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Brexit and the Irish border

  (Redirected from Irish border question)

The UK–Republic of Ireland border crosses this road at Killeen (near Newry), marked only by a speed limit in km/h (Northern Ireland uses mph).

The impact of Brexit on the Irish border refers to anticipated changes in trade, customs, immigration checks, local economies, services, recognition of qualifications, medical cooperation, and other matters, should Brexit occur and thereby turn the Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border on the island of Ireland into the only external EU land border between the United Kingdom and the European Union.

After the UK Parliament voted to leave the European Union, all parties said that they want to avoid a hard border in Ireland, due particularly to the border's historically sensitive nature. Border issues were one of three areas of focused negotiation in the proposed Withdrawal Agreement. Should Brexit take place before an agreement is ratified — a "no-deal Brexit" — the impact is expected to be severe.[1][2][3]

BackgroundEdit

Irish independenceEdit

In 1922, the Irish Free State[a] formally seceded from the United Kingdom as a self-governing dominion under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, setting the stage for full national independence, while Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom. Consequently the dividing line between these two parts of the island became an international border. Trade in goods and services across this frontier became subject to differing tax and tariff arrangements and an infrastructure of Customs posts was put in place at designated crossing areas. All traffic was subject to inspection by the jurisdiction it was entering. This could entail full vehicle searches with consequent delay and inconvenience. However, passport checks were not applied because the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were part of the Common Travel Area.

Closer linksEdit

A number of bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements made goods checks less intrusive, the completion of the European Single Market in 1992 meant that checks on goods were phased out. However, during the Troubles in Northern Ireland, there were British military checkpoints on main border crossings and UK security forces made some, although not all, of the remaining crossings impassable. In 2005, in phase with implementation of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, the last of the border checkpoints was removed.[4]

As of September 2019, the UK and the Republic of Ireland are both members of the European Union, and therefore both are in the Customs Union and the Single Market, and will remain so until the UK completes its withdrawal process. There is freedom of movement for all EU nationals and there are no customs or fixed immigration controls at the border.

Good Friday AgreementEdit

The British and Irish Governments:

(...)
(...)
Wishing to develop still further the unique relationship between their peoples and the close co-operation between their countries as friendly neighbours and as partners in the European Union;
(...)
Reaffirming their commitment to the principles of partnership, equality and mutual respect and to the protection of civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights in their respective jurisdictions;
Have agreed as follows:

British-Irish Agreement (appended to the Good Friday Agreement)[5]

Since about 2005, the border has been perceived as being invisible with little or no physical infrastructure, as the security barriers and checkpoints were removed due to processes put in place by the Good Friday Agreement (or 'Belfast Agreement') signed in 1998.[5][b][6] This agreement has the status of both an international treaty between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland (the British-Irish Agreement), as well as an agreement of the parties within Northern Ireland (Multi-Party Agreement).

Following Brexit, the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland will become an external EU border.[7] In theory a "hard" border could return, with both fewer and supervised crossing posts, to support the necessary customs infrastructure.[8] Both EU and UK negotiating teams have made clear that this outcome would not be acceptable in any final exit agreement.[9][10]

US Senator George Mitchell, who chaired the negotiations for the Belfast Agreement, has commented that he believes the creation of a border control system between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland might jeopardise the agreement.[11] Research published on 18 February 2019 by Irish Senator Mark Daly and two UNESCO chairmen indicated that reinstating a hard border would result in the return of violence.[12][13][14][15]

Brexit referendum in Northern IrelandEdit

In the June 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Northern Ireland voted 55.8% to 44.2% in favour of remaining in the European Union. In a November 2018 opinion poll commissioned by BBC Northern Ireland and RTÉ (Republic of Ireland), 61% of those polled believed that Brexit should not go ahead if the price is a hard border (versus 36% that it should, 3% don't know).[16]

Hard borderEdit

External EU frontiers under different trade and customs regimes. All are "hard borders" in this context.
Norway–Sweden border (European Economic Area, selective border control and random customs checks. Both in Schengen Area and Single Market.)
Germany–Switzerland border (EU–CH treaties, no border control, but random customs and immigration checks. Both in Schengen Area and Single Market.)
Bulgaria–Turkey border (EU-TR Customs Union (partial), full border and customs control, visa required for Turkish nationals)
Poland–Ukraine border (Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area, full border and customs control, visas may be required).

