22nd Chess Olympiad

The 22nd Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE, took place between October 26 and November 10, 1976, in Haifa, Israel. For the first time, the event comprised both an open[1] and a women's tournament.

Stamp allusive to the Olympiad

Another first was the change in format. The growing number of teams (74 at the previous Olympiad) had made it impossible to continue with the previous system of round-robin preliminary and final groups, so beginning in Haifa, the open event was played as a Swiss system tournament (the women's event had fewer participants and did not use the Swiss system until 1980).

The first Swiss system Olympiad ended up with significantly fewer teams, however. International politics once again interfered in the world of sports, as many FIDE member nations withdrew in protest against the Olympiad being held in Israel, a country many of them didn't recognize. Among the nations that stayed away from Haifa were all of the Arab countries, some of which took part in the alternative Against Chess Olympiad instead. Other absentees were the entire Eastern Bloc, including most of the usual medal candidates. A number of Eastern European players had recently defected, however, and now represented various Western countries.

In the absence of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Hungary, the US team had the highest average rating and had to be considered favourites, even without Bobby Fischer. In the end, they lived up to expectations and won the gold medals, by half a point. The Netherlands and England took home the silver and bronze, respectively.

Open eventEdit

Forty-eight nations played 13 rounds. In the event of a draw, the tie-break was decided first by match points, then by using the Buchholz system.

