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The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete. FIDE organises the tournament and selects the host nation.

Chess Olympiad
Sahovska olimpiada Bled 2002 1.JPG
35th Chess Olympiad in Bled in October 2002
Statusactive
Genresports event
Frequencybiannual
Location(s)various
Inaugurated1924 (1924)
Organised byFIDE

The use of the name "Chess Olympiad" for FIDE's team championship is of historical origin and implies no connection with the Olympic Games.

Birth of the OlympiadEdit

The first Olympiad was unofficial. For the 1924 Olympics an attempt was made to include chess in the Olympic Games but this failed because of problems with distinguishing between amateur and professional players.[1] While the 1924 Summer Olympics was taking place in Paris, the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad also took place in Paris. FIDE was formed on Sunday, July 20, 1924, the closing day of the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad.[2]

FIDE organised the first Official Olympiad in 1927 which took place in London.[1] The Olympiads were occasionally held annually and at irregular intervals until World War II; since 1950 they have been held regularly every two years.[1]

Growth of Chess Olympiads
 
There were 16 participating nations in the 1st Chess Olympiad, 1927.
 
By the 41st Olympiad, 2014, there were 172 participating nations.
 
Bobby Fischer's score card from his round 3 game against Miguel Najdorf in the 1970 Chess Olympiad

Drug testingEdit

As a sporting federation recognized by the IOC, and particularly as a signatory to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) conventions,[3] FIDE adheres to their rules, including a requirement for doping tests,[4][5] which they are obligated to take at the events such as the Olympiad. The tests were first introduced in 2002 under significant controversy,[6] with the widespread belief that it was impossible to dope in chess. Research carried out by the Dutch chess federation failed to find a single performance-enhancing substance for chess.[7] According to Dr Helmut Pfleger, who has been conducting experiments in the field for around twenty years, "Both mentally stimulating and mentally calming medication have too many negative side effects".[7] Players such as Artur Yusupov,[8] Jan Timman[9] and Robert Hübner[10] either refused to play for their national team or to participate in events such as the Chess Olympiad where drug tests were administered. All 802 tests administered at the 2002 Olympiad came back negative.[11] However, in the 36th Chess Olympiad in 2004, two players refused to provide urine samples and had their scores cancelled.[12][13] Four years later, Vassily Ivanchuk was not penalized for skipping a drug test at the 38th Chess Olympiad in 2008, with a procedural error being indicated instead.[14]

In 2010, a FIDE official commented that due to the work of the FIDE Medical Commission, the tests were now considered routine.[15] In November 2015, FIDE president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov announced they are working with WADA to define and identify doping in chess.[16]

CompetitionEdit

Each FIDE recognized chess association can enter a team into the Olympiad.[1] Each team is made of up to five players, four regular players and one reserve (prior to the tournament in Dresden 2008 there were two reserves[17]).[1] Initially each team played all other teams but as the event grew over the years this became impossible.[1] At first team seeding took place before the competition.[1] Later certain drawbacks were recognized with seeding and in 1976 a Swiss tournament system was adopted.[1]

The trophy for the winning team in the open section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup,[1] which was offered by the English magnate Frederick Hamilton-Russell as a prize for the 1st Olympiad (London 1927). The cup is kept by the winning team until the next event, when it is consigned to the next winner. The trophy for the winning women's team is known as the Vera Menchik Cup in honor of the first Women's World Chess Champion.

The 2010 Olympiad was held in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia. The 2012 Olympiad was held in Istanbul, Turkey, the 2014 Olympiad was in Tromsø, Norway. The 2016 Olympiad was held in Baku, Azerbaijan. The 2018 Olympiad was held in Batumi, Georgia.

