guff) 186 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Mehanati Front 173 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Tafsili Federation (Sudir) 150 0.0 0 New
People's Muslim League 140 0.0 0 New
National Awami Party (NAP Bhashani) 138 0.0 0 New
Quran Dorshion Sangshta Bangladesh 137 0.0 0 New
Progatishil Gonotantrik Shakti 134 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Islami Party 132 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Jatiya Agragati Party 131 0.0 0 New
Oikya Prockria 112 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Vasani Adarsha Bastabayan Parishad 107 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Bastuhara Parishad 105 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh National Congress 99 0.0 0 New
Quran Sunna Bastabayan Party 82 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Tanjimul Muslimin 81 0.0 0 New
Samridhya Bangladesh Babosai Samproday 48 0.0 0 New
Bhasani Front 45 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Krishak Raj Islami Party 33 0.0 0 New
National Patriotic Party 31 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Islami Biplobi Parishad 29 0.0 0 New
Taherikay Olama-e-Bangladesh 29 0.0 0 New
United People's Party 26 0.0 0 New
Bangladesh Manabodjikar Dal 20 0.0 0 New
Independents 449,618 1.1 1 New
Invalid/blank votes 462,302
Total 42,880,576 100 300 0
Registered voters/turnout 56,716,935 75.6
Source: Bangladesh Election Commission

AftermathEdit

Hasina's administration completed its full five-year term (the first parliamentary administration to ever do so[10]) and the next elections were held in October 2001.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Election Publication" (PDF). Election Commission. 2016.
  2. ^ Electoral system IPU
  3. ^ Ahmed, Nizam; Hasan, Sadik (2018). "Alangkar or Ahangkar? Reserved-Seat Women Members in the Bangladesh Parliament" (PDF). In Ahmed, Nizam (ed.). Women in Governing Institions in South Asia. Springer. p. 18. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-57475-2_2. ISBN 978-3-319-57474-5.
  4. ^ a b "Tenure of All Parliaments". 2018-08-12. Archived from the original on 2018-08-12. Retrieved 2018-12-27.
  5. ^ Kochanek, Stanley A. (February 1997). "Bangladesh in 1996: The 25th Year of Independence". Asian Survey. 37 (2): 136–142. doi:10.2307/2645479. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2645479.
  6. ^ Statistical Report: 7th Jatiya Shangshad election Bangladesh Election Commission
  7. ^ a b c "BANGLADESH: parliamentary elections Jatiya Sangsad, 1996". archive.ipu.org. Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2018-12-27.
  8. ^ "After steering Awami League to power, Sheikh Hasina now faces political, economic challenges". India Today. 15 July 1996.
  9. ^ a b Kumar Panday, Pranab (1 September 2008). "Representation without Participation: Quotas for Women in Bangladesh". International Political Science Review. 29 (4): 489–512. doi:10.1177/0192512108095724.
  10. ^ "IPU PARLINE database: BANGLADESH (Jatiya Sangsad), Elections in 2001". archive.ipu.org. Retrieved 2018-12-27.