Open event
# Country Players Average
rating
Points MP Buchholz
1   United States Byrne, Kavalek, Evans, Tarjan, Lombardy, Commons 2535 37
2   Netherlands Timman, Sosonko, Donner, Ree, Ligterink, Kuijpers 2490 36½
3   England Miles, Keene, Hartston, Stean, Mestel, Nunn 2463 35½
4   Argentina Najdorf, Panno, Quinteros, Sanguineti, Szmetan, Bronstein 2513 33
5   West Germany Unzicker, Pachman, Kestler, Mohrlok, Ostermeyer, Wockenfuss 2485 31
6   Israel Liberzon, Kraidman, Dzindzichashvili, Lederman, Kagan, Birnboim 2490 29½
7    Switzerland Hug, Lombard, Wirthensohn, Huss, Hammer, Ott 2391 29
8   Canada Biyiasas, Day, Yanofsky, Amos, Lipnowski, Piasetski 2428 28½ 15
9   Spain Pomar, Bellón López, Martín González, Medina García, Sanz Alonso, Ochoa 2399 28½ 12
10   Colombia Cuartas, Castro, Minaya Molano, García, de Greiff, Silva 2365 28
11   Norway Øgaard, Hoen, Helmers, Hjertenes, Knudsen, Tiller 2331 27½ 16
12   Sweden Andersson, Ornstein, Jansson, Schüssler, Wahlbom, Schneider 2453 27½ 15 376.5
13   Italy Tatai, Toth, Grinza, Micheli, Paoli, Taruffi 2385 27½ 15 361.5
14   Wales Botterill, Williams, Hutchings, Cooper, Jones, Rayner 2355 27½ 15 359.0
15   Paraguay Franco Ocampos, Gamarra Cáceres, Bogda, Ferreira, Pane L., Ingolotti 2216 27½ 14
16   Chile Silva Sánchez, Donoso Velasco, Frias Pablaza, Scholz Solis, Velasquez Ojeda, Godoy Bugueño 2356 27½ 13 380.5
17   Australia Jamieson, Fuller, Shaw, Rubanraut, Woodhams, Kellner 2390 27½ 13 367.5
18   Austria Robatsch, Dückstein, Hölzl, Janetschek, Wittmann, Röhrl 2405 27½ 13 366.0
19   Finland Westerinen, Rantanen, Raaste, Kanko, Saren, Vahtera 2374 27½ 13 346.5
20   Philippines Torre, Balinas, Rodríguez, Mascariñas, Caturla, Estimo 2418 27 17
21   New Zealand Chandler, Green, Small, Smith, Cornford, Leonhardt 2216 27 15
22   Iceland Sigurjónsson, Ólafsson H., Thorsteinsson, Sólmundarson, Pétursson, Víglundsson 2426 27 13
23   Venezuela Ostos, Palacios, Díaz, Sánchez, Schorr, Cúellar 2275 26½ 13
24   Belgium Rooze, De Bruycker, Beyen, Van Seters, Mollekens, Schumacher 2326 26½ 11
25   Denmark Rath, Øst-Hansen, Kølbæk, Rosenlund, Rosell, Mortensen 2340 26½ 10
26   France Haïk, Preissmann, Puhm, Seret, Goldenberg, Letzelter 2320 26 14 351.0
27   Dominican Republic Myers, Columna, Carrión, González, Malagón, Pérez 2200 26 14 300.5
28   Uruguay Benítez, Bademian Orchanian, Ricetto, Silva Nazzari, Diano, Dienavorian Lacherian 2203 26 13
29   Honduras Lozano, Aguilar, Rivera, Padilla, Luque, Becerra 2200 26 9
30   Thailand Darakorn, Sinprayoon, Rasmussen, Sa-ngadsup, Trisa-Ard, Vajrabhaya S. 2200 25½ 12
31   Iran Sharif, Harandi, Shirazi, Mamouri, Safarzadeh, Saloor 2303 25½ 11 367.5
32   Costa Rica Vaglio Muñoz, Gutiérrez Mangel, Jiménez Molina, Salas Leal, Chaves, Sobrado 2200 25½ 11 324.0
33   Scotland Pritchett, Levy, Jamieson, Findlay, Swanson, Bonner 2321 25½ 10
34   Guernsey Browning, Blow, Whetton, Lainé, Denning, Taylor 2200 25 14
35   Ireland Kernan, Ludgate, Doyle, Keogh, Kennefick, Delaney 2214 25 12
36   Luxembourg Stull, Feller, Schammo, Schneider, Philippe, Milbers 2250 24½ 13
37   Guatemala Pérez, Batres, Deras Díaz, Cote, Garrido, Larios 2200 24½ 12 321.0
38   Japan Hamada, Kuroda, Sakurai, Tatsutomi, Kanai A., Ozaki 2200 24½ 12 296.0
39   Hong Kong Kan Wai Shui, Lo Y. Cheong, Sin Kuen, Ko Chi, Lam, Pang C. K. 2245 24½ 12 291.5
40   Bolivia Ramírez, Calle, Suarez S., García M., Rivas, Mendes J. 2200 24½ 11
41   Bermuda Yerbury, Radford, Reichgeld, McDaniels, Marks, Jensen 2200 24
42   Andorra Gómez Abad, De la Casa, Martínez, Guijarro, Tarradellas 2200 23
43   Monaco Angles d'Auriac, Martelli R., Cary A., Negro, Kostjoerin, Lepine 2200 22
44   Faroe Islands Petersen, Mikkelsen, Midjord, Ellefsen H., Petersen K., Thomassen J. 2201 21½
45   Papua New Guinea Rush, Markov, Earle M., Nacino T., Bluett N., Bell G. 2200 18
46   United States Virgin Islands Abraham, Hoyt, Rumsch, Grumer, Hanno, Levenson G. 2200 15½
47   British Virgin Islands Hook, Georges, Pickering, Campbell, Linhart G., Corbin 2203 13½
48   Netherlands Antilles Martina, Croes, Booi O., Brunk C., Tjinkamjet A. 2200

Team standingEdit

The following ratings were used to determine the placement (#).

