12th Chess Olympiad

The 12th Chess Olympiad, organized by the FIDE and comprising an open[1] team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between August 31 and September 25, 1956, in Moscow, Soviet Union.

The official logo of the Olympiad.

The host nation were double defending champions and naturally huge favourites, and they lived up to expectations. Although their victory margin wasn't as big as two years before, they still won comfortably, with Yugoslavia and Hungary taking home the silver and bronze medals, respectively.

ResultsEdit

PreliminariesEdit

A total of 34 teams entered the competition and were divided into four preliminary groups of eight or nine teams. The top three from each group advanced to Final A, the teams placed 4th–6th to Final B, and the rest to Final C. All groups and finals were played as round-robin tournaments.

Group 1 was won by the Soviet hosts, well ahead of Bulgaria and Switzerland. Poland, Sweden, and Norway took the places 4–6, while Puerto Rico and Saar finished at the bottom of the group.

Yugoslavia took first place in group 2, ahead of Israel and Denmark. Netherlands, Austria, and France made up the middle part of the group, while Mongolia and Scotland had to settle for the bottom.

Group 3 was won by Argentina, ahead of West Germany and England. Iceland, Chile, and Finland took the places 4–6, while India, Luxembourg, and Ireland finished at the bottom of the group.

Hungary clinched group 4, ahead of Romania and Czechoslovakia. East Germany, Colombia, and Belgium made up the middle part of the group, while the Philippines, Greece, and Iran completed the field.

  • Group 1
Final Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + = Points
«A»   Soviet Union - 4 3 4 4 7 0 0 23½
«A»   Bulgaria - 3 3 6 1 0 19½
«A»    Switzerland 1 - 2 3 4 3 4 2 1 18
«B»   Poland 0 ½ - 3 3 3 4 4 3 0 15
«B»   Sweden 1 2 1 - 3 3 3 1 14½
«B»   Norway 0 1 1 1 - 2 1 5 1 9
«C»   Puerto Rico 0 ½ 0 1 1 2 - 1 5 1 7
«C»   Saar ½ ½ 1 0 ½ - 0 7 0
  • Group 2
Final Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + = Points
«A»   Yugoslavia - 3 3 4 4 7 0 0 23½
«A»   Israel - 2 3 4 4 2 1 18
«A»   Denmark 1 - 2 2 2 4 3 3 1 3 16½
«B»   Netherlands ½ 2 2 - 3 3 3 4 1 2 16
«B»   Austria ½ 1 2 - 4 2 4 1 13
«B»   France 1 2 1 - 3 2 4 1 12½
«C»   Mongolia 0 0 0 1 - 2 5 0
«C»   Scotland 0 ½ 1 1 0 1 - 0 7 0 5
  • Group 3
Final Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 + = Points
«A»   Argentina - 2 4 4 4 6 1 1 24
«A»   West Germany - 2 3 4 4 6 1 1 23
«A»   England - 2 4 3 6 1 1 22½
«B»   Iceland 2 2 2 - 1 3 4 4 4 1 3 20½
«B»   Chile ½ 3 - 4 4 0 17½
«B»   Finland 1 ½ - 2 3 2 5 1 14½
«C»   India 0 0 0 1 2 - 3 4 1 12½
«C»   Luxembourg 0 ½ 1 0 ½ ½ ½ - 1 7 0
«C»   Ireland 0 0 ½ 0 ½ 1 ½ - 0 8 0 4
  • Group 4
Final Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 + = Points
«A»   Hungary - 2 2 2 4 5 0 3 23
«A»   Romania - 2 4 3 6 1 1 21½
«A»   Czechoslovakia 2 2 - 2 2 4 3 4 4 0 4 21½
«B»   East Germany 2 2 - 1 3 4 4 2 2 18½
«B»   Colombia 2 3 - 2 4 3 3 2 18
«B»   Belgium ½ 2 2 - 3 2 4 2 14½
«C»   Philippines ½ ½ 0 1 1 - 3 2 6 0 10
«C»   Greece ½ 0 1 0 0 - 3 2 6 0
«C»   Iran 0 1 0 1 1 - 1 7 0

FinalEdit

Final A
# Country Players Points MP
1   Soviet Union Botvinnik, Smyslov, Keres, Bronstein, Taimanov, Geller 31
2   Yugoslavia Gligorić, Matanović, Ivkov, Karaklajić, Milić, Đurašević 26½ 17
3   Hungary Szabó, Barcza, Benkő, Szilágyi, Bély, Portisch 26½ 16
4   Argentina Najdorf, Bolbochán, Panno, Pilnik, Sanguineti, Wexler 23
5   West Germany Unzicker, Schmid, Darga, Pfeiffer, Niephaus, Teschner 22 12
6   Bulgaria Padevsky, Minev, Kolarov, Tringov, Tsvetkov, Milev 22 10
7   Czechoslovakia Filip, Pachman, Šefc, Rejfíř, Alster, Ježek 20½
8   England Golombek, Penrose, Wade, Milner-Barry, Clarke, Phillips 20
9    Switzerland Blau, Bhend, Walther, Keller, Johner 19 9
10   Denmark Larsen, Poulsen, Pedersen, Ingerslev, Nielsen, Enevoldsen 19 8
11   Romania Bălănel, Ciocâltea, Troianescu, Soós, Ghițescu, Rădulescu 19 7
12   Israel Czerniak, Porath, Aloni, Oren, Dobkin, Smiltiner 15½
Final B
# Country Players Points MP
13   Austria Robatsch, Dückstein, Kinzel, Prameshuber, Lokvenc, Busek 28
14   Iceland Ólafsson, Jóhannsson, Möller, Thorbergsson, Gíslason, Guðmundsson 27
15   Sweden Ståhlberg, Stenborg, Sköld, Backlund, Joffe, Ljungqvist 26½
16   Belgium O'Kelly, Dunkelblum, Limbos, Thibaut, Boey, Van den Broeck 23½
17   Finland Ojanen, Salo, Rantanen, Fred, Hänninen, Niemelä 22½
18   Colombia Cuéllar, Sánchez, De Greiff, Velandia, Restrepo, Reyes Larenas 21 11
19   Netherlands Prins, Kramer, Bouwmeester, Mühring, Van Steenis 21 10
20   East Germany Uhlmann, Dittmann, Herrmann, Fuchs, Koch, Platz 20½
21   France Muffang, Boutteville, Burstein, Noradounguian, Catozzi 19½
22   Chile Flores, Letelier, Hausman, Jauregui, Jiménez Rojas, Mallett 19 9
23   Poland Śliwa, Plater, Dworzyński, Gromek, Szapiro, Balcarek 19 7
24   Norway Vestøl, Morcken, Lindblom, Johannessen, Barda, Rojahn 16½
Final C
# Country Players Points MP
25   Philippines Badilles, Campomanes, Benítez, Cardoso 24
26   Saar Benkner, Lorson, Weichselbaumer, Folz V., Both G., Schmidt P. 23
27   India Sapre, Gupta, Mhaiskar, Venkatraman S. 20½
28   Iran Safvat, Mostafavi-Kachani, Navabi, Lotfy, Assar, Nazarian 19
29   Puerto Rico Colón Romero A., Colón Romero M., Pla, Benítez, Borrás, Reissmann 18½ 11
30   Mongolia Zhugder, Zhamsaran, Momo, Tumurbator, Tserendagva, Namzhil 18½ 9
31   Scotland Fairhurst, Fallone, McGowan, Thomson, Middleton, Rose M. 17½
32   Greece Siaperas, Aggos, Loverdos, Anastasopoulos, Mastihiadis, Pavlatos 17
33   Ireland Maher, Reilly, Walsh, Dunphy, Grogan, O'Riordan 13
34   Luxembourg Wantz, Conrady, Schneider, Schmitz F., Philippe, Kremer 9

Final A

Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 + = Points
1   Soviet Union - 3 4 3 10 1 0 31
2   Yugoslavia - 2 2 3 3 3 2 7 1 3 26½
3   Hungary 2 - 2 2 2 3 4 6 1 4 26½
4   Argentina 2 - 3 2 4 5 2 23
5   West Germany 1 2 - 2 5 4 2 22
6   Bulgaria 1 2 - 2 3 3 4 5 2 22
7   Czechoslovakia ½ 1 2 - 2 2 3 3 3 5 3 20½
8   England 0 2 2 2 - 2 3 4 4 20
9    Switzerland 1 1 1 2 1 - 2 2 3 5 3 19
10   Denmark ½ 1 2 2 - 3 1 3 6 2 19
11   Romania 2 1 2 1 - 2 2 6 3 19
12   Israel 0 ½ 1 1 2 3 2 - 1 8 2 15½

Final B

Country 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 + = Points
13   Austria - 2 0 2 3 3 3 3 8 1 2 28
14   Iceland 2 - 2 2 3 3 3 3 6 2 3 27
15   Sweden 4 2 - 3 2 6 3 2 26½
16   Belgium 2 - 3 2 1 2 3 5 3 3 23½
17   Finland 1 2 1 - 3 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 22½
18   Colombia 1 ½ 2 1 - 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 21
19   Netherlands ½ 1 3 2 - 3 2 3 1 4 2 5 21
20   East Germany 1 ½ 1 - 3 3 5 6 0 20½
21   France 1 1 1 2 1 2 - 2 4 2 6 3 19½
22   Chile 1 1 1 2 1 1 - 3 4 6 1 19
23   Poland 1 2 2 1 2 - 2 6 3 19
24   Norway ½ 2 1 3 1 1 1 - 3 7 1 16½

Final C

Country 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 + = Points
25   Philippines - 3 2 3 3 4 6 2 1 24
26   Saar - 2 2 2 3 4 6 0 3 23
27   India 2 - 2 3 2 4 2 3 20½
28   Iran ½ 2 - 3 3 4 4 1 19
29   Puerto Rico 1 2 ½ - 2 3 3 2 4 2 3 18½
30   Mongolia 2 2 - 2 2 2 3 2 2 5 18½
31   Scotland 2 1 1 2 - 2 3 3 3 3 17½
32   Greece 1 1 1 2 - 3 3 5 1 17
33   Ireland 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 - 0 6 3 13
34   Luxembourg 0 0 2 ½ 1 1 ½ - 1 7 1 9

Individual medalsEdit

Due to a special rule for the top board at Olympiads, Larsen's result automatically earned him the GM title (the rule has since been abolished).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Although commonly referred to as the men's division, this section is open to both male and female players.