Results (open section)Edit

Year Event Host Gold Silver Bronze
1924 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad
The Chess Olympiad (individual)
  Paris, France   Czechoslovakia 31   Hungary 30    Switzerland 29
1926 2nd unofficial Chess Olympiad
The Team Tournament
(part of FIDE summit)
  Budapest, Hungary   Hungary 9   Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 8   Romania 5
1927 1st Chess Olympiad   London, United Kingdom   Hungary 40   Denmark 38½   England 36½
1928 2nd Chess Olympiad   The Hague, Netherlands   Hungary 44   United States 39½   Poland 37
1930 3rd Chess Olympiad   Hamburg, Germany   Poland 48½   Hungary 47   Germany 44½
1931 4th Chess Olympiad   Prague, Czechoslovakia   United States 48   Poland 47   Czechoslovakia 46½
1933 5th Chess Olympiad   Folkestone, United Kingdom   United States 39   Czechoslovakia 37½   Sweden 34
1935 6th Chess Olympiad   Warsaw, Poland   United States 54   Sweden 52½   Poland 52
1936 3rd unofficial Chess Olympiad
non-FIDE unofficial Chess Olympiad
  Munich, Germany   Hungary 110½   Poland 108   Germany 106½
1937 7th Chess Olympiad   Stockholm, Sweden   United States 54½   Hungary 48½   Poland 47
1939 8th Chess Olympiad   Buenos Aires, Argentina   Germany 36   Poland 35½   Estonia 33½
1950 9th Chess Olympiad   Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia   Yugoslavia 45½   Argentina 43½   West Germany 40½
1952 10th Chess Olympiad   Helsinki, Finland   Soviet Union 21   Argentina 19½   Yugoslavia 19
1954 11th Chess Olympiad   Amsterdam, Netherlands   Soviet Union 34   Argentina 27   Yugoslavia 26½
1956 12th Chess Olympiad   Moscow, Soviet Union   Soviet Union 31   Yugoslavia 26½   Hungary 26½
1958 13th Chess Olympiad   Munich, West Germany   Soviet Union 34½   Yugoslavia 29   Argentina 25½
1960 14th Chess Olympiad   Leipzig, East Germany   Soviet Union 34   United States 29   Yugoslavia 27
1962 15th Chess Olympiad   Varna, Bulgaria   Soviet Union 31½   Yugoslavia 28   Argentina 26
1964 16th Chess Olympiad   Tel Aviv, Israel   Soviet Union 36½   Yugoslavia 32   West Germany 30½
1966 17th Chess Olympiad   Havana, Cuba   Soviet Union 39½   United States 34½   Hungary 33½
1968 18th Chess Olympiad   Lugano, Switzerland   Soviet Union 39½   Yugoslavia 31   Bulgaria 30
1970 19th Chess Olympiad   Siegen, West Germany   Soviet Union 27½   Hungary 26½   Yugoslavia 26
1972 20th Chess Olympiad   Skopje, Yugoslavia   Soviet Union 42   Hungary 40½   Yugoslavia 38
1974 21st Chess Olympiad   Nice, France   Soviet Union 46   Yugoslavia 37½   United States 36½
1976 22nd Chess Olympiad *   Haifa, Israel   United States 37   Netherlands 36½   England 35½
1976 Against Chess Olympiad   Tripoli, Libya   El Salvador 38½   Tunisia 36   Pakistan 34½
1978 23rd Chess Olympiad   Buenos Aires, Argentina   Hungary 37   Soviet Union 36   United States 35
1980 24th Chess Olympiad   Valletta, Malta   Soviet Union 39   Hungary 39   Yugoslavia 35
1982 25th Chess Olympiad   Lucerne, Switzerland   Soviet Union 42½   Czechoslovakia 36   United States 35
1984 26th Chess Olympiad   Thessaloniki, Greece   Soviet Union 41   England 37   United States 35
1986 27th Chess Olympiad   Dubai, United Arab Emirates   Soviet Union 40   England 39   United States 38
1988 28th Chess Olympiad   Thessaloniki, Greece   Soviet Union 40½   England 34½   Netherlands 34½
1990 29th Chess Olympiad   Novi Sad, Yugoslavia   Soviet Union 39   United States 35½   England 35½
1992 30th Chess Olympiad   Manila, Philippines   Russia 39   Uzbekistan 35   Armenia 34½
1994 31st Chess Olympiad   Moscow, Russia   Russia 37½   Bosnia and Herzegovina 35   Russia "B" 34½
1996 32nd Chess Olympiad   Yerevan, Armenia   Russia 38½   Ukraine 35   United States 34
1998 33rd Chess Olympiad   Elista, Russia   Russia 35½   United States 34½   Ukraine 32½
2000 34th Chess Olympiad   Istanbul, Turkey   Russia 38   Germany 37   Ukraine 35½
2002 35th Chess Olympiad   Bled, Slovenia   Russia 38½   Hungary 37½   Armenia 35
2004 36th Chess Olympiad   Calvià, Spain   Ukraine 39½   Russia 36½   Armenia 36½
2006 37th Chess Olympiad   Turin, Italy   Armenia 36   China 34   United States 33
2008 38th Chess Olympiad   Dresden, Germany   Armenia 19   Israel 18   United States 17
2010 39th Chess Olympiad   Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia   Ukraine 19   Russia 18   Israel 17
2012 40th Chess Olympiad   Istanbul, Turkey   Armenia 19   Russia 19   Ukraine 18
2014 41st Chess Olympiad   Tromsø, Norway   China 19   Hungary 17   India 17
2016 42nd Chess Olympiad   Baku, Azerbaijan   United States 20   Ukraine 20   Russia 18
2018 43rd Chess Olympiad   Batumi, Georgia   China 18   United States 18   Russia 18
2020 44th Chess Olympiad   Moscow, Russia
2022 45th Chess Olympiad   Minsk, Belarus

* In 1976, the   Soviet Union, other communist countries and Arabic countries did not compete for political reasons.

  • Starting from 2008, the first criterion for determining ranking is match point instead of board point. Team scores 2 points for a win, 1 point for a draw and 0 points for a loss (that is, a 4-0 win or 2.5-1.5 win will get the same match point).