# Team Code BP TP Rtg + = - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1   United States USA 37 21 383.5 9 3 1 IRI
3
CHI
SCO
ITA
2
AUS
4
NED
ENG
2
ARG
GER
2
ISR
SUI
4
COL
3
WLS
2   Netherlands NED 36½ 23 383.5 10 3 0 LUX
SCO
SUI
ARG
2
NOR
4
USA
ISR
3
ENG
2
CHI
SWE
GER
2
CAN
FIN
3
3   England ENG 35½ 22 385.5 9 4 0 NZL
FRA
4
ARG
GER
2
ITA
3
PHI
USA
2
NED
2
ISR
2
CAN
3
SWE
3
CHI
AUT
4   Argentina ARG 33 20 389.5 9 2 2 VEN
4
ESP
ENG
NED
2
SUI
3
GER
PHI
3
USA
IRI
3
AUT
3
ISR
SWE
CAN
2
5   West Germany GER 31 15 389.0 6 3 4 IRL
FIN
3
AUT
ENG
2
PHI
1
ARG
ESP
3
ISR
USA
2
IRI
4
NED
2
SUI
AUS
6   Israel ISR 29½ 17 392.5 8 1 4 URU
AUS
SWE
SUI
DEN
ESP
3
NED
1
GER
ENG
2
USA
½
ARG
PHI
3
PAR
7    Switzerland SUI 29 17 365.0 8 1 4 AHO
4
CAN
NED
ISR
ARG
1
CHI
½
DEN
THA
ESP
2
COL
3
USA
0
GER
FRA
8   Canada CAN 28½ 15 372.5 6 3 4 MNC
4
SUI
NOR
1
IRI
SCO
2
WLS
3
ITA
2
ESP
AUS
ENG
1
ISL
3
NED
ARG
2
9   Spain ESP 28½ 12 355.0 5 2 6 ISV
4
ARG
BEL
SWE
2
VEN
4
ISR
1
GER
1
CAN
SUI
2
CHI
NOR
AUS
SCO
10   Colombia COL 28 14 352.5 6 2 5 PNG
SWE
ISL
VEN
FIN
PAR
2
FRA
3
SCO
NOR
2
SUI
1
AUT
3
USA
1
HON
3
11   Norway NOR 27½ 16 362.5 6 4 3 THA
HON
CAN
3
PHI
NED
0
FIN
PAR
AUT
2
COL
2
ISL
2
ESP
DEN
2
VEN
12   Sweden SWE 27½ 15 376.5 7 1 5 DOM
COL
ISR
ESP
2
AUT
SCO
CHI
IRI
1
PHI
4
NED
½
ENG
1
ARG
DEN
13   Italy ITA 27½ 15 361.5 5 5 3 AND
4
ISL
3
PHI
2
USA
2
ENG
1
IRI
2
CAN
2
CHI
½
IRL
AUS
FRA
SCO
2
BEL
14   Wales WLS 27½ 15 359.0 6 3 4 HON
2
NZL
2
LUX
PAR
2
URU
4
CAN
1
VEN
AUS
1
BEL
3
FIN
CHI
ISL
3
USA
½
15   Paraguay PAR 27½ 14 345.0 6 2 5 FRA
1
CRC
NZL
WLS
2
LUX
COL
2
NOR
BEL
URU
PHI
SCO
BOL
4
ISR
16   Chile CHI 27½ 13 380.5 6 1 6 CRC
3
USA
AUS
2
URU
3
ISL
SUI
SWE
ITA
NED
½
ESP
WLS
ENG
½
IRI
3
17   Australia AUS 27½ 13 367.5 6 1 6 JPN
4
ISR
CHI
2
BEL
4
USA
0
ISL
IRI
1
WLS
3
CAN
ITA
PHI
ESP
GER
18   Austria AUT 27½ 13 366.0 6 1 6 GCI
4
BEL
GER
½
FIN
SWE
DEN
3
ISL
NOR
2
SCO
ARG
1
COL
1
CRC
4
ENG
19   Finland FIN 27½ 13 346.5 6 1 6 IVB
GER
1
DEN
AUT
COL
NOR
SCO
2
BOL
ISL
WLS
LUX
3
NZL
NED
1
20   Philippines PHI 27 17 367.5 8 1 4 FAI
4
DEN
3
ITA
2
NOR
GER
3
ENG
½
ARG
1
ISL
SWE
0
PAR
AUS
ISR
1
URU
21   New Zealand NZL 27 15 346.5 7 1 5 ENG
WLS
2
PAR
CRC
3
BEL
1
DOM
LUX
JPN
DEN
IRL
THA
3
FIN
½
GUA
3
22   Iceland ISL 27 13 350.0 6 1 6 HKG
4
ITA
1
COL
LUX
3
CHI
AUS
AUT
PHI
FIN
NOR
2
CAN
1
WLS
1
IRL
3
23   Venezuela VEN 26½ 13 336.5 6 1 6 ARG
0
PNG
MNC
4
COL
ESP
0
BEL
2
WLS
URU
½
THA
1
JPN
3
GCI
LUX
NOR
24   Belgium BEL 26½ 11 341.5 4 3 6 GUA
4
AUT
ESP
AUS
0
NZL
3
VEN
2
IRL
2
PAR
WLS
1
FAI
4
CRC
IRI
2
ITA
25   Denmark DEN 26½ 10 349.0 4 2 7 BER