In the context of Brexit, a "hard border" means one where there are limited number of authorised (and physically controlled) crossing points, staffed by customs officers and police, supported in times of tension by military forces. Drivers of vehicles crossing are required to declare goods in carriage, commercial carriers must produce bills of lading and evidence that the goods comply with the minimum standards of the territory being entered. Tariffs (in the form of customs duty) may be payable. This was the position that pertained on the border from 1922 until the Single European Act in 1993. (In this context, a "hard border" does not mean a fortified border but, during The Troubles, Crown Forces blocked many unapproved crossings for security reasons. Under the terms of the Common Travel Area agreement, British and Irish citizens are free to cross the border without any passport controls).

Positions on the Irish borderEdit

United KingdomEdit

The UK government has said that Brexit will not mean a return of the hard border.[17] According to statements in 2016 by the then UK Prime Minister Theresa May and Irish Taoiseach Enda Kenny, it is intended to maintain this arrangement after the United Kingdom leaves the EU.[18]

In September 2016 the (then) UK Brexit Secretary, David Davis, stated that the UK government would not seek a return to a hard border between the UK and the Republic of Ireland.[19]

British suggestions that a hard border could be avoided by having UK immigration controls introduced at Republic of Ireland ports and airports[20] were quickly rejected by Ireland.[21][22]

In its white paper on Brexit, the United Kingdom government reiterated its commitment to the Belfast Agreement. With regard to Northern Ireland's status, it said that the UK Government's "clearly-stated preference is to retain Northern Ireland's current constitutional position: as part of the UK, but with strong links to Ireland".[23]

Republic of IrelandEdit

The Irish Government position has been to reduce public mention of border checks to avoid confrontation with opposition parties in the Dáil and to calm nationalist and unionist concerns in Northern Ireland. Repeated statements have been made by senior politicians in government denying plans are being made for a hard border.[24] Concerns have been raised by opposition parties that the government is not being forthright about the risk of, and planning for, a hard border.[25] A private admonishment by Tánaiste Simon Coveney of Minister for Transport Shane Ross in the wake of a press conference was caught on the live microphones. In reference to border checks, Coveney stated, “We can’t get into where they’ll be at this stage. They could be in the sea. They could be...but once you start talking about checks anywhere near the border people will start delving into that and all of a sudden we’ll be the Government that re-introduced a physical border on the island of Ireland.”[26]

In a February 2019 Sky Data poll, 79% of respondents supported the Irish government holding out for a legal guarantee that there will be no hard border, even if it risks a no-deal Brexit on 29 March. In the same poll, 81% supported cutting economic ties with the UK if forced to choose, with 19% supporting cutting ties with the EU in favour of the UK to maintain the open border.[27]

Northern IrelandEdit

 
A Sinn Féin protest against a hard border. Post-Brexit border controls are a controversial issue

There have been worries among unionists that the Irish government's position is a covert attempt to gain more power over the province in order to promote a united Ireland,[28] a position the Irish government has denied.[29] The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) opposes a hard Irish border,[30] and wishes to maintain the Common Travel Area.[31] The DUP was the only major NI party to oppose the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.[32]

A referendum on the reunification of Ireland was suggested by NI Sinn Féin leader Martin McGuinness immediately after the UK EU referendum results were announced,[33] a stance reiterated by the new party leader Mary Lou McDonald in 2018.[34]

A week after the Brexit referendum the then First Minister of Northern Ireland, the DUP's Arlene Foster and Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness issued a joint letter in which they said that the border must not become a catalyst for illegal activity or create an incentive for those who wish to undermine the peace process.[35]

Wider EU reactionEdit

In April 2017, the European Council agreed that, in the event of a united Ireland, Northern Ireland could rejoin the EU under Ireland's existing membership.[36]

In January 2019, German foreign minister Heiko Maas urged British MPs not to let UK leave the EU without a deal, saying that "some people call us stubborn, but the truth is avoiding a hard border in Ireland is a fundamental concern for the EU, a union that more than anything else serves one purpose – to build and maintain peace in Europe".[37] Nevertheless, the European Commission's chief spokesman Margaritis Schinas stated on 23 January that it is "obvious" that there would be a hard border were the United Kingdom to leave the EU without a deal.[38]

In April 2019, former WTO director-general and European trade commissioner Pascal Lamy said that "staying in a customs union after Brexit won't resolve the Irish border issue... Leaving the single market reintroduces a border – the thickness of which depends on the degree of regulatory divergence."[39]

Effect on the withdrawal negotiationsEdit

In the withdrawal negotiations, the Irish border issue was one of three[c] areas that required a dedicated negotiation stream so as to achieve the withdrawal agreement that is required before the future relationship between the UK and EU can be agreed.[40][41][42] The Irish and UK governments, as well as EU representatives, have stated that they do not wish for a hard border in Ireland, taking into account the historical and social "sensitivities" that permeate the island.[43]

EU negotiating stanceEdit

Michel Barnier, the EU chief negotiator, has indicated that he would look to the United Kingdom and Ireland for "solutions" to threats posed to Ireland's trading links, the common travel area, and the Good Friday Agreement.[44] Denying UK media reports that Ireland expects the effective border to become the Irish Sea, Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs Simon Coveney said that "the onus was on British officials to come up with an imaginative solution but [the Irish Government] would not support a proposal which would see a hard border return on Ireland".[45]

Backstop proposalEdit

The Irish backstop is a protocol in the (unratified) Brexit withdrawal agreement, that would keep the United Kingdom (in general) in the European Union Customs Union and Northern Ireland (in particular) in some aspects of the European Single Market, until a solution is found to prevent a hard border. This is so as not to compromise the Good Friday Agreement.[46] This would come into operation only if there were no other solutions by the end of the (agreed) transition period.

The Irish government supports the proposal.[47] It has been strongly opposed by the Democratic Unionist Party as weakening Northern Ireland's place within the United Kingdom and is regarded as the main reason why a Withdrawal Agreement has not been approved by the British Parliament.[48] The British government had rejected the original proposed text.

Policy areasEdit

Common Travel AreaEdit

In 1922 the newly established Irish Free State entered into a Common Travel Area together with the United Kingdom. This meant that passport checks were not applied as the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and predates the freedom of movement provisions arising from membership of the EU, which to some degree superseded it. In 2011, the British and Irish Governments agreed informally to continue their common controls on entry to the CTA [for non-EEA nationals].[49]

In September 2018, the British government guaranteed that free movement of EU citizens across the UK–Ireland border would continue.[50] It has been suggested that the Norwegian model might be used.[51] Along the Norway–Sweden border, major road crossings have customs control where all lorries are checked, but cars only occasionally, and on minor border crossings there is only video surveillance where lorries can pass with permission and pre-clearance.[52]

Customs and VATEdit

Former UK Prime Minister John Major has argued that Brexit might lead to a hard border since the European Union and the UK need to control their borders for customs purposes.[53] The European Research Group faction of the Conservative Party believes that the UK might have the choice between not controlling its border if VAT is not enforced, or controlling the border in order to apply possible VAT on imported goods post-Brexit.[54][55]

In late October 2018, the National Audit Office warned that it was already too late to prepare the necessary Irish border security checks in the event of a no-deal Brexit in March 2019 — a weakness that organised crime would be quick to exploit.[56]

In March 2019, the UK government announced that it would not perform customs checks at the Irish border after a no-deal Brexit.[57] The plan was quickly dubbed a "smuggler's charter",[58][d] and criticised for likely breaching WTO rules.[58][e] Local businesses expressed severe concerns.[69]

Health issuesEdit

Cooperation exists between the UK and Ireland on health matters, including the mutual recognition of qualifications. The Northern Ireland branch of the British Medical Association warned that a hard border "could risk patient care".[70] The CEO of Cooperation and Working Together, a body that organises cross-border cooperation in health matters, suggested that the Norwegian model might be used.[70] Along the Norway–Sweden border and other Nordic borders there is some cooperation on ambulance and helicopter pickup and on child birth clinics and some more, but otherwise health care is separated.

