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Mackerel
Global commercial capture of mackerel in million tonnes
as reported by the FAO 1950–2009[1]

Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly from the family Scombridae. They are found in both temperate and tropical seas, mostly living along the coast or offshore in the oceanic environment.

Mackerel species typically have vertical stripes on their backs and deeply forked tails. Many are restricted in their distribution ranges and live in separate populations or fish stocks based on geography. Some stocks migrate in large schools along the coast to suitable spawning grounds, where they spawn in fairly shallow waters. After spawning they return the way they came in smaller schools to suitable feeding grounds, often near an area of upwelling. From there they may move offshore into deeper waters and spend the winter in relative inactivity. Other stocks migrate across oceans.

Smaller mackerel are forage fish for larger predators, including larger mackerel and Atlantic cod.[2] Flocks of seabirds, whales, dolphins, sharks, and schools of larger fish such as tuna and marlin follow mackerel schools and attack them in sophisticated and cooperative ways. Mackerel flesh is high in omega-3 oils and is intensively harvested by humans. In 2009, over 5 million tons were landed by commercial fishermen.[1] Sport fishermen value the fighting abilities of the king mackerel.[3]

SpeciesEdit

Over 30 different species, principally belonging to the family Scombridae, are commonly referred to as mackerel. The term "mackerel" means "marked" or "spotted", and derives from the Old French maquerel, from around 1300, meaning a pimp or procurer. The connection is not altogether clear, but mackerel spawn enthusiastically in shoals near the coast, and medieval ideas on animal procreation were creative.[4]

Scombroid mackerelsEdit

About 21 species in the family Scombridae are commonly called mackerel. The type species for the scombroid mackerel is the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus. Until recently, Atlantic chub mackerel and Indo-Pacific chub mackerel were thought to be subspecies of the same species. In 1999, Collette established, on molecular and morphological considerations, that these are separate species.[5] Mackerel are smaller with shorter lifecycles than their close relatives, the tuna, which are also members of the same family.[6][7]

Scombrini, the true mackerelsEdit

The true mackerels belong to the tribe Scombrini.[8] The tribe consists of seven species, each belonging to one of two genera: Scomber or Rastrelliger.[9][10]

True Mackerels (tribe Scombrini)
Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
FishBase FAO IUCN status
Short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma
(Bleeker, 1851)
34.5 cm 20 cm kg years 2.72 [11] [12]   Data deficient[13]
Island mackerel R. faughni
(Matsui, 1967)
20 cm cm 0.75 kg years 3.4 [14]   Data deficient[15]
Indian mackerel R. kanagurta
(Cuvier, 1816)
35 cm 25 cm kg 4 years 3.19 [16] [17]   Data deficient[18]
Blue mackerel Scomber australasicus
(Cuvier, 1832)
44 cm 30 cm 1.36 kg years 4.2 [19]   Least concern[20]
Atlantic chub mackerel S. colias
(Gmelin, 1789)
cm cm kg years 3.91 [21]   Least concern[22]
Chub mackerel S. japonicus
(Houttuyn, 1782)
64 cm 30 cm 2.9 kg 18 years 3.09 [23] [24]   Least concern[25]
Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
66 cm cm kg 12 years west
18 years east
3.65 [26] [27]   Least concern[5]

Scomberomorini, the Spanish mackerelsEdit

The Spanish mackerels belong to the tribe Scomberomorini, which is the "sister tribe" of the true mackerels.[28] This tribe consists of 21 species in all—18 of those are classified into the genus Scomberomorus,[29] two into Grammatorcynus,[30] and a single species into the monotypic genus Acanthocybium.[31]

Spanish Mackerels (tribe Scomberomorini)
Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
FishBase FAO IUCN status
Wahoo Acanthocybium solandri
(Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1832)
250 cm 170 cm 83 kg years 4.4 [32]   Least concern[33]
Shark mackerel Grammatorcynus bicarinatus
(Quoy & Gaimard, 1825)
112 cm cm 13.5 kg years 4.5 [34]   Least concern[35]
Double-lined mackerel G. bilineatus
(Rüppell, 1836)
100 cm 50 cm 3.5 kg years 4.18 [36]   Least concern[37]
Serra Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus brasiliensis
(Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978)
cm cm kg years 3.31 [38]   Least concern[39]
King mackerel S. cavalla
(Cuvier, 1829)
184 cm 70 cm 45 kg 14 years 4.5 [40] [41]   Least concern[42]
Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel S. commerson
(Lacepède, 1800)
240 cm 120 cm kg years 4.5 [43] [44]   Near threatened[45]
Monterey Spanish mackerel S. concolor
(Lockington, 1879)
cm cm kg years 4.24 [46]   Vulnerable[47]
Indo-Pacific king mackerel S. guttatus
(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
76 cm 55 cm kg years 4.28 [48] [49]   Data deficient[50]
Korean mackerel S. koreanus
(Kishinouye, 1915)
150 cm 60 cm 15 kg years 4.2 [51]   Least concern[52]
Streaked Spanish mackerel S. lineolatus
(Cuvier, 1829)
80 cm 70 cm kg years 4.5 [53]   Least concern[54]
Atlantic Spanish mackerel S. maculatus
(Mitchill, 1815)
91 cm cm 5.89 kg 5 years 4.5 [55] [56]   Least concern[57]
Papuan Spanish mackerel S. multiradiatus
Munro, 1964
35 cm cm 0.5 kg years 4.0 [58]   Least concern[59]
Australian spotted mackerel S. munroi
(Collette & Russo, 1980)
104 cm cm 10.2 kg years 4.3 [60]   Near threatened[61]
Japanese Spanish mackerel S. niphonius
(Cuvier, 1832)
100 cm cm 7.1 kg years 4.5 [62] [63]   Data deficient[64]
Queen mackerel S. plurilineatus
Fourmanoir, 1966
120 cm  cm 12.5 kg years 4.2 [65]   Data deficient[66]
Queensland school mackerel S. queenslandicus
(Munro, 1943)
100 cm 80 cm 12.2 kg years 4.5 [67]   Least concern[68]
Cero mackerel S. regalis
(Bloch, 1793)
183 cm  cm 7.8 kg years 4.5 [69]   Least concern[70]
Broadbarred king mackerel S. semifasciatus
(Macleay, 1883)
120 cm cm kg 10 years 4.5 [71]   Least concern[72]
Pacific sierra S. sierra
(Cuvier, 1832)
99 cm 60 cm 8.2 kg years 4.5 [73]   Least concern[74]
Chinese mackerel S. sinensis
(Cuvier, 1832)
247 cm 100 cm kg years 4.5 [75]   Data deficient[76]
West African Spanish mackerel S. tritor
(Cuvier, 1832)
cm cm kg years 4.26 [77]   Least concern[78]

Other mackerelEdit

In addition, a number of species with mackerel-like characteristics in the families Carangidae, Hexagrammidae and Gempylidae are commonly referred to as mackerel. Some confusion had occurred between the Pacific jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) and the heavily harvested Chilean jack mackerel (T. murphyi). These have been thought at times to be the same species, but are now recognised as separate species.[79]

Other mackerel species
Family Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
FishBase FAO IUCN status
Scombridae
Gasterochisma
Butterfly mackerel Gasterochisma melampus Richardson, 1845 175 cm 153 cm  kg years 4.4 [80]   Least concern[81]
Carangidae
Jack mackerel
Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) 70 cm 22 cm 2.0 kg years 3.64 [82] [83] Not assessed
Blue jack mackerel T. picturatus (Bowdich, 1825) 60 cm 25 cm kg years 3.32 [84]   Data deficient[85]
Cape horse mackerel T. capensis (Castelnau, 1861) 60 cm 30 cm kg years 3.47 [86] [87] Not assessed[88]
Chilean jack mackerel T. murphyi (Nichols, 1920) 70 cm 45 cm kg 16 years 3.49 [89] [90]   Data deficient[91]
Cunene horse mackerel T. trecae (Cadenat, 1950) 35 cm cm 2.0 kg years 3.49 [92] [93] Not assessed
Greenback horse mackerel T. declivis (Jenyns, 1841) 64 cm 42 cm kg 25 years 3.93 [94] [95] Not assessed[96]
Japanese horse mackerel T. japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) 50 cm 35 cm 0.66 kg 12 years 3.4 [97] [98] Not assessed
Mediterranean horse mackerel T. mediterraneus (Steindachner, 1868) 60 cm 30 cm kg years 3.59 [99] [100] Not assessed
Pacific jack mackerel T. symmetricus (Ayres, 1855) 81 cm 55 cm kg 30 years 3.56 [101]   Least concern[102]
Yellowtail horse mackerel T. novaezelandiae (Richardson, 1843) 50 cm 35 cm kg 25 years 4.5 [103] Not assessed
Gempylidae
Snake mackerel
Black snake mackerel Nealotus tripes (Johnson, 1865) 25 cm 15 cm kg years 4.2 [104] Not assessed
Blacksail snake mackerel Thyrsitoides marleyi (Fowler, 1929) 200 cm 100 cm kg years 4.19 [105] Not assessed
Snake mackerel Gempylus serpens (Cuvier, 1829) 100 cm 60 cm kg years 4.35 [106] Not assessed
Violet snake mackerel Nesiarchus nasutus (Johnson, 1862) 130 cm 80 cm kg years 4.33 [107] Not assessed
* White snake mackerel Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Cuvier, 1832) 40 cm 25 cm kg years 3.86 [108] Not assessed
Hexagrammidae Okhotsk atka mackerel Pleurogrammus azonus (Jordan & Metz, 1913) 62 cm cm 1.6 kg 12 years 3.58 [109] [110] Not assessed
Atka mackerel P. monopterygius (Pallas, 1810) 56.5 cm cm 2.0 kg 14 years 3.33 [111] Not assessed
 
Still life with mackerel, lemon and tomato, Van Gogh, 1886

The term "mackerel" is also used as a modifier in the common names of other fish, sometimes indicating the fish has vertical stripes similar to a scombroid mackerel:

By extension, the term is applied also to other species such as the mackerel tabby cat,[112] and to inanimate objects such as the altocumulus mackerel sky cloud formation.[113][114]

CharacteristicsEdit

 
Like other scombroids, mackerel such as this Atlantic mackerel are superb swimmers, and can retract their fins into grooves on their bodies for streamlining. They have deeply forked tails and are smaller and slimmer than tuna.[115][116]

Most mackerel belong to the family Scombridae, which also includes tuna and bonito. Generally, mackerel are much smaller and slimmer than tuna, though in other respects, they share many common characteristics. Their scales, if present at all, are extremely small. Like tuna and bonito, mackerel are voracious feeders, and are swift and manoeuvrable swimmers, able to streamline themselves by retracting their fins into grooves on their bodies. Like other scombroids, their bodies are cylindrical with numerous finlets on the dorsal and ventral sides behind the dorsal and anal fins, but unlike the deep-bodied tuna, they are slim.[115]

The type species for scombroid mackerels is the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus. These fish are iridescent blue-green above with a silvery underbelly and 200-30 near-vertical wavy black stripes running across their upper bodies.[26][117][failed verification]

The prominent stripes on the back of mackerels seemingly are there to provide camouflage against broken backgrounds. That is not the case, though, because mackerel live in midwater pelagic environments which have no background.[118] However, fish have an optokinetic reflex in their visual systems that can be sensitive to moving stripes.[119] For fish to school efficiently, they need feedback mechanisms that help them align themselves with adjacent fish, and match their speed. The stripes on neighbouring fish provide "schooling marks", which signal changes in relative position.[118][120]

 
Mackerel, such as these Pacific jack mackerel, usually have vertical stripes on their sides which provide "schooling marks", visual clues that help them stay in formation as they school.[118]

A layer of thin, reflecting platelets is seen on some of the mackerel stripes. In 1998, E J Denton and D M Rowe argued that these platelets transmit additional information to other fish about how a given fish moves. As the orientation of the fish changes relative to another fish, the amount of light reflected to the second fish by this layer also changes. This sensitivity to orientation gives the mackerel "considerable advantages in being able to react quickly while schooling and feeding."[121]

Mackerel range in size from small forage fish to larger game fish. Coastal mackerel tend to be small.[122] The king mackerel is an example of a larger mackerel. Most fish are cold-blooded, but exceptions exist. Certain species of fish maintain elevated body temperatures. Endothermic bony fishes are all in the suborder Scombroidei and include the butterfly mackerel, a species of primitive mackerel.[123]

Mackerel are strong swimmers. Atlantic mackerel can swim at a sustained speed of 0.98 m/sec with a burst speed of 5.5 m/sec,[124][125] while chub mackerel can swim at a sustained speed of 0.92 m/sec with a burst speed of 2.25 m/sec.[115]

DistributionEdit

King mackerels cruise on long migrations at 10 kilometres per hour.[126][127]

Most mackerel species have restricted distribution ranges.[115]

  • Atlantic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) occupy the waters off the east coast of North America from the Cape Cod area south to the Yucatan Peninsula. Its population is considered to include two fish stocks, defined by geography. As summer approaches, one stock moves in large schools north from Florida up the coast to spawn in shallow waters off the New England coast. It then returns to winter in deeper waters off Florida. The other stock migrates in large schools along the coast from Mexico to spawn in shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico off Texas. It then returns to winter in deeper waters off the Mexican coast.[56] These stocks are managed separately, even though genetically they are identical.[57]
  • The Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is a coastal species found only in the north Atlantic. The stock on the west side of the Atlantic is largely independent of the stock on the east side. The stock on the east Atlantic currently operates as three separate stocks, the southern, western and North Sea stocks, each with their own migration patterns. Some mixing of the east Atlantic stocks takes place in feeding grounds towards the north, but there is almost no mixing between the east and west Atlantic stocks.[5][128][129][130][131]
  • Another common coastal species, the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), is absent from the Atlantic Ocean but is widespread across both hemispheres in the Pacific, where its migration patterns are somewhat similar to those of Atlantic mackerel. In the northern hemisphere, chub mackerel migrate northwards in the summer to feeding grounds, and southwards in the winter when they spawn in relatively shallow waters. In the southern hemisphere the migrations are reversed. After spawning, some stocks migrate down the continental slope to deeper water and spend the rest of the winter in relative inactivity.[23]
  • The Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), the most intensively harvested mackerel-like species, is found in the south Pacific from West Australia to the coasts of Chile and Peru.[89] A sister species, the Pacific jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), is found in the north Pacific. The Chilean jack mackerel occurs along the coasts in upwelling areas, but also migrates across the open ocean. Its abundance can fluctuate markedly as ocean conditions change,[91] and is particularly affected by the El Niño.

Three species of jack mackerels are found in coastal waters around New Zealand: the Australasian, Chilean, and Pacific jack mackerels. They are mainly captured using purse seine nets, and are managed as a single stock that includes multiple species.[132]

Some mackerel species migrate vertically. Adult snake mackerel conduct a diel vertical migration, staying in deeper water during the day and rising to the surface at night to feed. The young and juveniles also migrate vertically, but in the opposite direction, staying near the surface during the day and moving deeper at night.[133] This species feeds on squid, pelagic crustaceans, lanternfishes, flying fishes, sauries, and other mackerel.[134] It is, in turn, preyed upon by tuna and marlin.[135]

LifecycleEdit

 
Gannets and other seabirds fuel themselves with mackerel

Mackerel are prolific broadcast spawners, and must breed near the surface of the water because the eggs of the females float. Individual females lay between 300,000 and 1,500,000 eggs.[115] Their eggs and larvae are pelagic, that is, they float free in the open sea. The larvae and juvenile mackerel feed on zooplankton. As adults, they have sharp teeth, and hunt small crustaceans such as copepods, forage fish, shrimp, and squid. In turn, they are hunted by larger pelagic animals such as tuna, billfish, sea lions, sharks, and pelicans.[24][41][136]

Off Madagascar, spinner sharks follow migrating schools of mackerel.[137] Bryde's whales feed on mackerel when they can find them. They use several feeding methods, including skimming the surface, lunging, and bubble nets.[138]

FisheriesEdit

Global capture of mackerel in tonnes reported by the FAO 1950–2009
↑  Scombroid mackerels[1]
↑  Non-scombroid mackerels[1]
Main commercial species
The chub mackerel is the most intensively fished mackerel in the scombroid family.
Chilean jack mackerel have been overfished and the population may be in danger of collapsing. Here an entire school of about 400 tons is encircled by a purse seiner.

Chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, are the most intensively fished scombroid mackerel. They account for about half the total capture production of scombroid mackerels.[1] As a species, they are easily confused with Atlantic mackerel. Chub mackerel migrate long distances in oceans and across the Mediterranean. They can be caught with drift nets and suitable trawls, but are most usually caught with surround nets at night by attracting them with lampara lamps.[139]

The remaining catch of scombroid mackerels is divided equally between the Atlantic mackerel and all other scombroid mackerels. Just two species account for about 75% of the total catch of scombroid mackerels.[1]

Chilean jack mackerel are the most commonly fished nonscombroid mackerel, fished as heavily as chub mackerel.[1][90] The species has been overfished, and its fishery may now be in danger of collapsing.[140][141]

Smaller mackerel behave like herrings, and are captured in similar ways.[142] Fish species like these, which school near the surface, can be caught efficiently by purse seining. Huge purse-seine vessels use spotter planes to locate the schooling fish. Then they close in using sophisticated sonar to track the shape of the school, which is then encircled with fast auxiliary boats that deploy purse seines as they speed around the school.[143][144]

Suitably designed trollers can also catch mackerels effectively when they swim near the surface. Trollers typically have several long booms which they lift and drop with "topping lifts". They haul their lines with electric or hydraulic reels.[145] Fish aggregating devices are also used to target mackerel.[146]

ManagementEdit

The North Sea has been overfished to the point where the ecological balance has become disrupted and many jobs in the fishing industry have been lost.[147]

The Southeast US region spans the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the US Southeast Atlantic. Overfishing of king and Spanish mackerel occurred in the 1980s. Regulations were introduced to restrict the size, fishing locations, and bag limits for recreational fishers and commercial fishers. Gillnets were banned in waters off Florida. By 2001, the mackerel stocks had bounced back.[148]

As foodEdit

 
Atlantic mackerel on ice at a fishmonger's

Mackerel is an important food fish that is consumed worldwide.[149] As an oily fish, it is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids.[150] The flesh of mackerel spoils quickly, especially in the tropics, and can cause scombroid food poisoning. Accordingly, it should be eaten on the day of capture, unless properly refrigerated or cured.[151]

Mackerel preservation is not simple. Before the 19th-century development of canning and the widespread availability of refrigeration, salting and smoking were the principal preservation methods available.[152] Historically in England, this fish was not preserved, but was consumed only in its fresh form. However, spoilage was common, leading the authors of The Cambridge Economic History of Europe to remark: "There are more references to stinking mackerel in English literature than to any other fish!"[142] In France, mackerel was traditionally pickled with large amounts of salt, which allowed it to be sold widely across the country.[142]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Based on data sourced from the relevant FAO Species Fact Sheets
  2. ^ Daan, N. (December 1973). "A quantitative analysis of the food intake of North Sea cod, Gadus Morhua". Netherlands Journal of Sea Research. 6 (4): 479–517. Bibcode:1973NJSR....6..479D. doi:10.1016/0077-7579(73)90002-1.
  3. ^ King mackerel. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). Merriam Webster. 2008. p. 688. ISBN 9780877798095.
  4. ^ "Mackerel". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
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  6. ^ Juan-Jorda, MJ; Mosqueira, I; Cooper, AB; Freire, J; Dulvy, NK (2011). "Global population trajectories of tunas and their relatives". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (51): 20650–20655. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10820650J. doi:10.1073/pnas.1107743108. PMC 3251139. PMID 22143785.
  7. ^ "Tuna and mackerel populations have reduced by 60% in the last century". ScienceDaily. 8 February 2012. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017.
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  13. ^ Collette B; et al. (2011). "Rastrelliger brachysoma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
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