Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg. A small and densely populated country, it covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres (11,787 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11 million. Straddling the cultural boundary between Germanic and Latin Europe, Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups: the Dutch-speaking, mostly Flemish community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, and the French-speaking, mostly Walloon population, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. Additionally, there is a small group of German speakers, numbering around one percent, who live in the East Cantons. The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi and Liège.
Historically, Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that also included parts of northern France and western Germany. Its name is derived from the Latin word Belgica, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars. The country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution when it seceded from the Netherlands.
Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three highly autonomous regions and three communities: the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north, the mostly French-speaking Wallonia region in the south, and the German-speaking cantons in the east. The Brussels-Capital Region is an officially bilingual (French and Dutch) enclave within the Flemish Region, though French is the dominant language. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia.
Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.