Proposed technical solutionsEdit

No technology solution to address these issues has been designed yet or implemented anywhere in the world, let alone in such a unique and highly sensitive context as the Northern Ireland border.

Theresa May, 20 July 2018[71]

In the proposed withdrawal agreement, the special arrangement for Northern Ireland would end when a solution can be found that delivers a border as imperceptible as it became from the Good Friday Agreement until Brexit. As of June 2019, such a solution remains to be identified. Partial solutions have been proposed but have not been judged adequate.

A leaked memo by Industry Minister Richard Harrington, obtained by Sky News, said “This [technical solution] idea was considered and rejected by both the UK and the EU in summer 2018, as both parties concluded that it would not maintain an open border. That is why we ended up with the current backstop. There is currently no border in the world, outside a customs union, that has eliminated border infrastructure.”[72]

On 8 May 2019, the UK Conservative Party established a panel of experts to advise its Alternative Arrangement Commission on possible technical solutions to the dilemma.[73] The panel includes proponents of the two ideas below. The only participant with an Irish connection is Graham Gudgin, a former adviser to Brexit supporter Lord Trimble.[73]

Smart Border 2.0Edit

Lars Karlsson, former director of the World Customs Organisation and deputy director general of Swedish Customs, proposed how such a 'Smart Border 2.0' might operate.[74][75] As of June 2019, the proposal remains a theoretical one.

"Drive through border"Edit

The information technology division of Fujitsu is reported as having pitched an artificial intelligence solution that would analyse social media posts.[76] Fujitsu said that the report in The Sun was incorrect to claim that the technology involved automatic number plate recognition cameras on a restricted number of authorised border crossings.[76] A spokesperson for the Department for Exiting the EU said that "this proposal was not taken forward as it does not work for the unique circumstances of the Northern Ireland border".[76]