4
PHI
1
FIN
IRL
4
ISR
½
AUT
1
SUI
FRA
2
NZL
DOM
IRI
NOR
2
SWE
26   France FRA 26 14 351.0 6 2 5 PAR
3
ENG
0
URU
0
BOL
4
GCI
GUA
3
COL
1
DEN
2
DOM
SCO
2
ITA
THA
4
SUI
½
27   Dominican Republic DOM 26 14 300.5 6 2 5 SWE
½
LUX
½
BOL
2
AHO
4
CRC
2
NZL
GUA
HON
FRA
DEN
½
IVB
3
AND
HKG
3
28   Uruguay URU 26 13 341.0 6 1 6 ISR
½
JPN
2
FRA
4
CHI
1
WLS
0
HON
BER
3
VEN
PAR
THA
IRL
GUA
PHI
29   Honduras HON 26 9 304.0 3 3 7 WLS
2
NOR
½
HKG
2
THA
GUA
URU
ISV
4
DOM
CRC
½
AHO
4
BOL
2
FAI
4
COL
1
30   Thailand THA 25½ 12 319.5 6 0 7 NOR
IRI
½
BER
3
HON
IRL
LUX
GCI
4
SUI
½
VEN
3
URU
NZL
1
FRA
0
AHO
4
31   Iran IRI 25½ 11 367.5 4 3 6 USA
1
THA
IRL
2
CAN
JPN
4
ITA
2
AUS
3
SWE
3
ARG
1
GER
0
DEN
BEL
2
CHI
1
32   Costa Rica CRC 25½ 11 324.0 5 1 7 CHI
1
PAR
ISV
NZL
1
DOM
2
IRL
1
HKG
3
GUA
HON
BOL
BEL
AUT
0
MNC
33   Scotland SCO 25½ 10 371.5 3 4 6 BOL
4
NED
USA
½
GCI
4
CAN
2
SWE
FIN
2
COL
AUT
FRA
2
PAR
ITA
2
ESP
½
34   Guernsey GCI 25 14 298.5 7 0 6 AUT
0
GUA
3
FAI
SCO
0
FRA
JPN
THA
0
PNG
HKG
BER
VEN
½
AHO
AND
3
35   Ireland IRL 25 12 328.0 5 2 6 GER
½
IVB
4
IRI
2
DEN
0
THA
CRC
3
BEL
2
LUX
ITA
NZL
URU
MNC
3
ISL
1
36   Luxembourg LUX 24½ 13 340.5 6 1 6 NED
½
DOM
WLS
ISL
1
PAR
THA
NZL
IRL
BOL
2
GUA
FIN
1
VEN
½
ISV
3
37   Guatemala GUA 24½ 12 321.0 6 0 7 BEL
0
GCI
1
PNG
3
MNC
3
HON
FRA
1
DOM
CRC
JPN
3
LUX
BER
3
URU
NZL
1
38   Japan JPN 24½ 12 296.0 5 2 6 AUS
0
URU
2
AND
3
HKG
IRI
0
GCI
FAI
3
NZL
GUA
1
VEN
1
AHO
IVB
BER
2
39   Hong Kong HKG 24½ 12 291.5 4 4 5 ISL
0
AND
2
HON
2
JPN
½
PNG
3
BER
2
CRC
1
FAI
3
GCI
IVB
MNC
2
ISV
3
DOM
1
40   Bolivia BOL 24½ 11 286.0 4 3 6 SCO
0
ISV
DOM
2
FRA
0
AHO
AND
4
PNG
FIN
LUX
2
CRC
HON
2
PAR
0
IVB
3
41   Bermuda BER 24 14 290.0 5 4 4 DEN
0
FAI
2
THA
1
ISV
AND
HKG
2
URU
1
MNC
2
IVB
3
GCI
GUA
1
PNG
JPN
2
42   Andorra AND 23 11 274.0 4 3 6 ITA
0
HKG
2
JPN
1
FAI
2
BER
BOL
0
AHO
IVB
3
MNC
2
ISV
3
PNG
DOM
GCI
1
43   Monaco MNC 22 11 277.5 4 3 6 CAN
0
AHO
VEN
0
GUA
1
ISV
FAI
1
IVB
3
BER
2
AND
2
PNG
HKG
2
IRL
1
CRC
½
44   Faroe Islands FAI 21½ 12 277.0 5 2 6 PHI
0
BER
2
GCI
½
AND
2
IVB
MNC
3
JPN
1
HKG
1
AHO
BEL
0
ISV
HON
0
PNG
45   Papua New Guinea PNG 18 06 280.0 3 0 10 COL
½
VEN
½
GUA
1
IVB
3
HKG
1
AHO
3
BOL
½
GCI
½
ISV
3
MNC
½
AND
BER
FAI
46   United States Virgin Islands ISV 15½ 06 283.0 3 0 10 ESP
0
BOL
CRC
½
BER
MNC
IVB
HON
0
AHO
PNG
1
AND
1
FAI
½
HKG
1
LUX
1
47   British Virgin Islands IVB 13½ 01 283.5 0 1 12 FIN
½
IRL
0
AHO
2
PNG
1
FAI
ISV
MNC
1
AND
1
BER
1
HKG
½
DOM
1
JPN
BOL
1
48   Netherlands Antilles AHO 0 01 294.0 0 1 12 SUI
0
MNC
½
IVB
2
DOM
0
BOL
½
PNG
1
AND
½
ISV
FAI
½
HON
0
JPN
½
GCI
½
THA
0

