Brexit(Redirected from United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union)
Brexit is the process by which the United Kingdom withdraws from the European Union (EU). The British government led by David Cameron held a referendum on the issue on 23 June 2016; a majority voted to leave the European Union. On 19 June 2017, negotiations to leave the European Union started.
The UK remains a full member of the European Union as the terms of withdrawal are being negotiated. May said that the UK government would not seek permanent single market membership or of the customs union and promised a Great Repeal Bill that would repeal the European Communities Act and incorporate existing European Union law into UK domestic law. The departure of the UK is also expected to shift the balance of power within the EU, with Germany and her northern allies losing their veto in the EU Council.
The UK joined the European Communities, the predecessor of the EU, on 1 January 1973. A referendum in 1975 approved its membership. In the 1970s and 1980s, withdrawal from the EC was advocated mainly by Labour Party and trade union figures. From the 1990s, the main advocates of withdrawal from the EU were the newly founded UK Independence Party (UKIP) and an increasing number of Conservative MPs.
Since 1977, both pro- and anti-European views have had majority support at different times, with some dramatic swings between the two camps. In the United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum of 1975, two-thirds of British voters favoured continued EC membership. The highest-ever rejection of membership was in 1980, the first full year of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's term of office, with 65% opposed to and 26% in favour of membership. After Thatcher had negotiated a rebate of British membership payments in 1984, those favouring the EC maintained a lead in the opinion polls, except during 2000, as Prime Minister Tony Blair aimed for closer EU integration, including adoption of the euro currency, and around 2011, as immigration into the United Kingdom became increasingly noticeable. As late as December 2015 there was, according to ComRes, a clear majority in favour of remaining in the EU, albeit with a warning that voter intentions would be considerably influenced by the outcome of Prime Minister David Cameron's ongoing EU reform negotiations, especially with regards to the two issues of "safeguards for non-Eurozone member states" and "immigration". The following events are relevant.
European Communities and British membershipEdit
The UK was not a signatory of the three original treaties that were incorporated into what was then the European Communities, including the most well known of these, the 1957 Treaty of Rome, establishing the European Economic Community (EEC). The UK's applications to join in 1963 and 1967 were vetoed by the President of France, Charles de Gaulle, who said that "a number of aspects of Britain's economy, from working practices to agriculture" had "made Britain incompatible with Europe" and that Britain harboured a "deep-seated hostility" to any pan-European project. Once de Gaulle had relinquished the French presidency in 1969, the UK made a third and successful application for membership. The question of sovereignty had been discussed at the time in an official Foreign and Commonwealth Office document (FCO 30/1048); this was made open to the public in January 2002 under the rules for availability after thirty years. It listed among "Areas of policy in which parliamentary freedom to legislate will be affected by entry into the European Communities": Customs duties, Agriculture, Free movement of labour, services and capital, Transport, and Social Security for migrant workers. The document concluded (paragraph 26) that it was advisable to put the considerations of influence and power before those of formal sovereignty. The Treaty of Accession was signed in January 1972 by the then prime minister Edward Heath, leader of the Conservative Party. Parliament's European Communities Act 1972 was enacted on 17 October, and the UK's instrument of ratification was deposited the next day (18 October), letting the United Kingdom's membership of the EC come into effect on 1 January 1973.
In 1975, the United Kingdom held its first ever national referendum on whether the UK should remain in the European Communities. The opposition Labour Party, led by Harold Wilson, had contested the October 1974 general election with a commitment to renegotiate Britain's terms of membership of the EC and then hold a referendum on whether to remain in the EC on the new terms. All of the major political parties and the mainstream press supported continuing membership of the EC. However, there were significant divides within the ruling Labour Party; a 1975 one-day party conference voted by two to one in favour of withdrawal, and seven of the 23 cabinet ministers were opposed to EC membership, with Harold Wilson suspending the constitutional convention of Cabinet collective responsibility to allow those ministers to publicly campaign against the government.
On 5 June 1975, the electorate were asked to vote yes or no on the question: "Do you think the UK should stay in the European Community (Common Market)?" Every administrative county and region in the UK returned majority "Yes" votes, apart from the Shetland Islands and the Outer Hebrides. With a turnout of just under 65%, the outcome of the vote was 67.2% in favour of staying in, and the United Kingdom remained a member of the EC. Support for the UK to leave the EC in 1975, in the data, appears unrelated to the support for Leave in the 2016 referendum.
In 1979, the United Kingdom opted out of the newly formed European Monetary System (EMS), which was the precursor to the creation of the euro currency.
The opposition Labour Party campaigned in the 1983 general election on a commitment to withdraw from the EC without a referendum. It was heavily defeated; the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher was re-elected. The Labour Party subsequently changed its policy.
In October 1990—despite the deep reservations of Margaret Thatcher, who was under pressure from her senior ministers—the United Kingdom joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), with the pound sterling pegged to the deutschmark.
Maastricht and afterEdit
Thatcher resigned as Prime Minister in November 1990, amid internal divisions within the Conservative Party that arose partly from her increasingly Eurosceptic views. The United Kingdom was forced to withdraw from the ERM in September 1992, after the pound sterling came under pressure from currency speculators (an episode known as Black Wednesday). The resulting cost to UK taxpayers was estimated to be in excess of £3 billion.
As a result of the Maastricht Treaty, the European Communities became the European Union on 1 November 1993. The new name reflected the evolution of the organisation from an economic union into a political union. As a result of the Lisbon Treaty, which entered into force on 1 December 2009, the Maastricht Treaty is now known, in updated form as, the Treaty on European Union (2007) or TEU, and the Treaty of Rome is now known, in updated form, as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (2007) or TFEU.
The Referendum Party was formed in 1994 by Sir James Goldsmith to contest the 1997 general election on a platform of providing a referendum on the UK's membership of the EU. It fielded candidates in 547 constituencies at that election, and won 810,860 votes or 2.6% of the total votes cast. It failed to win a single parliamentary seat because its vote was spread out across the country, and lost its deposit (funded by Goldsmith) in 505 constituencies.
Role of UKIPEdit
The UK Independence Party (UKIP), a Eurosceptic political party, was also formed, in 1993. It achieved third place in the UK during the 2004 European elections, second place in the 2009 European elections and first place in the 2014 European elections, with 27.5% of the total vote. This was the first time since the 1910 general election that any party other than the Labour or Conservative parties had taken the largest share of the vote in a nationwide election. UKIP's electoral success in the 2014 European election has been documented as the strongest correlate of the support for the leave campaign in the 2016 referendum.
Role of the Conservative PartyEdit
Elements within the Conservative Party oppose the EU directive of enforceability of ECHR rulings (e.g. Article 6(2) of Maastricht Treaty) over and above the Law of the United Kingdom, and this topic has for a long time been a major factor prior to the debate surrounding the proposed departure of the British from the EU.    
In a statistical analysis published in April 2016, Professor John Curtice of Strathclyde University defined Euroscepticism as the wish to sever or reduce the powers of the EU, and conversely Europhilia as the desire to preserve or increase the powers of the EU. According to this definition, the British Social Attitudes (BSA) surveys show an increase in euroscepticism from 38% (1993) to 65% (2015). Euroscepticism should however not be confused with the wish to leave the EU: the BSA survey for the period July–November 2015 shows that 60% backed the option "continue as an EU member", and only 30% backed the option to "withdraw".
Negotiations for EU reformEdit
In 2012, Prime Minister David Cameron rejected calls for a referendum on the UK's EU membership, but suggested the possibility of a future referendum to gauge public support. According to the BBC, "The prime minister acknowledged the need to ensure the UK's position within the European Union had 'the full-hearted support of the British people' but they needed to show 'tactical and strategic patience'."
Under pressure from many of his MPs and from the rise of UKIP, in January 2013, Cameron announced that a Conservative government would hold an in–out referendum on EU membership before the end of 2017, on a renegotiated package, if elected in 2015.
The Conservative Party unexpectedly won the 2015 general election with a majority. Soon afterwards the European Union Referendum Act 2015 was introduced into Parliament to enable the referendum. Cameron favoured remaining in a reformed European Union, and sought to renegotiate on four key points: protection of the single market for non-eurozone countries, reduction of "red tape", exempting Britain from "ever-closer union", and restricting EU immigration.
The outcome of the renegotiations was announced in February 2016. Some limits to in-work benefits for new EU immigrants were agreed, but before they could be applied, a country such as the UK would have to get permission from the European Commission and then from the European Council.
In a speech to the House of Commons on 22 February 2016, Cameron announced a referendum date of 23 June 2016, and commented on the renegotiation settlement. He spoke of an intention to trigger the Article 50 process immediately following a leave vote, and of the "two-year time period to negotiate the arrangements for exit."
The official campaign to stay in the EU, chaired by Stuart Rose, was known as Britain Stronger in Europe, or informally as Remain. Other campaigns supporting remaining in the EU included Conservatives In, Labour in for Britain, #INtogether (Liberal Democrats), Greens for a Better Europe, Scientists for EU, Environmentalists For Europe, Universities for Europe and Another Europe is Possible.
The result was announced on the morning of 24 June: 51.9% voted in favour of leaving the European Union, and 48.1% voted in favour of remaining a member of the European Union. Comprehensive results are available from the UK Electoral Commission Referendum Results site. A petition calling for a second referendum attracted more than four million signatures, but was rejected by the government on 9 July.
|Leave the European Union||17,410,742||51.89|
|Remain a member of the European Union||16,141,241||48.11|
|Invalid or blank votes||25,359||0.08|
|Registered voters and turnout||46,500,001||72.21|
|Voting age population and turnout||51,356,768||65.38|
|Source: Electoral Commission; UNDESA (UK VAP); US Census Bureau (Gibraltar VAP)|
After the result was declared, Cameron announced that he would resign by October. He stood down on 13 July 2016, with Theresa May becoming Prime Minister after a leadership contest. George Osborne was replaced as Chancellor of the Exchequer by Philip Hammond, former Mayor of London Boris Johnson was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, and David Davis became Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union. Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn lost a vote of confidence among his parliamentary party, and an unsuccessful leadership challenge was launched. On 4 July, Nigel Farage announced his resignation as leader of UKIP.
Outside the UK, many Eurosceptic leaders celebrated the result, and expected others to follow the UK example. The right-wing Dutch populist Geert Wilders said that the Netherlands should follow Britain's example and hold a referendum on whether the Netherlands should stay in the European Union. However, opinion polls in the fortnight following the British referendum show that the immediate reaction in the Netherlands and other European countries was a decline in support for Eurosceptic movements.
Procedure for leaving the EUEdit
Withdrawal from the European Union is governed by Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. Under the Article 50 invocation procedure, a member notifies the European Council and there is a negotiation period of up to two years, after which the treaties cease to apply. Although terms of leaving may be agreed, aspects such as trade may be difficult to negotiate until the UK has left the EU.
Although the 2015 Referendum Act did not expressly require Article 50 to be invoked, the UK government stated that it would expect a leave vote to be followed by withdrawal despite government refusal to make contingency plans. Following the referendum result, Cameron resigned and said that it would be for the incoming Prime Minister to invoke Article 50.
The Supreme Court ruled in the Miller case in January 2017 that the government needed parliamentary approval to trigger Article 50. After the House of Commons overwhelmingly voted, on 1 February 2017, for the government's bill authorising the prime minister to invoke Article 50, the bill passed into law as the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017. Theresa May signed the letter invoking Article 50 on 28 March 2017, which was delivered on 29 March by Tim Barrow, the UK's ambassador to the EU, to Donald Tusk.
The issue of whether the UK's invocation of Article 50 can be revoked is unclear. Article 50 is silent on the matter, but its author Lord Kerr has asserted that the Article 50 notification is reversible.
The British and EU negotiators agreed that initial negotiations, relating especially to residency rights, would commence in June 2017 (immediately after the French presidential and parliamentary elections), and full negotiations, relating especially to trading agreements, could commence in October 2017 (immediately after the German federal election, 2017).
On 28 June 2016, five days after the referendum, Chancellor Angela Merkel announced to the German parliament the forthcoming EU negotiation position: the UK could only remain in the European Single Market (ESM) if the UK accepted EU migrants. There would be no cherrypicking (Rosinenpicken - raisin picking) of the ESM's four conditions (free movement of goods, capital, services and labour). While she expected the UK to remain an important NATO partner, the EU's priority was unity and self-preservation. She warned the UK not to delude itself. The next day, European Council president Donald Tusk confirmed that the UK would not be allowed access to the European Single Market unless they accepted its four freedoms of movement for goods, capital, services, and people.
In contrast, at her October 2016 party conference, Prime Minister Theresa May emphasised that ending the jurisdiction of EU law and free movement from Europe were priorities. She wished "to give British companies the maximum freedom to trade with and operate in the Single Market – and let European businesses do the same here", but not at the expense of losing sovereignty.
In November 2016, Prime Minister Theresa May proposed that Britain and the other EU countries mutually guarantee the residency rights of the 3.3 million EU immigrants in Britain and those of the 1.2 million British citizens living on the Continent, in order to exclude their fates being bargained during Brexit negotiations. Despite initial approval from a majority of EU states, May's proposal was blocked by EU Council President Tusk and German Chancellor Merkel.
In January 2017, the Prime Minister presented 12 negotiating objectives and confirmed that the UK government would not seek permanent single market membership. The European Parliament's lead negotiator Guy Verhofstadt responded that there could be no "cherry-picking" by the UK in the talks.
The statutory period for negotiation began on 29 March 2017, when the letter notifying withdrawal, signed by the United Kingdom's prime minister at 10 Downing Street, Westminster, was handed to the president of the European Council in Brussels. The letter calls for a "deep and special relationship" between the UK and the EU, and warns that failure to reach an agreement would result in EU-UK trade under World Trade Organisation terms, and a weakening of the UK's cooperation in the fight against crime and terrorism. The letter suggests prioritising an early deal on the rights of EU citizens in the UK and vice-versa. In the letter, the Prime Minister reasons that as the EU leaders do not wish "cherry picking" of the European Single Market (ESM), the UK does not seek to remain within the ESM. Instead, the UK seeks a free trade agreement with the EU. In response, German Chancellor Angela Merkel insisted that the EU would not discuss future cooperation without first settling the divorce, the European Parliament lead negotiator Guy Verhofstadt referred to the letter as "blackmail" with regard to the point on security and terrorism, and EU Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker said the UK’s decision to quit the block was a "choice they will regret one day".
On 29 April 2017, immediately after the first round of French presidential elections, the EU27 heads of state accepted, without discussion, negotiating guidelines prepared by the President of the European Council. The guidelines take the view that Article 50 permits a two-phased negotiation, whereby the UK first needs to agree to a financial commitment and to lifelong benefits for EU citizens in Britain, before the EU27 will entertain negotiations on a future relationship. In the requested first phase of the withdrawal negotiation, the EU27 negotiators demand the UK pay a "divorce bill", initially estimated as amounting up to £52bn and then, after additional financial demands from Germany, France, and Poland, amounting to £92bn. Nevertheless, a report of the European Union Committee of the House of Lords published on 4 March 2017 states that if there is no post-Brexit deal at the end of the two-year negotiating period, the UK could withdraw without payment. Similarly, the Prime Minister insisted to EU Commission President Juncker that talks about the future UK-EU relationship should start early and that Britain did not owe any money to the EU under the current treaties.
On the EU27 side, unflattering details of a four-way meeting between Prime Minister Theresa May, Brexit Minister David Davis, EU Commission President Juncker and his chief-of-staff Martin Selmayr were leaked to the German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, presumably by Martin Selmayr. According to the leaked description, Juncker claimed that Theresa May was "living in another galaxy" when suggesting that British and EU migrant rights could be rapidly negotiated and agreed in the course of June 2017. German Chancellor Angela Merkel concurred the next day by stating that there were "illusions" on the British side. A few days later, Juncker disclaimed responsibility and called the leak a mistake, Der Spiegel magazine reported that Angela Merkel was annoyed with Juncker for the leak, while EU Council President Tusk admonished participants to use discretion during the negotiations. The background for German nervousness allegedly is the possibility that Britain may veto EU budget increases, which for example in the immediate term amount to 4 billion euros. A continued British veto would have far-reaching consequences and "will hurt us" according to German MEP Jens Geier.
On 22 May 2017, the EU Council authorised the start of Brexit talks and adopted its negotiating directives. 
Post-Article 50 LegislationEdit
Great Repeal BillEdit
In October 2016, Theresa May promised a "Great Repeal Bill", which would repeal the European Communities Act 1972 and restate in UK law all enactments previously in force under EU law. This bill will be introduced in the May 2017 parliamentary session and enacted before or during the Article 50 negotiations; it would not come into force until the date of exit. It would smooth the transition by ensuring that all laws remain in force until specifically repealed. Such a bill could raise constitutional issues regarding the devolution settlements with the UK nations, particularly in Scotland.
Additional government billsEdit
A report published in March 2017 by the Institute for Government commented that, in addition to the Great Repeal Bill, primary and secondary legislation will be needed to cover the gaps in policy areas such as customs, immigration and agriculture. The report also commented that the role of the devolved legislatures was unclear, and could cause problems, and as many as fifteen new additional Brexit Bills may be required, which would involve strict prioritisation and limiting Parliamentary time for in-depth examination of new legislation.
The House of Lords continued to publish a series of reports on Brexit related subjects including:
Voting on the final outcomeEdit
Replying to questions at a parliamentary committee about Parliament's involvement in voting on the outcome of the negotiations with the EU, the Prime Minister said that "delivering on the vote of the British people to leave the European Union" was her priority. The shadow Brexit secretary, Keir Starmer, commented that the government did not want a vote at the beginning of the process, to trigger Article 50, nor a vote at the end.
Consequences of withdrawal for the United KingdomEdit
Immigration was cited as the second-most important reason for those voting to Leave. However, forecasts indicate that immigration ﬂows to the UK will remain relatively high after Brexit. Several thousand British citizens resident in other EU countries have after the referendum applied for citizenship where they live, since they fear losing the right to work there.
During the referendum, the economic arguments were a major area of debate. Remainers, including the UK Treasury, argued that being in the EU has a strong positive effect on trade and as a result the UK's trade would be worse off if it left the EU. Supporters of withdrawal from the EU have argued that the cessation of net contributions to the EU would allow for some cuts to taxes or increases in government spending.
After the referendum, the Institute for Fiscal Studies published a report funded by the Economic and Social Research Council which warned that Britain would lose up to £70 billion in reduced economic growth if it didn't retain Single Market membership, with new trade deals unable to make up the difference. One of these areas is financial services, which are helped by EU-wide "passporting" for financial products, which the Financial Times estimates indirectly accounts for up to 71,000 jobs and 10 billion pounds of tax annually and there are concerns that banks may relocate outside the UK.
On 5 January 2017, Andy Haldane, the Chief Economist and the Executive Director of Monetary Analysis and Statistics at the Bank of England, admitted that forecasts predicting an economic downturn due to the referendum were inaccurate and noted strong market performance after the referendum, although some have pointed to prices rising faster than wages.
Brexit requires relocating the offices and staff of the European Medicines Agency and European Banking Authority, currently based in London. The EU is also investigating the feasibility of restricting the clearing of euro-denominated trades to Eurozone jurisdictions, attempting to end London's dominance in this sector. 
Effect on academic researchEdit
The UK received more from the EU for research than it contributed with universities getting a large proportion of their research income from the EU. All funding for net beneficiaries from the EU, including universities, was guaranteed by the government in August 2016. Before the funding announcement, a newspaper investigation reported that research projects were reluctant to employ British researchers due to uncertainties over funding.
As predicted before the referendum, the Scottish Government announced that officials were planning a second independence referendum on the day after the UK voted to leave and Scotland voted to stay. In March 2017, the SNP leader and First Minister Nicola Sturgeon requested a second Scottish independence referendum for 2018 to 2019 (before Brexit is expected to take effect). The Prime Minister immediately rejected the requested timing (although not the referendum itself). The referendum was approved by the Scottish Parliament on 28 March 2017. Sturgeon is calling for a "phased return" of an independent Scotland back to the EU.
The Financial Times approximates there to be 759 international agreements, spanning 168 non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a party to upon leaving the EU. This figure does not include World Trade Organisation or United Nations opt-in accords, and excludes "narrow agreements", which may have to be renegotiated as well.
Options for continuing relationship with the EUEdit
The UK's post-Brexit relationship with the remaining EU members could take several forms. A research paper presented to the UK Parliament in July 2013 proposed a number of alternatives to membership which would continue to allow access to the EU internal market. These include remaining in the European Economic Area, negotiating deep bilateral agreements on the Swiss model or exit from the EU without EEA membership or a trade agreement under the WTO Option. There may be an interim deal between the time the UK leaves the EU and when the final relationship comes in force.
Relations with the Republic of IrelandEdit
The Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the United Kingdom as a whole share, since the 1920s, a Common Travel Area without border controls. According to statements by Theresa May and Enda Kenny, it is intended to maintain this arrangement. After Brexit, in order to prevent illegal migration across the open Northern Irish land border into the United Kingdom, the Irish and British governments suggested in October 2016 a plan whereby British border controls would be applied to Irish ports and airports. This would prevent a "hard border" arising between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. However, this agreement was never official and was met by opposition from political parties in the Republic of Ireland and there is still great uncertainty in relation to a 'hard border' between the Republic and Northern Ireland.
On 23 March 2017, it was confirmed that British immigration officials would not be allowed to use Irish ports and airports in order to combat immigration concerns following Brexit. A referendum for the reunification of Ireland was suggested by Sinn Féin leader Martin McGuinness immediately after the UK EU referendum results were announced. Creating a border control system between Ireland and Northern Ireland could jeopardise the Good Friday Agreement established in 1998. In April 2017 the European Council agreed that, in the event of Irish reunification, Northern Ireland would rejoin the EU.
Border with FranceEdit
The President of the Regional Council of Hauts-de-France, Xavier Bertrand, stated in February 2016 that "If Britain leaves Europe, right away the border will leave Calais and go to Dover. We will not continue to guard the border for Britain if it's no longer in the European Union," indicating that the juxtaposed controls would end with a leave vote. French Finance Minister Emmanuel Macron also suggested the agreement would be "threatened" by a leave vote. These claims have been disputed, as the Le Touquet 2003 treaty enabling juxtaposed controls was not an EU treaty, and would not be legally void upon leaving.
After the Brexit vote, Xavier Bertrand asked François Hollande to renegotiate the Touquet agreement, which can be terminated by either party with two years' notice. Hollande rejected the suggestion, and said: "Calling into question the Touquet deal on the pretext that Britain has voted for Brexit and will have to start negotiations to leave the Union doesn't make sense." Bernard Cazeneuve, the French Interior Minister, confirmed there would be "no changes to the accord". He said: "The border at Calais is closed and will remain so."
Gibraltar and SpainEdit
During the campaign leading up to the referendum the Chief Minister of Gibraltar warned that Brexit posed a threat to Gibraltar's safety. Gibraltar overwhelmingly voted to remain in the EU. After the result Spain's Foreign Minister renewed calls for joint Spanish–British control of the peninsula. These calls were strongly rebuffed by Gibraltar's Chief Minister and questions were raised over the future of free-flowing traffic at the Gibraltar–Spain border. The British government states it will only negotiate on the sovereignty of Gibraltar with the consent of its people.
Consequences of withdrawal for the EUEdit
Structure and budgetEdit
Shortly after the referendum, the German parliament published an analysis on the consequences of a Brexit on the EU and specifically on the economic and political situation of Germany. According to this, Britain is, after the United States and France, the third-most important export market for German products. In total Germany exports goods and services to Britain worth about €120 billion annually, which is about 8% of German exports, with Germany achieving a trade surplus with Britain worth €36.3 billion (2014). Should there be a "hard Brexit", exports would be subject to WTO customs and tariffs. The trade weighted average tariff is 2.4%, but the tariff on automobiles, for instance, is 9.7%, so trade in automobiles would be particularly affected; this would also affect German automobile manufacturers with production plants in the United Kingdom. In total, 750,000 jobs in Germany depend upon export to Britain, while on the British side about three million jobs depend on export to the EU. The study emphasises however that the predictions on the economic effects of a Brexit are subject to significant uncertainty.
According to the Lisbon Treaty (2009), EU Council decisions made by qualified majority voting can only be blocked if at least four members of the Council form a blocking minority. This rule was originally developed to prevent the three most populous members (Germany, France, Britain) from dominating the EU Council. However, after a Brexit of the economically liberal British, the Germans and like-minded northern European countries (the Dutch, Scandinavians and Balts) would lose an ally and therefore also their blocking minority. Without this blocking minority, other EU states could overrule Germany and its allies in questions of EU budget discipline or the recruitment of German banks to guarantee deposits in troubled southern European banks.
With Brexit, the EU would lose its second-largest economy, the country with the third-largest population and the financial centre of the world. Furthermore, the EU would lose its second-largest net contributor to the EU budget (2015: Germany €14.3 billion, United Kingdom €11.5 billion, France €5.5 billion).
Thus, the departure of Britain would result in an additional financial burden for the remaining net contributors, unless the budget is reduced accordingly: Germany, for example, would have to pay an additional €4.5 billion for 2019 and again for 2020; in addition, the UK would no longer be a shareholder in the European Investment Bank, in which only EU members can participate. Britain's share amounts to 16%, €39.2 billion (2013), which Britain would withdraw unless there is an EU treaty change.
The European CouncilEdit
The departure of the UK is expected to have a major effect on the EU. In many policy votes Britain had allied with the relatively more economically liberal Germany who together with other northern EU allies had a blocking minority of 35% in the Council of the European Union. The exit of the UK from the European Union means that this blocking minority can no longer be assembled leading to speculation that it could enable the other EU countries to enforce specific proposals such as relaxing EU budget discipline or providing EU-wide deposit guarantees within the banking union.
UK MEPs are expected to retain full rights to participate in the European Parliament up to the Article 50 deadline. However, there have been discussions about excluding UK MEPs from key committee positions.
The EU will need to decide on the revised apportionment of seats in the European Parliament in time for the next European Parliament election, expected to be held in June 2019, when the United Kingdom's 73 MEPs will have vacated their seats. In April 2017, a group of European lawmakers discussed what should be done about the vacated seats. One plan, supported by Gianni Pittella and Emmanuel Macron, is to replace the 73 seats with a pan-European constituency list; other options which were considered include dropping the British seats without replacement, and reassigning some or all of the existing seats from other countries to reduce inequality of representation.
Public opinion and commentEdit
Public comment up to February 2017 UK white paperEdit
Various EU leaders have said that they will not start any negotiation before the UK formally invokes Article 50. Jean-Claude Juncker ordered all members of the EU Commission not to engage in any kind of contact with UK parties regarding Brexit. In October 2016, he stated that he was agitated that the British had not developed a sense of community with Europeans during 40 years of membership; Juncker denied that Brexit was a warning for the EU, envisaged developing an EU defence policy without the British after Brexit, and rejected a suggestion that the EU should negotiate in such a way that Britain would be able to hold a second referendum. On 5 November 2016, Juncker reacted to reports of some European businesses seeking to make agreements with the British government, and warned: "I am telling them [companies] that they should not interfere in the debate, as they will find that I will block their path." Juncker stated in February 2017 that the UK would be expected to pay outstanding commitments to EU projects and pensions as part of the withdrawal process, suggesting such bills would be "very hefty."
German foreign secretary Frank-Walter Steinmeier met Britain's foreign secretary Boris Johnson on 4 November 2016; Johnson stressed the importance of British-German relationships, whereas Steinmeier responded that the German view was that the UK should have voted to stay in the EU and that the German priority now was to preserve the remaining union of 27 members. There could be no negotiations before the UK formally gives notice. A long delay before beginning negotiations would be detrimental. Britain could not keep the advantages of the single market but at the same time cancel the "less pleasant rules".
Newly appointed prime minister Theresa May made clear that negotiations with the EU required a "UK-wide approach". On 15 July 2016, she said: "I have already said that I won't be triggering article 50 until I think that we have a UK approach and objectives for negotiations – I think it is important that we establish that before we trigger article 50."
According to The Daily Telegraph, the Department for Exiting the European Union spent over £250,000 on legal advice from top Government lawyers in two months, and has plans to recruit more people. Nick Clegg said the figures showed the Civil Service was unprepared for the very complex negotiations ahead.
In the wake of the United Kingdom's vote to leave the European Union, the Department for International Trade (DIT) for striking and extending trade agreements between the UK and non-EU states was created by Prime Minister Theresa May, shortly after she took office on 13 July 2016. It employs about 200 trade negotiators and is overseen by the Secretary of State for International Trade, currently Liam Fox.
On 17 January 2017, Prime Minister Theresa May, announced a series of 12 negotiating objectives in a speech at Lancaster House. These consist of an end to European Court of Justice jurisdiction, withdrawal from the single market with a "comprehensive free-trade agreement" replacing this, a new customs agreement excluding the common external tariff and common commercial policy, an end to free movement of people, co-operation in crime and terrorism, collaboration in areas of science and technology, engagement with devolved administrations, maintaining the Common Travel Area with Ireland, and preserving existing workers' rights.
The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England". Through the Joint Ministerial Committee on EU Negotiations (JMC(EN)), the Government intends to involve the views of the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Assembly and the Northern Ireland Assembly in the process of negotiating the UK's exit from the EU. For instance, at the January 2017 meeting of the JMC(EN), the Scottish Government's proposal to remain in the European Economic Area was considered.
Public comment pre- and post-Article 50 notificationEdit
EU negotiator Guy Verhofstadt, the European parliament's chief negotiator has said that: "All British citizens today have also EU citizenship. That means a number of things: the possibility to participate in the European elections, the freedom of travel without problem inside the union. We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it." The suggestion being an “associate citizenship”.
An EU meeting to discuss Brexit has been called for 29 April, Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead". Michel Barnier, European Chief Negotiator for Brexit, has called for talks to be completed by October 2018 to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March 2019.
Sinn Féin has called for a referendum to create a united Ireland, following the Northern Ireland majority decision (56% to 44%) to vote no to Brexit and the 2 March election to the Northern Ireland Assembly wherein Sinn Féin increased its number of seats.
In early May, Jean-Claude Juncker said that the UK leaving the EU was a "tragedy" and that it is partly the responsibility of the EU. "The EU, in many respects has done too much, especially the Commission", including "too much regulation and too many interferences in the lives of our fellow citizens". The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from 130 to 23 per year.
Post-referendum opinion pollingEdit
Following the EU referendum, there have been several opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU. The results of these polls are shown in the table below.
|Date(s) conducted||Right||Wrong||Undecided||Lead||Sample||Conducted by||Polling type||Notes|
|12-13 Jun 2017||44%||45%||11%||1%||1,651||YouGov||Online|
|8 Jun 2017||UK General Election 2017|
|5-7 Jun 2017||45%||45%||10%||0%||2,130||YouGov||Online|
|30-31 May 2017||44%||45%||11%||1%||1,875||YouGov||Online|
|24-25 May 2017||46%||43%||11%||3%||2,052||YouGov||Online|
|16-17 May 2017||46%||43%||11%||3%||1,861||YouGov||Online|
|3-14 May 2017||45%||41%||14%||4%||1,952||GfK||Online|
|9-10 May 2017||44%||45%||11%||1%||1,651||YouGov||Online|
|2-3 May 2017||46%||43%||11%||3%||2,066||YouGov||Online|
|25-26 Apr 2017||43%||45%||12%||2%||1,590||YouGov||Online|
|20-21 Apr 2017||44%||44%||12%||0%||1,590||YouGov||Online|
|18-19 Apr 2017||46%||43%||11%||3%||1,727||YouGov||Online|
|12-13 Apr 2017||45%||43%||12%||2%||2,069||YouGov||Online|
|5-6 Apr 2017||46%||42%||11%||4%||1,651||YouGov||Online|
|29 Mar 2017||The United Kingdom invokes Article 50.|
|26-27 Mar 2017||44%||43%||13%||1%||1,957||YouGov||Online|
|20-21 Mar 2017||44%||44%||12%||0%||1,627||YouGov||Online|
|1-15 Mar 2017||46%||41%||13%||5%||1,938||GfK||Online|
|13-14 Mar 2017||44%||42%||15%||2%||1,631||YouGov||Online|
|10-14 Mar 2017||49%||41%||10%||8%||2,003||Opinium||Online|
|27-28 Feb 2017||45%||44%||11%||1%||1,666||YouGov||Online|
|21-22 Feb 2017||45%||45%||10%||0%||2,060||YouGov||Online|
|12-13 Feb 2017||46%||42%||12%||4%||2,052||YouGov||Online|
|30-31 Jan 2017||45%||42%||12%||3%||1,705||YouGov||Online|
|17-18 Jan 2017||46%||42%||12%||4%||1,654||YouGov||Online|
|17 Jan 2017||Theresa May makes Lancaster House speech, setting out her negotiating priorities.|
|9-12 Jan 2017||52%||39%||9%||13%||2,005||Opinium||Online|
|9-10 Jan 2017||46%||42%||12%||4%||1,660||YouGov||Online|
|3-4 Jan 2017||45%||44%||11%||1%||1,740||YouGov||Online|
|18-19 Dec 2016||44%||44%||12%||0%||1,595||YouGov||Online|
|4-5 Dec 2016||44%||42%||14%||2%||1,667||YouGov||Online|
|28-29 Nov 2016||44%||45%||11%||1%||1,624||YouGov||Online|
|14-15 Nov 2016||46%||43%||11%||3%||1,717||YouGov||Online|
|19-20 Oct 2016||45%||44%||11%||1%||1,608||YouGov||Online|
|11-12 Oct 2016||45%||44%||11%||1%||1,669||YouGov||Online|
|2 Oct 2016||Theresa May makes Conservative Party Conference speech, announcing her intention to invoke Article 50 by 31 March 2017.|
|13-14 Sep 2016||46%||44%||10%||2%||1,732||YouGov||Online|
|30-31 Aug 2016||47%||44%||9%||3%||1,687||YouGov||Online|
|22-23 Aug 2016||45%||43%||12%||2%||1,660||YouGov||Online|
|16-17 Aug 2016||46%||43%||11%||3%||1,677||YouGov||Online|
|8-9 Aug 2016||45%||44%||12%||1%||1,692||YouGov||Online|
|1-2 Aug 2016||46%||42%||12%||4%||1,722||YouGov||Online|
|13 Jul 2016||Theresa May becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.|
The term "Brexit"Edit
Brexit (like its early variant, Brixit) is a portmanteau of "British" and "exit". It was derived by analogy from Grexit, referring to a hypothetical withdrawal of Greece from the eurozone (and possibly also the EU). The term Brexit may have first been used in reference to a possible UK withdrawal from the EU by Peter Wilding, in a Euractiv blog post on 15 May 2012 (given as the first attestation in the Oxford English Dictionary). The terms "hard Brexit" and "soft Brexit" are much used unofficially, and are understood to describe the prospective relationship between the UK and the EU after withdrawal, ranging from hard, that could involve the UK trading with the EU like any other non-EU-member country under World Trade Organization rules but with no obligation to accept free movement of people, to soft, that might involve retaining membership of the EU single market for goods and services and at least some free movement of people, according to European Economic Area rules.
Cultural Responses to BrexitEdit
Brexit in the visual artsEdit
The response of artists and writers to Brexit has tended to be negative, reflecting a reported overwhelming percentage of people involved in Britain's creative industries voting against leaving the European Union. The claim by one, the visual artist Bob and Roberta Smith, writing in The Guardian newspaper typifies this response:
Post-Brexit, we face a dissolution of our museums and galleries comparable in its devastation to that visited on England in the 1530s, as philistine politicians slash budgets. Art schools and the arts in schools will be further diminished in a wave of manufactured disdain for so-called elitists.
Other responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May 2017, by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England. It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag.
In his 2017 art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath. This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens. These were derived from what Perry called his 'Brexit tour of Britain.'
Brexit in novelsEdit
One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos (published 9 March 2017). Rabbitman is a dark comic fantasy in which the events that lead to the election of a right-wing populist American president, who happens also to be a rabbit, and Britain's vote to leave the European Union, were the result of a series of Faustian pacts with the Devil. As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.
Mark Billingham’s Love Like Blood (published 1 June 2017) is a crime thriller in which Brexit sees a rise in xenophobic hate crime. In the novel The Remains of the Way (published 6 June 2017), David Boyle imagines Brexit was a conspiracy led by a forgotten government quango, still working away in Whitehall, originally set up by Thomas Cromwell in the sixteenth century during the reign of King Henry VIII, and now dedicated to a protestant Brexit.
Post-Brexit Britain is also the setting for Amanda Craig's The Lie of the Land (published 13 June 2017), a satirical novel set ten years after the vote to leave the European Union, in which an impoverished middle class couple from Islington in north London are forced to move from the heart of the pro-European Union capital, to the heart of the pro-Brexit countryside in Devon.
Brexit is also the baseline for Douglas Board’s comic political thriller Time of Lies (published 23 June 2017). In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in 2020 is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant. Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite.
Stanley Johnson's Kompromat (scheduled for July 2017) is a political thriller that suggests the vote to leave the European Union was a result of Russian influence on the referendum, although Johnson has insisted his book is not intended to point the finger at Russia's secret services, but is 'just meant to be fun.'
Brexit in theatreEdit
In theatre, in June 2017 the National Theatre in London presented a play by Carol Ann Duffy, entitled, My Country; a work in progress. An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia who is concerned about the future of the British people. The play differs from some artistic responses in that Duffy and the National Theatre based the attitudes of the characters on stage in part on the responses to interviews, conducted by the regional offices of the UK Arts Councils, with ordinary people, but excluding responses from London and the south-east of England, where most people voted not to leave the European Union. As a result, according to Dominic Cavendish, writing in the Daily Telegraph newspaper, 'the bias is towards the Leave camp.'
Brexit in filmEdit
In 2016 Martin Durkin made a documentary film called Brexit: The Movie, about that year's referendum on EU membership, arguing for a vote to Leave. The film had a budget of £100,000, funded by crowdfunding.
- Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016
- Bpoplive – a planned 2016 music festival and political rally in support of Brexit
- Causes of the vote in favour of Brexit
- Brexit and arrangements for science and technology
- International reactions to the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum
- Interpretation of EU Treaty law by European Court of Justice
- Multi-speed Europe
- Referendums related to the European Union
- Scientific mobility and the EU
- Withdrawal of Greenland from the European Communities
- Dutch withdrawal from the European Union
- Hunt, Alex; Wheeler, Brian (3 November 2016). "Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU". BBC News.
- "Advice for British nationals travelling and living in Europe". British Government Website. The U.K. Government. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Wilkinson, Michael (17 January 2017). "Theresa May confirms Britain will leave Single Market as she sets out 12-point Brexit plan.". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Brexit: PM to trigger Article 50 by end of March". BBC News. 2 October 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- Holger Romann (25 August 2016). "Nach dem Brexit-Votum: EU-Wirtschaftspolitik – was geht da?" (in German). ARD. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- Dorothea Siems (18 June 2016). "Sperrminorität". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- The Telegraph, 30 December 2012, "The EU: so where did it all go wrong?" http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/eu/9770633/The-EU-so-where-did-it-all-go-wrong.html]
- This Day in HIstory: 25 Mar 
- Mortimore, Roger. "Polling history: 40 years of British views on 'in or out' of Europe". The Conversation. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- New Open Europe/ComRes poll: Failure to win key reforms could swing UK's EU referendum vote openeurope.org, 16 December 2015.
- "1967: De Gaulle says 'non' to Britain – again". BBC News. 27 November 1976. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- FCO 30/1048, Legal and constitutional implications of UK entry into EEC (open from 1 January 2002).
- "Into Europe". Parliament.uk. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "English text of EU Accession Treaty 1972, Cmnd. 7463" (PDF). Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "1973: Britain joins the EEC". BBC News. 1 January 1973. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- Alex May, Britain and Europe since 1945 (1999).
- DAvis Butler. "The 1975 Referendum" (PDF). Eureferendum.com. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Research Briefings – The 1974–1975 UK Renegotiation of EEC Membership and Referendum". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Who Voted for Brexit? A comprehensive district level analysis". Becker, Fetzer, Novy, University of Warwick. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- Vaidyanathan, Rajini (4 March 2010). "Michael Foot: What did the 'longest suicide note' say?". BBC News Magazine. BBC. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Dury, Hélène. "Black Wednesday" (PDF). Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Tempest, Matthew (9 February 2005). "Treasury papers reveal cost of Black Wednesday". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "EU treaties". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 15 September 2016.
- "EUROPA The EU in brief". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- Wood, Nicholas (28 November 1994). "Goldsmith forms a Euro referendum party". The Times. p. 1.
- "UK Election 1997". Politicsresources.net. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "10 key lessons from the European election results". The Guardian. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "Does Migration Cause Extreme Voting?" (PDF). Becker and Fetzer, University of Warwick. 18 October 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Matt Osborn (7 May 2015). "2015 UK general election results in full". The Guardian.
- "Why are the Conservatives against the European court of human rights?". Guardian newspapers London. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- "European court is not superior to UK supreme court, says Lord Judge (the former Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales)". The Guardian newspaper, Londion. 14 December 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- "David Cameron to 'scrap' Human Rights Act for new 'British Bill of rights'". Independent Newspaper, London. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- "Human Rights Act versus a British Bill of Rights". British Broadcasting Corporation, Newsbeat report, London. 25 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- "Plan to scrap Human Rights Act delayed again". Guardian Newspapers London. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- "UK must leave European convention on human rights, says Theresa May". Guardian newspapers London. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- Tarran, Brian (8 April 2016). "The Economy: a Brexit vote winner?". Significance. 13 (2). doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2016.00891.x/full (inactive 2017-04-14).
- Nicholas Watt (29 June 2012). "Cameron defies Tory right over EU referendum: Prime minister, buoyed by successful negotiations on eurozone banking reform, rejects 'in or out' referendum on EU". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
David Cameron placed himself on a collision course with the Tory right when he mounted a passionate defence of Britain's membership of the EU and rejected out of hand an 'in or out' referendum.
- Sparrow, Andrew (1 July 2012). "PM accused of weak stance on Europe referendum". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
Cameron said he would continue to work for 'a different, more flexible and less onerous position for Britain within the EU'.
- "David Cameron 'prepared to consider EU referendum'". BBC News. 1 July 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
Mr Cameron said ... he would 'continue to work for a different, more flexible and less onerous position for Britain within the EU'.
- "David Cameron promises in/out referendum on EU". BBC News. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- "David Cameron sets out EU reform goals". BBC News. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- Spaventa, Eleanore. "Explaining the EU deal: the ‘emergency brake’". Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "Prime Minister sets out legal framework for EU withdrawal". UK Parliament. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- "The process for withdrawing from the European Union" (PDF). GOV.UK. Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, HM Government. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- Jon Stone (13 April 2016). "Vote Leave designated as official EU referendum Out campaign".
- "Leave.eu". Leave.eu. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- Other major campaign groups included Grassroots Out, Get Britain Out and Better Off Out.
- "Conservatives In". Conservatives In. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- Alan Johnson MP. "Labour in for Britain – The Labour Party". Labour.org.uk. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Britain in Europe". Liberal Democrats. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Greens for a Better Europe". Green Party. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Home". Scientists for EU. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- "Environmentalists For Europe homepage". Environmentalists For Europe. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Universities for Europe". Universities for Europe. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Another Europe is Possible". Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- "EU referendum: BBC forecasts UK votes to leave". BBC News. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- "EU Referendum Results". Sky (United Kingdom). Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- Hooton, Christopher (24 June 2016). "Brexit: Petition for second EU referendum so popular the government site's crashing". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- Boult, Adam (26 June 2016). "Petition for second EU referendum attracts thousands of signatures". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Brexit: Petition for second EU referendum rejected". BBC News. 9 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "EU referendum results". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Brexit: David Cameron to quit after UK votes to leave EU". BBC. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- "UKIP leader Nigel Farage stands down". BBC News. 4 July 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- "Exclusive: Britain 'could liberate Europe again' by voting for Brexit and sparking populist revolution". The Daily Telegraph. 22 May 2016.
- Oltermann, Philip; Scammell, Rosie; Darroch, Gordon (8 July 2016). "Brexit causes resurgence in pro-EU leanings across continent". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Article 50(3) of the Treaty on European Union.
- Patrick Wintour (22 July 2016). "UK officials seek draft agreements with EU before triggering article 50". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- Renwick, Alan (19 January 2016). "What happens if we vote for Brexit?". The Constitution Unit Blog. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- Wright, Ben. "Reality Check: How plausible is second EU referendum?". BBC. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- In a leaflet sent out before the referendum, the UK government stated "This is your decision. The Government will implement what you decide." "Why the Government believes that voting to remain in the European Union is the best decision for the UK. The EU referendum, Thursday, 23rd June 2016." (PDF).
- Patrick Wintour (20 July 2016). "Cameron accused of 'gross negligence' over Brexit contingency plans". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- "Brexit: David Cameron to quit after UK votes to leave EU". BBC. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- Cooper, Charlie (27 June 2016). "David Cameron rules out second EU referendum after Brexit". The Independent. London, UK. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Ram, Vidya. "U.K. govt. must get Parliament nod for Brexit: Supreme Court". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- Bowcott, Owen; Mason, Rowena; Asthana, Anushka (24 January 2017). "Supreme court rules parliament must have vote to trigger article 50". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- "Brexit: MPs overwhelmingly back Article 50 bill". BBC. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Article 50: May signs letter that will trigger Brexit". BBC News. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- Tusk, Donald [eucopresident] (29 March 2017). "The Article 50 letter. #Brexit" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Stamp, Gavin; Hunt, Alex (28 March 2017). "Theresa May officially starts Brexit process". BBC News. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- Independent: "Article 50 is actually reversible, author of the Brexit treaty clause says"
- Nikos Chrysoloras (2 April 2017). "Your Guide to Key Dates in the Brexit Negotiations". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- Roberts, Dan (20 June 2017). "Brexit: UK caves in to EU demand to agree divorce bill before trade talks". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- "Merkel lobt May-Angebot zum Brexit [Merkel praises May's offer on Brexit]". Die Zeit. Hamburg. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- "Brexit-Bundestagsdebatte: Mit Merkel wird es kein Rosinenpicken für die Briten geben" [Brexit parliamentary debate: With Merkel there will be no cherrypicking for the British]. Die Welt. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Heffer, Greg (29 June 2016). "'It's not single market à la carte' Donald Tusk tells UK it's FREE MOVEMENT or nothing". Daily Express. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
- "Theresa May - her full Brexit speech to Conservative conference". Independent. 2 October 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Mason, Rowena (5 October 2016). "Theresa May's Conservative party conference speech – key points analysed". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Hope, Christopher (23 November 2016). "British expats set to be granted right to carry on living in EU with Theresa May 'close to reciprocal rights deal'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- Swinford, Steven (29 November 2016). "Angela Merkel says 'nein' to Theresa May's calls for early deal on rights of EU migrants and British ex-pats". The Telegraph. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Brexit: Theresa May to trigger Article 50 by end of March". BBC News. 2 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- Kuenssberg, Laura (17 January 2017). "Brexit: UK to leave single market, says Theresa May". BBC. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "Brexit: The UK's letter triggering Article 50". BBC News. 29 March 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Asthana, Anushka (30 March 2017). "Don't blackmail us over security, EU warns May". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Boffey, Daniel (29 April 2017). "EU leaders agree on tough stance at special Brexit summit". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- "European Council (Art. 50) guidelines for Brexit negotiations". Council of the European Union Website. Council of the European Union. 29 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- Foster, Peter (29 April 2017). "EU Brexit guidelines: What's in the document, and what it really means". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Worstall, Tim (3 May 2017). "It Is To Laugh At Their Mistake - EU's Brexit Bill Claim Now At €100 Billion". Forbes. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- BBC News, 4 March 2017, "Brexit: UK 'not obliged' to pay divorce bill say peers".
- Roberts, Dan (1 May 2017). "May dismisses reports of frosty dinner with EU chief as 'Brussels gossip'". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Bush, Stephen (2 May 2017). "Theresa May and Jean-Claude Juncker's dinner leaked because no-one thinks Brexit will work". New Statesman. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Stone, Mark (6 May 2017). "Juncker's jibes continue after Tusk calls for calm". Sky News. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
In order to succeed we need discretion, moderation and a maximum of goodwill.
- "Treffen mit May: Merkel verärgert über Juncker nach Brexit-Dinner" [Meeting with May: Merkel annoyed with Juncker after Brexit dinner]. Der Spiegel. 6 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "Brexit: UK caves in to EU demand to agree divorce bill before trade talks", The Guardian, 19 June 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017
- Consilium: Council (Art 50) authorises the start of Brexit talks and adopts negotiating directives
- Mason, Rowena (2 October 2016). "Theresa May's 'great repeal bill': what's going to happen and when?". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
- Mason, Rowena (3 October 2016). "UK and Scotland on course for great 'constitutional bust-up'". BBC. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
- Hannah White and Jill Rutter, "Legislating Brexit: The Great Repeal Bill and the wider legislative challenge", Institute for Government, 20 March 2017, p.9 
- "Brexit could place 'huge burden' on Parliament". BBC. 20 March 2017.
- Anushka Asthana (20 December 2016). "Theresa May indicates MPs will not be given vote on final Brexit deal". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- Somerville, W. (June 2016). "When the Dust Settles". Migration Policy after Brexit, Migration Policy Institute Commentary.
- Sophia Schirmer (19 October 2016). "Huge increase in Britons seeking citizenship in EU states as Brexit looms". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "HM Treasury analysis: the long-term economic impact of EU membership and the alternatives". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- "Brexit and the UK's Public Finances" (PDF). Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS Report 116). May 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- The end of British austerity starts with Brexit J. Redwood, The Guardian, 14 April 2016
- Steven Swinford (10 August 2016). "Britain could be up to £70billion worse off if it leaves the Single Market after Brexit, IFS warns". Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- "Claim 'hard Brexit' could cost UK£10bn in tax". Financial Times. 4 October 2016. Archived from the original on 19 August 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
- "Banks poised to relocate out of UK over Brexit, BBA warns". BBC News. 23 October 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Bank of England Economist: Brexit Predictions Were Wrong". Fox News (from the Associated Press). 6 January 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- Inman, Phillip (5 January 2017). "Chief Economist of Bank of England Admits Errors in Brexit Forecasting". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- Swinford, Steven (6 January 2017). "Bank of England Admits 'Michael Fish' Moment with Dire Brexit Predictions". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- 'The Brexit vote is starting to have major negative consequences' – experts debate the data The Guardian
- Collis, Helen (23 May 2017). "Brussels releases criteria to host EU agencies after Brexit". POLITICO. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
- Stafford, Philip (18 May 2017). "Europe nears decision on base for euro clearing". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 May 2017. (Subscription required (. ))
- Between 2007–2013 the UK received €8.8 billion from the EU for research while contributing €5.4 billion to the EU's research budget.UK research and the European Union: the role of the EU in funding UK research (PDF). London: Royal Society. 2016. pp. 12, Figure 4.
- Around 11% of the research income of British universities came from the EU in 2014-2015 University Funding Explained (PDF). London: UK Universities. July 2016.
- Elgot, Jessica; Elliott, Larry; Davis, Nicola (13 August 2016). "Treasury to guarantee post-Brexit funding for EU-backed projects". The Guardian.
- Sample, Ian (12 July 2016). "UK scientists dropped from EU projects because of post-Brexit funding fears". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
- "It is likely that the UK would wish to remain an associated member of the European Research Area, like Norway and Iceland, in order to continue participating in the EU framework programmes."UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (PDF). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. 2015. p. 269. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1.
- Simons, Ned (24 January 2016). "Nicola Sturgeon Denies She Has 'Machiavellian' Wish For Brexit". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Scotland Says New Vote on Independence Is 'Highly Likely'". The New York Times. 25 June 2016.
- "Nicola Sturgeon says Scotland will pursue EU membership after independence". The Independent. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- Stewart, Heather (16 March 2017). "Theresa May rejects Nicola Sturgeon's referendum demand". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- "Sturgeon: independent Scotland may need 'phased' return to EU". The Guardian. 14 May 2017.
- "Could Scotland block Brexit?". Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Elliott; Mark. "Can Scotland block Brexit?". PublicLawForEveryone.com. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- McClean, Paul (30 May 2017). "After Brexit: the UK will need to renegotiate at least 759 treaties". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 May 2017. (Subscription required (. ))
Through analysis of the EU treaty database, the FT found 759 separate EU bilateral agreements with potential relevance to Britain, covering trade in nuclear goods, customs, fisheries, trade, transport and regulatory co-operation in areas such as antitrust or financial services. This includes multilateral agreements based on consensus, where Britain must re-approach 132 separate parties. Around 110 separate opt-in accords at the UN and World Trade Organisation are excluded from the estimates, as are narrow agreements on the environment, health, research and science. Some additional UK bilateral deals, outside the EU framework, may also need to be revised because they make reference to EU law. Some of the 759 are so essential that it would be unthinkable to operate without them. Air services agreements allow British aeroplanes to land in America, Canada or Israel; nuclear accords permit the trade in spare parts and fuel for Britain’s power stations. Both these sectors are excluded from trade negotiations and must be addressed separately.
- "Leaving the EU – RESEARCH PAPER 13/42" (PDF). House of Commons Library. 1 July 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "Britain does not want return to Northern Ireland border controls, says May". The Irish Times. 26 July 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Irish Republic signals support for UK plan to avoid post-Brexit 'hard border'". The Guardian. 10 October 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
- "Brexit: Ireland has no agreement with UK on use of Irish ports". The Irish Times. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- Lyons, Niamh (31 January 2017). "Brexit will not mean hard border, leaders vow". The Times, Ireland edition. Retrieved 29 April 2017. (Registration required (. ))
- "UK officials at Irish ports ruled out". RTÉ.ie. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Fenton, Siobhan (24 June 2016). "Northern Ireland's Deputy First Minister calls for poll on united Ireland after Brexit". The Independent. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- "The Northern Ireland Peace Agreement: The Agreement reached in the multi-party negotiations 10 April 1998" (PDF). www.taoiseach.gov.ie.
- Coyne, Ellen (29 April 2017). "EU approval ‘brings united Ireland closer’". The Times, Ireland edition. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- Patrick Wintour (3 March 2016). "French minister: Brexit would threaten Calais border arrangement". The Guardian.
- "Q&A: Would Brexit really move "the Jungle" to Dover?". Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Xavier Bertrand a les accords du Touquet dans le viseur". Libération.
- Treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the French Republic concerning the Implementation of Frontier Controls at the Sea Ports of both Countries on the Channel and North Sea (PDF), The Stationery Office, 4 February 2003, cm6172, retrieved 5 July 2016,
This Treaty is concluded for an unlimited duration and each of the Contracting Parties may terminate it at any time by written notification ... The termination shall come into effect two years after the date of this notification.[permanent dead link]
- Buchanan, Elsa (30 June 2016). "François Hollande rejects suspension of Le Touquet treaty at Calais despite UK Brexit". International Business Times. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- Williams, Jennifer (24 June 2016). "The Brexit vote result has reignited a 300-year-old fight between Britain and Spain". Vox. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Spain would demand control of Gibraltar the 'next day after Brexit'". Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- "Brexit: Spain calls for joint control of Gibraltar". BBC News. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Joe Duggan (12 September 2016). "Chief Minister Fabian Picardo says 'British Means British' at National Day political rally".
- "Govt’s stark analysis highlights Brexit border challenge". Gibraltar Chronicle.
- "the UK would seek the best possible deal for Gibraltar as the UK exits the EU, and there would be no negotiation on the sovereignty of Gibraltar without the consent of its people.” Theresa May, 6 April 2017, "UK won't negotiate away Gibraltar sovereignty, May tells Tusk". The Guardian. 6 April 2017.
- Andreas Koenig (27 June 2016). "Ökonomische Aspekte eines EU-Austritts des Vereinigten Königreichs (Brexit)" (PDF) (in German). Deutscher Bundestag. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- M. Chardon (1 January 2016). "Sperrminorität" (in German). Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "EU-Austritt des UK: Diese Folgen hat der Brexit für Deutschland und die EU" [UK Exit from EU: Brexit has these consequences for Germany and the EU]. Merkur.de (in German). 22 August 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
Die Briten haben sich für einen Abschied entschieden, Europa wird nun anders aussehen. Der Kontinent verliert seine (neben Frankreich) stärkste Militärmacht samt Atomwaffenarsenal, seine zweitgrößte Volkswirtschaft, das Land mit der drittgrößten Bevölkerung, die Finanzhauptstadt der Welt und einen von zwei Plätzen im UN-Sicherheitsrat. [The British have decided to leave. Europe will now look different. The continent will be losing its strongest military power (alongside France), ... its second largest economy, the country with the third largest population, the financial capital of the world, and one of two seats on the UN Security Council.]
- Hendrik Kafsack (8 August 2016). "EU-Haushalt: Deutschland überweist das meiste Geld an Brüssel". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- Reuters/dpa (10 September 2016). "Brexit wird teuer für Deutschland". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- "A two-speed post-Brexit Europe is best avoided" https://www.ft.com/content/e0051162-1ee0-11e7-b7d3-163f5a7f229c
- "European Parliament moves to sideline British MEPs". The Irish Times. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- "MEPs debate who inherits British seats". politico.eu. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- ""Is Brexit an opportunity to reform the European Parliament?" [pdf]" (PDF).
- "No notification, no negotiation: EU officials banned from Brexit talks with Britain". 30 June 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Juncker on populist right-wingers: "I want to stand against these forces"". 31 October 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- "Juncker warnt Firmen vor eigenen Brexit-Deals" [Juncker warns companies against making their own Brexit deals] (in German). 5 November 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
Ich sage ihnen, dass sie sich nicht in die Debatte einmischen sollen, denn sie werden feststellen, dass ich ihnen den Weg versperre.
- "Jean-Claude Juncker: UK faces hefty Brexit bill". 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- "Visit in Berlin: Johnson's timetable [for Brexit] does not envisage changes". 4 November 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
- Brooks, Libby (15 July 2016). "May tells Sturgeon Holyrood will be 'fully engaged' in article 50 decision". London, UK. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Laura Hughes (9 September 2016). "Brexit department spends more than £250,000 on legal advice in just two months". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
- "Theresa May signals Whitehall rejig with two new Cabinet posts | Civil Service World". www.civilserviceworld.com. CSW. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Trading places / Negotiating post-Brexit deals. Economist, 4–10 February 2017, page 25
- GOV.UK The government's negotiating objectives for exiting the EU: PM speech https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/the-governments-negotiating-objectives-for-exiting-the-eu-pm-speech
- HM Government (February 2017). The United Kingdom's exit from and new partnership with the European Union (PDF) (Report). Williams Lea Group. pp. 17–20. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "British citizens should have freedom of movement after Brexit, says chief EU negotiator". The Local. 10 March 2017.
- "Brexit: EU summit on 29 April to discuss way ahead". BBC. 21 March 2017.
- "Brexit revives Sinn Féin campaign for united Ireland vote". Politico. 27 March 2017.
- "Brexit - the Brexit, "a tragedy", according to Jean-Claude Juncker". The Brussels Times. 5 May 2017.
- "Better regulation". European Commission - European Commission. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "'No turning back' on Brexit as Article 50 triggered". BBC News. 29 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "Brexit: UK to leave single market, says Theresa May". BBC News. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Theresa May vows to be 'one nation' prime minister". BBC News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "Britain and the EU: A Brixit looms". The Economist. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- Hjelmgaard, Kim; Onyanga-Omara, Jane (22 February 2016). "Explainer: The what, when and why of 'Brexit'". USA Today. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "Brexit, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2017. Web. 9 May 2017.
- Wilding, Peter (15 May 2012). "Stumbling towards the Brexit". BlogActiv.eu. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- Friederichsen, Paul (27 June 2016). "Coining catchy 'Brexit' term helped Brits determine EU vote". NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "'Hard' Brexit most likely outcome for UK leaving EU, says S&P". Reuters. 11 November 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
- "Brexit: What are the options? Alternative Brexit models". BBC News. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- Mia Jankowicz, 'Britain's thriving art scene strangled by Brexit chaos' in Politics.co.uk, 20 March 2017: Online Link
- Bob and Roberta Smith, 'Brexit will spell the end of British art as we know it', in The Guardian (UK newspaper), 12 May 2017
- Hannah Ellis-Petersen, 'Banksy Brexit mural of man chipping away at EU flag appears in Dover' in The Guardian (UK newspaper), 8 May 2017
- Mick Brown, 'Grayson Perry: What I learnt from my Brexit tour around Britain', in The Daily Telegraph (UK newspaper), 27 May 2017
- Michael Paraskos, Rabbitman (London: Friction Fiction, 2017)
- Mark Billingham, Love Like Blood, (London: Little Brown Books, 2017)
- David Boyle, Remains of the Day (London: Real Press, 2017)
- Amanda Craig, The Lie of the Land (London: Little Brown Books, 2017)
- Douglas Board, Time of Lies (London: Lightning Books, 2017)
- Katie Spencer, 'Literature goes Brexit: EU vote prompts writers to tackle issue', Sky News report, 19 March 2017 Click for Link
- Martin Kettle, 'Brexit stage left: how theatre became the best way to understand today’s Britain', in The Guardian (UK newspaper), 10 March 2017
- Dominic Cavendish, 'The National Theatre takes on Brexit in My Country, a work in progress' in The Daily Telegraph (UK newspaper), 11 March 2017
- Haslett, Emma (26 February 2016). "Brexit: The Movie crowdfunding campaign hits its target".
- Abbott, Lewis F. British Withdrawal from the European Union: A Guide to the Case For. ISR/Google Books, 2013. 
- Hobolt, Sara B. (7 September 2016). "The Brexit vote: a divided nation, a divided continent". Journal of European Public Policy. 23 (9): 1259–1277. ISSN 1350-1763. doi:10.1080/13501763.2016.1225785.
- Peers, Steve (2016). The Brexit: The Legal Framework for Withdrawal from the EU or Renegotiation of EU Membership. Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84946-874-9. OCLC 917161408.
- Ansorg, N. & Haastrup, T.: "Brexit Beyond the UK's Borders: What It Means for Africa", GIGA Focus Afrika No. 03/2016
- Howe, Martin How to Leave the EU: Legal and Trade Priorities for the New Britain, Politeia, 2016.
- Doane, D. (26 June 2016). "Brexit was a backlash against globalisation- the poorest are being left behind everywhere". theguardian. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Look up Brexit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- UK Parliament - Brexit News
- Gov UK – Department for Exiting the European Union
- BBC: "Brexit: What are the options?" (10 October 2016)
- Skeleton Argument of the Secretary of State for Exiting the EU, and names of all parties in judicial review, for hearing in High Court, 13 and 17 October 2016
- Transcripts of High Court hearing in October 2016, Santos and M -v- Secretary of State
- Summary of judgment in N.I High Court, 28 October 2016, dismissing applications for judicial review.
- The Brexit Papers, Bar Council, December 2016
- Supreme Court: Article 50 'Brexit' case, 5–8 December 2016
- Plan for Britain: The government's negotiating objectives for exiting the EU: PM's speech delivered and published on 17 January 2017 (Transcript of the speech, exactly as it was delivered at Lancester House, London)
- The United Kingdom’s exit from and new partnership with the European Union, February 2017 ("White paper")
- Legislating for the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union (The Great Repeal Bill White Paper), 30 March 2017
- Brexit at DMOZ
- Quotes about Brexit on Euronews
- European Council Brexit Guidelines