Total team rankingEdit

 
Symbol of the 6th Chess Olympiad in Warsaw 1935 by Jerzy Steifer

The table contains the Open teams ranked by the medals won at the Chess Olympiad (not including the unofficial events), ranked by the number of first place medals, ties broken by second-place medals, etc.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  Soviet Union181019
2  United States66820
3  Russia63312
4  Hungary37212
5  Armenia3036
6  Ukraine2237
7  China2103
8  Yugoslavia16613
9  Poland1236
10  Germany1135
11  England0336
12  Argentina0325
13  Czechoslovakia0213
14  Israel0112
  Netherlands0112
  Sweden0112
17  Bosnia and Herzegovina0101
  Denmark0101
  Uzbekistan0101
20  Bulgaria0011
  Estonia0011
  India0011
Totals (22 nations)434343129

Best individual results in the open sectionEdit

The best individual results in order of overall percentage are:

Rank
Player       Country       Ol. Gms.   +     =     –    %    Medals     Number
of medals
  1  Mikhail Tal   Soviet Union 8 101  65  34   2 81.2 5 – 2 – 0 7
  2  Anatoly Karpov   Soviet Union 6 68  43  23   2 80.1 3 – 2 – 0 5
  3  Tigran Petrosian   Soviet Union 10 129  78  50   1 79.8 6 – 0 – 0 6
  4  Isaac Kashdan   USA 5 79  52  22   5 79.7 2 – 1 – 2 5
  5  Vasily Smyslov   Soviet Union 9 113  69  42   2 79.6 4 – 2 – 2 8
  6  David Bronstein   Soviet Union 4 49  30  18   1 79.6 3 – 1 – 0 4
  7  Garry Kasparov   Soviet Union (4) /   Russia (4) 8 82  50  29   3 78.7 7 – 2 – 2 11
  8  Alexander Alekhine   France 5 72  43  27   2 78.5 2 – 2 – 0 4
  9  Milan Matulović   Yugoslavia 6 78  46  28   4 76.9 1 – 2 – 0 3
10  Paul Keres   Estonia (3) /   Soviet Union (7) 10 141  85  44  12 75.9 5 – 1 – 1 7
11  Efim Geller   Soviet Union 7 76  46  23   7 75.6 3 – 3 – 0 6
12  James Tarjan   USA 5 51  32  13   6 75.5 2 – 1 – 0 3
13  Bobby Fischer   USA 4 65  40  18   7 75.4 0 – 2 – 1 3
14  Mikhail Botvinnik   Soviet Union 6 73  39  31   3 74.7 2 – 1 – 2 5
15  Sergey Karjakin   Ukraine (3) /   Russia (2) 5 47  24  22   1 74.7 2 – 0 – 1 3
16  Salo Flohr   Czechoslovakia 7 82  46  28   8 73.2 2 – 1 – 1 4
 
Fischer and Tal at the 1960 Olympiad
Notes
  • Only players participating in at least four Olympiads are included in this table.
  • Medals indicated are only individual ones (not team), in the order gold - silver - bronze.
  • Garry Kasparov played his first four Olympiads for the Soviet Union, the rest for Russia. His four gold medals are one for best-rating performance (first introduced at Thessaloniki 1984) and three for best score on first board.
  • Paul Keres played his first three Olympiads for Estonia, the rest for the Soviet Union.
  • Sergey Karjakin played his first three Olympiads for Ukraine, the rest for Russia

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Brace, Edward R. (1977), An Illustrated Dictionary of Chess, Hamlyn Publishing Group, p. 64, ISBN 1-55521-394-4
  2. ^ FIDE History by Bill Wall. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
  3. ^ "Code Signatories". World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  4. ^ Complete FIDE Anti-Doping Documents FIDE official website. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
  5. ^ AM. "Chess WADA – Anti-Doping Policy, Nutrition and Health". www.fide.com. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  6. ^ Open letter from 50 players on drug testing (Web Archive)
  7. ^ a b "Controversy over FIDE doping check". 27 October 2002. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Controversy over FIDE doping check". 27 October 2002. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  9. ^ "The Hindu : Indian men beat U.S." www.thehindu.com. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  10. ^ Grossekathöfer, Maik (11 December 2008). "Outrage Over Ivanchuk: The Great Chess Doping Scandal". Retrieved 16 October 2017 – via Spiegel Online.
  11. ^ "Top Chess Blogs - Chess.com". Chess.com. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  12. ^ "Decision of the FIDE Doping Hearing Panel (Miller)" (PDF). Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  13. ^ "Decision of the FIDE Doping Hearing Panel (Press)" (PDF). Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  14. ^ "Decision of the FIDE Doping Hearing Panel". www.fide.com. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  15. ^ Minutes of 2010 FIDE General Assembly (page 24)
  16. ^ "ФИДЕ и ВАДА будут совместно выявлять допинг в шахматах". 24 November 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  17. ^ FIDE submits regulation changes for Chess Olympiad Fide.com

External linksEdit