Individual medalsEdit

Women's resultsEdit

Twenty-three nations took part in the women's Olympiad. From four preliminary groups the teams were split into three finals. Israel, led by former World Championship challenger Kushnir, won the gold, ahead of England and Spain.

PreliminariesEdit

  • Group 1:
Final Country 1 2 3 4 5 + = Points
«A»   Israel - 2 3 3 0 1 9
«A»   Australia - ½ 2 1 1 2
«B»   Argentina ½ - 1 1 2 1
«B»   Colombia 1 1 - 2 1 2 1
«C»   Austria 0 2 1 - 1 2 1
  • Group 2:
Final Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 + = Points
«A»   Netherlands - 3 3 4 0 1 12½
«A»   Denmark ½ - 3 3 2 1 2
«B»   Finland ½ - 2 2 3 1 1
«B»   Canada 1 - 2 1 1 3
«C»   Wales 0 0 ½ - 1 3 1
«C»   Japan 0 0 1 1 ½ - 0 5 0
  • Group 3:
Final Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 + = Points
«A»   England - 2 3 5 0 0 12½
«A»   Spain ½ - 2 3 4 1 0 10½
«B»   France 1 1 - 1 2 3 2 3 0 8
«B»   Italy ½ ½ 2 - 2 2 1 7
«C»   Sweden ½ ½ 1 ½ - 3 1 4 0
«C»   New Zealand 0 0 0 0 - 0 4 1
  • Group 4:
Final Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 + = Points
«A»   United States - 3 2 2 3 4 0 1 11½
«A»   West Germany - 2 ½ 3 3 1 1
«B»   Philippines 0 1 - 3 3 2 2 1
«B»   Ireland 1 ½ - 3 1 2 2
«C»    Switzerland 1 0 - 2 2 2 1 7
«C»   Scotland 0 0 0 0 1 - 0 5 0 1

