1870 and 1871 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1870 and 1871 to elect Representatives for the 42nd Congress, and were held in the middle of President Ulysses S. Grant's first term.

1870 and 1871 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1868 & 1869 June 6, 1870 –
October 6, 1871[a]
1872 & 1873 →

All 243 seats in the United States House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JamesGBlaine.png Fernando Wood - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James G. Blaine Fernando Wood
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 3rd New York 9th
Last election 171 seats 61 seats
Seats won 136 94[b]
Seat change Decrease 35 Increase 33
Popular vote 2,719,276 2,441,956
Percentage 49.59% 44.53%
Swing Decrease 2.22% Increase 0.40%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Conservative Liberal Republican
Last election 6 seats New Party
Seats won 10 2
Seat change Increase 4 Increase 2
Popular vote 160,295 55,551
Percentage 2.92% 1.01%
Swing Decrease 0.27% Pre-creation

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 1[c]
Seat change Increase 1
Popular vote 98,591
Percentage 1.80%
Swing Decrease 0.81%

House042ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1870 elections for 42nd Congress

Speaker before election

James G. Blaine
Republican

Elected Speaker

James G. Blaine
Republican

With Grant's administration rocked by a number of scandals (including a shady deal for gold speculation that led to a crash in the market and several business deals that saw high-ranking governmental officials gain kickbacks) and Reconstruction winding down, his Republican Party lost seats to the opposition Democratic Party but retained an overall majority. Also, since white-supremacist governments controlled by the Democratic Party were reestablishing themselves in some portions of the South, the Democrats were able to make huge gains in this election.

Election summariesEdit

104 139
Democratic Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change
Mississippi[d][e] District 5 0   5  
Alabama District 6 3   1 3   1
Arkansas District 3 1   2  
California[f] District 3 0   2 3   2
Connecticut[f] District 4 1   3  
Delaware At-large 1 1   0  
Florida At-large 1 1   1 0   1
Georgia District 7 4   3  
Illinois District
+ 1 at-large
14 6   2 8   2
Indiana[d] District 11 5   1 6   1
Iowa[d] District 6 0   6  
Kansas At-large 1 0   1  
Kentucky District 9 9   0  
Louisiana District 5 0   5  
Maine[d] District 5 0   5  
Maryland District 5 5   0  
Massachusetts District 10 0   10  
Michigan District 6 1   1 5   1
Minnesota District 2 0   1 2   1
Missouri District 9 4   2 5[g]   2
Nebraska[d] At-large 1 0   1  
Nevada At-large 1 1   1 0   1
New Hampshire[f] District 3 3   3 0   3
New Jersey District 5 2   1 3   1
New York District 31 16   3 15   3
North Carolina[d] District 7 5   4 2   4
Ohio[d] District 19 5   1 14   1
Oregon[d] At-large 1 1   0  
Pennsylvania[d] District 24 11   3 13[h]   3
Rhode Island District 2 0   2  
South Carolina[d] District 4 0   4  
Tennessee District 8 6   6 2   6
Texas[f] District 4 4   3 0   3
Vermont[d] District 3 0   3  
Virginia District 8 5   5[i] 3  
West Virginia[d] District 3 2   2 1   2
Wisconsin District 6 2   1 4   1
Total 243 104
42.8%
  37 139[j]
57.2%
  32
Popular vote
Conservative
2.92%
Democratic
44.53%
Independent
1.80%
Lib. Republican
1.01%
Republican
49.59%
Others
0.15%
House seats
Conservative
4.08%
Democratic
38.37%
Independent
0.41%
Lib. Republican
0.82%
Republican
56.33%

The previous election included 5 Conservatives

Election datesEdit

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[1] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their congressional elections to this date as well. In 1870, there remained 12 States that held elections before Election Day, and 4 that held it after at this time:

Special electionsEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa 2
Michigan 4
South Carolina 1
Wisconsin 2 Benjamin F. Hopkins Republican 1866 Incumbent died January 1, 1870.
New member elected February 15, 1870.
Republican hold.

AlabamaEdit

Arizona TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

ArkansasEdit

CaliforniaEdit

California elections
 
← 1868 September 6, 1871 1872 →

3 seats
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 1 2
Seats won 3 0
Seat change   2   2
Popular vote 62,539 57,065
Percentage 52.3% 47.7%

 
  Republican hold
  Republican gain
District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Samuel Beach Axtell Democratic 1867 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican Gain.
California 2 Aaron Sargent Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Aaron Sargent (Republican) 54%
  • James W. Coffroth (Democratic) 46%
California 3 James A. Johnson Democratic 1867 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican Gain.