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Subsequently renamed as Ireland in 1937, also known since 1948 as the Republic of Ireland.
  2. ^ See "Security"
  3. ^ The others are the outstanding British financial commitments to the EU budget and the rights of EU citizens in the UK (and vice versa).
  4. ^ and other sources[59][60][61][62][63]
  5. ^ and other sources.[60][63][64][65][66][67][68]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Connelly, Tony (15 June 2019). "Double Whammy: A no-deal Brexit and Northern Ireland". Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  2. ^ John Campbell (22 January 2019). "Brexit: What would no-deal mean for the NI economy?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  3. ^ Rory Carroll and Lisa O'Carroll (9 July 2019). "No-deal Brexit a political and economic threat, Ireland warns". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  4. ^ Georgina Lee (29 November 2017). "FactCheck: What are the options for the Irish border after Brexit?". Channel4 News. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  5. ^ a b The Good Friday Agreement – Department of Foreign Affairs, Government of Ireland
  6. ^ "How Brexit could end 20 years of peace on the Irish border". The Independent. 6 March 2019.
  7. ^ Smith, Evan (20 July 2016). "Brexit and the history of policing the Irish border". History & Policy. King's College London and the University of Cambridge. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  8. ^ Robertson, Nic (6 April 2018). "Brexit: the unexpected threat to peace in Northern Ireland". CNN. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  9. ^ "Why is avoiding a hard border in Ireland a priority?". Full Fact. 17 December 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  10. ^ Petrequin, Samuel (19 October 2018). "EU's Barnier says Irish border issue could lead to failure". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  11. ^ "George Mitchell: UK and Ireland need to realise what's at stake in Brexit talks". Belfast Telegraph. 8 April 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Brexit: Violence if hard Irish border returns report claims - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  13. ^ Lisa O'Carroll. "Hard border in Ireland would trigger return to violence, says report | UK news". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  14. ^ "A hard Border makes return of violence to Northern Ireland 'inevitable' - stark new report warns". Independent News & Media. 18 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Brexit: Hard border would bring new wave of violence, says report". Belfast Telegraph. 18 February 2019.
  16. ^ Northern Ireland rejects hard border - and 62% say united Ireland more likely after Brexit – Victoria Leonard, Belfast Telegraph, 13 November 2018
  17. ^ Lyons, Niamh (31 January 2017). "Brexit will not mean hard border, leaders vow". The Times, Ireland edition. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  18. ^ Keena, Colm (26 July 2016). "Britain does not want return to Northern Ireland border controls, says May". The Irish Times. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  19. ^ McDonald, Henry (1 September 2016). "Brexit secretary: no return to 'hard' border in Ireland". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  20. ^ McDonald, Henry; O'Carroll, Lisa (10 October 2016). "Irish Republic signals support for UK plan to avoid post-Brexit "hard border"". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  21. ^ "UK officials at Irish ports ruled out". RTÉ News. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  22. ^ O'Regan, Michael (26 October 2016). "Brexit: Ireland has no agreement with UK on use of Irish ports". The Irish Times. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  23. ^ The United Kingdom's exit from and new partnership with the European Union HM Government, February 2017
  24. ^ Wednesday; December 12; Am, 2018-04:50 (12 December 2018). "Government says no plans in case of post-Brexit hard border". Irishexaminer.com.
  25. ^ O'Halloran, Marie. "Varadkar confirms plans for hard Brexit now being implemented". The Irish Times.
  26. ^ "Border checks on trade to follow no-deal Brexit - Coveney and Ross in private conversation caught on tape". Independent.ie.
  27. ^ "Sky Data poll: Irish overwhelmingly back government's pressure on backstop". Sky News.
  28. ^ David Trimble: Ireland risks provoking (loyalist) paramilitaries over post-Brexit border. Henry McDonald, The Guardian, 6 April 2018
  29. ^ David Smith Brexit threatens Good Friday agreement, Irish PM warns The Guardian, 14 March 2018
  30. ^ Hughes, Laura (9 June 2017). "Who are the DUP and will they demand a soft Brexit to prop up the Tories?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
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  33. ^ Fenton, Siobhan (24 June 2016). "Northern Ireland's Deputy First Minister calls for poll on united Ireland after Brexit". The Independent. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  34. ^ Irish reunification ‘on the table’, says Sinn Fein's new leader amid Brexit talks France 24, 26 February 2018; Retrieved 29 March 2018
  35. ^ Mark Devenport (10 August 2016). "Foster and McGuinness in Brexit talks call". BBC News. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  36. ^ Ellen Coyne (29 April 2017). "EU approval 'brings united Ireland closer'". The Times, Ireland edition. Retrieved 29 April 2017.(subscription required)
  37. ^ Germany 'in solidarity' with Ireland over backstop to avoid hard border – Lisa O'Carroll, The Guardian, 8 January 2019
  38. ^ Campbell, John (23 January 2019). "No-deal Brexit 'means hard border'". BBC News. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  39. ^ Lamy, Pascal (12 April 2019). "Staying in a customs union after Brexit won't resolve the Irish border issue". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  40. ^ "Terms of Reference for the Article 50 TEU negotiations" (PDF). European Commission. 19 June 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
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  44. ^ Kevin Doyle (17 April 2017). "EU sees our unique circumstances but the 'Irish question must be dealt with early in the talks'". Independent.ie. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  45. ^ 'Onus on British to resolve Irish border issue for Brexit: Irish Foreign Affairs Minister Coveney – Belfast Telegraph, 28 July 2017
  46. ^ Patrick Logue (20 July 2018). "Brexit: What is the 'backstop' agreement and why does it matter?". The Irish Times.
  47. ^ Tweet by Charles Grant "EU wd not abandon Irish backstop because it stands by its members; and Dublin believes that to do so wd endanger peace process."
  48. ^ "Arlene Foster: If backstop isn't removed, Brexit deal won't get DUP support". TheJournal.ie. 25 November 2018.
  49. ^ "Ireland-UK Accord to Further Secure the Common Travel Area". Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service. 20 December 2011. The Joint Statement and the accompanying Memorandum of Understanding on visa data exchange was signed by Minister for Justice, Equality and Defence, Alan Shatter, T.D. and UK Immigration Minister, Damien Green, M.P., in Dublin today
  50. ^ "Major breakthrough in Irish strand of Brexit talks". The Irish Times. 1 September 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  51. ^ Adam Payne (9 May 2018). "The House of Lords voted for Theresa May to negotiate a Norway-style Brexit — here's what that means". Business Insider Nordic.
  52. ^ "Trafiktillstånd för transporter mellan Sverige och Norge]" (in Swedish). Tullverket (Swedish customs). Retrieved 4 July 2018. Translation:"With a traffic permit, you as a carrier can pass a border crossing that does not have an open clearance expedition"
  53. ^ O'Carroll, Lisa (10 May 2018). "Customs union only way to prevent hard border in Ireland, says Major". The Guardian.
  54. ^ Michael Burrage (7 December 2017). "Regulatory divergence does not require a hard border between Northern Ireland and the Republic". Brexit Central. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  55. ^ John Campbell (12 September 2018). "Brexit Irish border: ERG report has more sober approach but problems remain". BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  56. ^ Rob Merrick (24 October 2018). "It's too late to prepare UK borders for no-deal Brexit National Audit Office tells Theresa May". The Independent.
  57. ^ "Temporary tariff regime for no-deal Brexit published". GOV.UK.
  58. ^ a b "No-deal plans a bid 'to break EU unity'". Bbc.co.uk. 13 March 2019.
  59. ^ correspondent, Lisa O'Carroll Brexit; Boffey, Daniel (13 March 2019). "UK will cut most tariffs to zero in event of no-deal Brexit". Theguardian.com.
  60. ^ a b Sandford, Alisdair (13 March 2019). "UK zero-tariff plan for no-deal Brexit would not spare some EU imports" (PDF). Euronews.com.
  61. ^ Cooper, Charlie (13 March 2019). "UK to unilaterally waive all checks at Irish border in no-deal Brexit". POLITICO.
  62. ^ "Brexit Q&A: From smuggling to taxes - what does it all mean?". Independent.ie.
  63. ^ a b David Young and Andrew Woodcock, Press Association (14 March 1999). "No-deal Brexit: British government confirms zero tariffs on goods entering north over border". The Irish News. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  64. ^ McCormack, Jayne (14 March 2019). "Does NI tariffs plan violate WTO law?". Bbc.co.uk.
  65. ^ Thursday; March 14; Am, 2019-05:10 (14 March 2019). "Proposed fees regime 'against WTO rules'". Irishexaminer.com.
  66. ^ "John Downing: 'EU puts Britain in its place with two very blunt messages'". Independent.ie.
  67. ^ "EU to apply normal tariffs on trade with UK in case of no-deal Brexit". Uk.reuters.com. 13 March 2019.
  68. ^ "EU says UK no-deal Brexit tariff plan is 'illegal'". The Independent. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  69. ^ Bowcott, Owen; Carroll (19 March 2019). "Post-Brexit tariffs will 'wipe out businesses' near Irish border". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  70. ^ a b Brexit: Hard border 'could risk patient care' says BMA – BBC News, 2 June 2017
  71. ^ Theresa May takes a swipe at Boris Johnson as she says his Irish border solution hasn't been designed yet – Daily Mirror, 20 July 2018
  72. ^ Stewart, Heather; Sabbagh, Dan (31 January 2019). "Theresa May faces pressure to clarify backstop changes". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  73. ^ a b Campbell, John (8 May 2019). "Brexit: Panel to advise on Irish border solutions". BBC News. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  74. ^ Ultra-hi-tech invisible Irish border ‘perfectly doable’, ex-customs chief says – Josh Loeb, Engineering and Technology Magazine, The Institute of Engineering and Technology, 5 April 2018
  75. ^ Smart Border 2.0 Avoiding a hard border on the island of Ireland for customs control and the free movement of persons: At a glance (with link to full briefing. – European Parliament Brexit Committee paper and presentation, 26-02-2018
  76. ^ a b c Fujitsu pitched stalker-y AI that can read your social media posts as solution to Irish border, apparently – Rebecca Hill, The Register, 6 Feb 2019

External linksEdit

  1. ^ Connelly, Tony (15 June 2019). "Double Whammy: A no-deal Brexit and Northern Ireland". Retrieved 15 June 2019.