FinalsEdit

Final A
# Country Players Average
rating
Points MP
1   Israel Kushnir, Kristol, Podrazhanskaya, Nudelman 2182 17
2   England Hartston, Jackson, Pritchard, Caldwell 2115 11½ 8
3   Spain Ferrer, García, Pino García Padrón, Canela 1890 11½ 7
4   United States Savereide, Crotto, Herstein, Orton 2112 10½
5   Netherlands van der Mije, Vreeken, Belle, van der Giessen 2182
6   West Germany Laakmann, Weichert, Prill-Gassemann, Wasnetsky 2070 9
7   Australia McGrath, Kellner, Pope, Depasquale 1958
8   Denmark Høiberg, Haahr, Larsen 1917
Final B
# Country Players Average
rating
Points MP
9   Canada Vujosevic, Shterenberg, Day, Williams M. 1907 13½
10   Italy Gramignani, Pernici, Merciai, Romano D. 1800 12
11   Argentina Arias, Soppe, Cazón, Tadei 1800 11½
12   Ireland Healy, O'Siochrú, Noonan, Shouldice 1897 10½
13   Finland Vuorenpää, Pihlajamäki, Ristoja, Laitinen 1852 10
14   France Merlini, Tagnon, Ruck-Petit, Warkentin 1880 6
15   Colombia Leyva, Herrera L., Zapata, Patiño 1800 5
16   Philippines Cartel H. P., Emperado, Lizares A., Alvárez C. 1800 7
Final C
# Country Players Average
rating
Points MP
17    Switzerland Näpfer, Veprek, Wettstein, Ludwig 1875 12 10
18   Austria Hausner, Hennings, Kattinger, Samt 1940 12 9
19   Sweden Dahlin, Svensson, Svantesson, Bohmgren 2012 11½
20   Japan Nakagawa, Watai, Maeda, Terada M. 1830 11
21   Scotland Elder, Hindle, Leask, Houstoun 1810
22   Wales Garwell, Brunker, Davies, Jarman 1800
23   New Zealand Terry L., Stretch, Hollis A. 1800

Final «A»Edit

Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + = Points
1   Israel - 2 3 2 2 3 7 0 0 17
2   England ½ - 2 1 3 2 2 11½
3   Spain 1 1 - ½ 2 3 3 3 1 11½
4   United States ½ - 0 2 3 2 2 10½
5   Netherlands 0 ½ 3 - 1 2 4
6   West Germany 1 ½ 1 - 2 1 3 3 9
7   Australia 1 2 ½ 1 - 1 1 4 2
8   Denmark 0 0 ½ 1 2 - 1 4 2

Final «B»Edit

Country 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 + = Points
9   Canada - 2 1 1 2 5 2 0 13½
10   Italy 1 - 2 1 2 2 4 2 1 12
11   Argentina ½ ½ - 2 3 3 2 2 11½
12   Ireland 2 1 ½ - 1 1 3 4 0 10½
13   Finland 2 1 ½ - 2 2 1 3 3 1 10
14   France ½ 2 2 1 - 1 2 3 2
15   Colombia 1 1 2 1 2 - 1 2 4 1
16   Philippines ½ 1 0 ½ 2 2 - 2 4 1

Final «C»Edit

Country 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 + = Points
17    Switzerland - 1 2 2 2 5 1 0 12
18   Austria 2 - 3 3 0 3 12
19   Sweden 1 - 1 3 3 2 1 11½
20   Japan 1 2 - 2 3 3 1 2 11
21   Scotland 1 ½ ½ - 1 3 2
22   Wales ½ 0 ½ 1 - 3 1 4 1
23   New Zealand ½ 0 0 ½ 0 - 0 5 1

Individual medalsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Although commonly referred to as the men's division, this section is open to both male and female players.