Colorado TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

ConnecticutEdit

Dakota TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

DelawareEdit

District of ColumbiaEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

FloridaEdit

Florida election
 
← 1868 November 8, 1870 (Election Day) 1872 →

1 seat
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Last election 1 0
Seats won 1[3] 0[3]
Seat change    
Popular vote 12,439 11,812
Percentage 51.3% 48.7%
District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large Charles M. Hamilton Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Niblack subsequently successfully challenged Walls's election and was seated from Florida's at-large district on January 29, 1873.[4]

GeorgiaEdit

Idaho TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

IowaEdit

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MissouriEdit

Montana TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

NebraskaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nebraska at-large John Taffe Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John Taffe (Republican) 60.84%
  • George B. Lake (Democratic) 42.00%[5]

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

New Mexico TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

OhioEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[6]
Ohio 1 Peter W. Strader Democratic 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain
Ohio 2 Job E. Stevenson Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain
Ohio 4 William Lawrence Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain
Ohio 5 William Mungen Democratic 1866 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold
Ohio 6 John Armstrong Smith Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 James J. Winans Republican 1868 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 9 Edward F. Dickinson Democratic 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain
Ohio 10 Erasmus D. Peck Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Erasmus D. Peck (Republican) 52.5%
  • William F. Lockwood (Democratic) 47.5%
Ohio 11 John Thomas Wilson Republican 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 13 George W. Morgan Democratic 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 14 Martin Welker Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 15 Eliakim H. Moore Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John Bingham (Republican) 52.4%
  • Robert A. Chambers (Democratic) 47.6%
Ohio 17 Jacob A. Ambler Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 18 William H. Upson Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

TennesseeEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Roderick R. Butler Republican 1867 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 2 Horace Maynard Republican 1865 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 William B. Stokes Republican 1865 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 4 Lewis Tillman Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 5 William F. Prosser Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 6 Samuel M. Arnell Republican 1865 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 7 Isaac R. Hawkins Republican 1865 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 8 William J. Smith Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

TexasEdit

Utah TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

Washington TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 Isaac H. Duval Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
West Virginia 2 James McGrew Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
West Virginia 3 John Witcher Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

WisconsinEdit

Wisconsin elected six members of congress on Election Day, November 8, 1870.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 Halbert E. Paine Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 2 David Atwood Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 3 Amasa Cobb Republican 1862 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 4 Charles A. Eldredge Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 5 Philetus Sawyer Republican 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 6 Cadwallader C. Washburn Republican 1866 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Wyoming TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large Richard C. McCormick Republican 1869 Incumbent re-elected.
Colorado Territory at-large Allen A. Bradford Republican 1868 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost renomination.
New delegate elected.
Republican hold.
Dakota Territory at-large Solomon L. Spink Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election as a Democrat.
New delegate elected.
Independent Democratic gain.
District of Columbia at-large New district New seat.
New delegate elected in 1871.
Republican gain.
Idaho Territory at-large Jacob K. Shafer Democratic 1868 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Samuel A. Merritt (Democratic) 59.24%
  • T. J. Butler (Republican) 40.74%
  • J. L. Butler (Independent) 0.02%[22]
Montana Territory at-large James M. Cavanaugh Democratic 1859 (Minnesota)
1861 (Lost)
1868
Incumbent lost renomination.
New delegate elected delegate August 7, 1871.
Republican hold.
New Mexico Territory at-large José F. Chaves Republican 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Utah Territory at-large William H. Hooper Democratic 1864 Incumbent re-elected.
Washington Territory at-large Selucius Garfielde Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected June 6, 1870.
Wyoming Territory at-large Stephen F. Nuckolls Democratic 1869 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  •  Y William T. Jones (Republican) 52.13%
  • John Wanless (Democratic) 45.03%
  • [FNU] Murrin (Independent Democratic) 2.85%[27]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Majority of states held elections on November 8, 1870 (i.e. Election Day).
  2. ^ Note that Dubin (p. 221) records 9–10 "Conservatives", and approximately 94 Democrats, as being elected to the 42nd Congress. This contrasts with Martis (pp. 124–125) which offers no separate accounting of "Conservatives" from Democrats and thus records a total of 104 Democratic members of the 42nd Congress.
  3. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Elections held early.
  5. ^ Elections held at the same time as elections for 41st Congress.
  6. ^ a b c d Elections held late.
  7. ^ Includes 2 Liberal Republicans: Gustavus A. Finkelnburg elected to Missouri's 2nd district, and James G. Blair elected to Missouri's 8th district.
  8. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican, John V. Creely, elected to Pennsylvania's 2nd district.
  9. ^ Previous election had 5 Conservatives.
  10. ^ Includes 2 Liberal Republicans and 1 Independent Republican.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  2. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  3. ^ a b Initial result, Democratic candidate successfully challenged Republican victory
  4. ^ "Forty-Second Congress (membership roster)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 01 Race - Oct 11, 1870". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  6. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 277, 278.
  7. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  8. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  9. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  10. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  11. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  12. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  13. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  14. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  15. ^ "WV District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  16. ^ "WV District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  17. ^ "WV District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  18. ^ "AZ Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  19. ^ "CO Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  20. ^ "DK Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  21. ^ "DC Delegate - Initial Election". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  22. ^ "ID Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  23. ^ "MT Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  24. ^ "NM Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  25. ^ "UT Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  26. ^ "WA Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  27. ^ "WY Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 5, 2021.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit