2001 Bangladeshi general election
General elections were held in Bangladesh on 1 October 2001. The 300 single-seat constituencies of the Jatiya Sangsad were contested by 1,935 candidates representing 54 parties and including 484 independents. The elections were the second to be held under the caretaker government concept, introduced in 1996.
All 300 seats in the Jatiya Sangsad
151 seats were needed for a majority
Partywise Constituency Map 2001
The result was a win for the Four Party Alliance of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, Jatiya Party (Manju) and Islami Oikya Jote. BNP leader Khaleda Zia becoming Prime Minister.
The Seventh Parliament headed by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina was dissolved on 13 July 2001, having completed its designated 5-year term (the first parliamentary administration to ever do so) and power was transferred to the caretaker government headed by Justice Latifur Rahman.
In 2001, the 345 members of the Jatiya Sangsad consisted of 300 seats directly elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies, and 45 seats reserved for women. The reserved seats were distributed based on the national vote share.
The international and national monitors declared the polling free and fair even though the Awami League alleged massive vote rigging by the BNP. The accusation was denied by the Chief Election Commissioner, who declared the charges "baseless". International observers, from the European Union, the United Nations and the Carter Center of former US President Jimmy Carter, also praised the heavy voter turnout, which was 75%.
The BNP were the clear winners in terms of seats, winning a secure majority with 193 (of 300) seats. BNP's allied parties Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, Jatiya Party (Manju) and Islami Oikya Jote also won a combined 23 seats, bringing the alliance total to 216 seats. As a result of the first-past-the-post voting system in Bangladesh, Awami League only secured 62 seats, despite a difference in popular vote share of only ≈1.4%. Voter turnout was very high at 75%.
Of the 300 directly elected seats, only seven were won by women. This parliament marked an increase in the number of reserved seats for women (which are in addition to the 300 directly elected seats) from 30 to 45. Of these 45 reserved seats, 36 were awarded to BNP.
|Bangladesh Nationalist Party||22,833,978||40.97||193|
|Bangladesh Awami League||22,365,516||40.13||62|
|Islami Jatiya Oikya Front||4,038,453||7.25||14|
|Bangladesh Jatiya Party||621,772||1.12||4|
|Islami Oikya Jote||376,343||0.68||2|
|Krishak Shramik Janata League||261,344||0.47||1|
|Jatiya Party (Manju)||243,617||0.44||1|
|Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal||119,382||0.21||0|
|Communist Party of Bangladesh||56,991||0.10||0|
|Workers Party of Bangladesh||40,484||0.07||0|
|Bangladesh Islamic Front||30,761||0.06||0|
|Jamiate Ulamae Islam Bangladesh||19,256||0.03||0|
|Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan||13,472||0.02||0|
|Islami Shasantantra Andolon||5,944||0.01||0|
|Liberal Party Bangladesh||3,976||0.01||0|
|National Awami Party (NAP)||3,801||0.01||0|
|Bangladesh Progressive Party||3,734||0.01||0|
|Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal||2,308||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Janata Party||1,703||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Krisak Sramik Mukti Andolon||1,248||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Peoples Congress||1,155||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Sammyabadi Dal (Marxist–Leninist)||972||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Hindu League||922||0.00||0|
|Gano Azadi League||780||0.00||0|
|Jatiyo Janata Party (Adv. Nurul Islam Khan)||657||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Muslim League (Jamir Ali)||582||0.00||0|
|National Patriotic Party||551||0.00||0|
|National Awami Party (Bhashani)||442||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Jatiya Tanti Dal||441||0.00||0|
|Samridha Bangladesh Andolon||429||0.00||0|
|Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal||391||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Peoples Party||382||0.00||0|
|Desh Prem Party||366||0.00||0|
|Democratic Republican Party||364||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Manabadhikar Dal||237||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Krisak Sramik Janata Party||197||0.00||0|
|Liberal Democrats Party||170||0.00||0|
|Quran Darshan Sangstha Bangladesh||161||0.00||0|
|Jatiya Janata Party (Sheik Asad)||148||0.00||0|
|Pragatishil Gonotantrik Shakti||136||0.00||0|
|Sama-Samaj Gonotantri Party||131||0.00||0|
|National Awami Party (NAP-Vasani Mushtaq)||79||0.00||0|
|Quran and Sunnah Bastabayan Party||77||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League||59||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Vasani Adarsha Bastabayan Parishad||58||0.00||0|
|Bangladesh Sarbahara Party||44||0.00||0|
|Jatiya Janata Party (Hafizur)||30||0.00||0|
With a clear majority BNP leader Khaleda Zia was invited to form a government and on 10 October 2001, was sworn in as Prime Minister and formed her Cabinet, which included members of her allied parties. The first sitting of the Eighth Parliament occurred on 28 October 2001 with Jamiruddin Sircar as its new Speaker.
Zia's administration completed a full five-year term, running from 28 October 2001 to 27 October 2006. However, disputes over the selection of a caretaker government, with disagreements between the parties over their neutrality, led to the 2006–08 Bangladeshi political crisis, which eventually resulted in military intervention. New elections would not be held until December 2008.
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- Electoral system IPU
- Ahmed, Nizam; Hasan, Sadik (2018). "Alangkar or Ahangkar? Reserved-Seat Women Members in the Bangladesh Parliament" (PDF). In Ahmed, Nizam (ed.). Women in Governing Institions in South Asia. Springer. p. 18. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-57475-2_2. ISBN 978-3-319-57474-5.
- "Bangladesh parliamentary Elections 1 October 2001: Final Report" (PDF). EU Election Observation Mission. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- "Zia wins power in Bangladesh". CNN. 5 October 2001. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- "Postelection Statement by Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter on Bangladesh Elections, Oct. 5, 2001". www.cartercenter.org. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- Kumar Panday, Pranab (1 September 2008). "Representation without Participation: Quotas for Women in Bangladesh". International Political Science Review. 29 (4): 489–512. doi:10.1177/0192512108095724.
- 2001 violence on HindusCaretakers, BNP, Jamaat blamed| bdnews24, 24 April 2011