The FN P90, also known as the FN Project 1990 PDWS, is a compact personal defense weapon (PDW) designed and manufactured by FN Herstal in Belgium. Created in response to NATO requests for a replacement for 9×19mm Parabellum firearms, the P90 was designed as a compact but powerful firearm for vehicle crews, operators of crew-served weapons, support personnel, special forces, and counter-terrorist groups.
FN P90 - FN 5.7x28mm
|Place of origin||Belgium|
|Used by||See Users|
|No. built||17,000 (in 2003)|
|Width||5.5 cm (2.2 in)|
|Height||21 cm (8.3 in)|
|Action||Straight blowback, closed bolt|
|Rate of fire||900 RPM (rounds per minute)|
|Muzzle velocity||715 m/s (2,350 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||200 m (660 ft)|
|Maximum firing range||1,800 m (5,900 ft)|
|Feed system||50-round detachable box magazine|
|Sights||Tritium-illuminated reflex sight, back-up iron sights|
Designed in conjunction with the FN Five-seven pistol and FN 5.7×28mm ammunition, development of the weapon began in 1986, and production commenced in 1990 (from which the "90" in its name is derived), whereupon the 5.7×28mm ammunition was redesigned and shortened. A modified version of the P90 with a magazine adapted to use the new ammunition was introduced in 1993, and the Five-seven pistol was subsequently introduced as a companion weapon using the same 5.7×28mm ammunition.
Featuring a compact bullpup design with an integrated reflex sight and fully ambidextrous controls, the P90 is an unconventional weapon with a futuristic appearance. Its design incorporates several innovations such as a unique top-mounted magazine and FN's small-caliber, high-velocity 5.7×28mm ammunition. Additional integrated features include interchangeable visible or infrared laser and tritium light source.
The P90 is currently in service with military and police forces in over 40 nations, such as Austria, Brazil, Canada, France, Greece, India, Malaysia, Poland, and the United States. In the United States, the P90 is in use with over 200 law enforcement agencies, including the U.S. Secret Service. While developed and initially marketed as a PDW, it can also be considered a submachine gun or compact assault rifle. In the United States, the standard selective fire P90 is restricted to military, law enforcement or holders of certain Federal Firearms Licenses (FFL) with the Special Occupational Tax (SOT). Since 2005, a semi-automatic version has been offered to civilian users as the PS90.
The P90 and its 5.7×28mm ammunition were developed by FN Herstal in response to NATO requests for a replacement for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge and associated pistols and submachine guns. NATO called for two types of weapons chambered for a new cartridge—one a shoulder-fired weapon, and the other a handheld weapon. According to NATO, these new weapons, termed personal defense weapons (PDWs), were to provide "personal protection in last-resort situations when the user is directly endangered by the enemy [...]." In 1989, NATO published document D/296, outlining a number of preliminary specifications for these weapons:
- The new cartridge was to have greater range, accuracy, and terminal performance than the 9×19mm cartridge. Additionally, it was to be capable of penetrating body armor.
- The shoulder-fired personal defense weapon was to weigh less than 3 kg (6.6 lb), with a magazine capacity of at least 20 rounds.
- The handheld personal defense weapon (pistol) was to weigh less than 1 kg (2.2 lb), although a weight of 700 g (1.5 lb) was deemed desirable; it was to have a magazine capacity of at least 20 rounds.
- Both weapons were to be sufficiently compact to be carried hands-free on the user's person at all times, whether in the cab of a vehicle or the cockpit of an aircraft, and were to perform effectively in all environments and weather conditions.
FN Herstal was the first small arms manufacturer to respond to NATO's requirement; FN started by developing a shoulder-fired personal defense weapon, the P90, along with a small caliber, high velocity 5.7×28mm cartridge type. The original 5.7×28mm cartridge, called the SS90, went into production with the P90 in 1990. The SS90 propelled a 1.5 g (23 grain) plastic-core projectile from the P90 at a muzzle velocity of roughly 850 m/s (2,800 ft/s). Shortly after its introduction, the P90 was adopted and used in service with the Belgian special forces group in the 1991 Gulf War.
Following the P90's introduction, FN revised the 5.7×28mm ammunition. The new variation, designated the SS190, used a projectile 2.7 mm (0.11 in) shorter in length than that of the SS90. This allowed it to be used more conveniently in the 5.7×28mm FN Five-seven pistol, which was under development at that time. The SS190 projectile had a greater weight, and a more conventional construction with an aluminium and steel core. The first prototypes of the SS190 were created in 1992, and the design was finalized in 1993, replacing the SS90. A modified version of the P90, with a magazine adapted to use the shortened ammunition, was then introduced in the same year. Several special cartridge variations were developed, such as the L191 tracer round and the SB193 subsonic round for use with a sound-suppressed P90.
In 2002 and 2003, NATO conducted a series of tests with the intention of standardizing a PDW cartridge as a replacement for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge. The tests compared the relative merits of the FN 5.7×28mm cartridge and the HK 4.6×30mm cartridge, which was created by German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch as a competitor to the 5.7×28mm. The results of the NATO tests were analyzed by a group formed of experts from Canada, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the group's conclusion was that the 5.7×28mm was "undoubtedly" the more efficient cartridge. However, the German delegation and others rejected the NATO recommendation that 5.7×28mm be standardized, halting the standardization process indefinitely. As a result, both the 4.6×30mm and 5.7×28mm cartridges (and the associated weapons) have been independently adopted by various NATO countries, according to preference; the P90 is currently in service with military and police forces in over 40 countries throughout the world.
Further development of the P90 led to the creation of the P90 TR model, which has a MIL-STD-1913 triple rail interface for mounting accessories. This model was introduced in late 1999 and continues to be offered alongside the standard P90. More recently, the P90 has been offered to civilian shooters as the PS90, a semi-automatic carbine intended for personal protection and sporting use.
The P90 is a selective fire, straight blowback-operated weapon with a cyclic rate of fire of 900 RPM (rounds per minute). The weapon is chambered for FN's 5.7×28mm ammunition. Its unusual shape is based on extensive ergonomic research. The weapon is grasped by means of a thumbhole in the frame that acts as a pistol grip, as well as an oversized trigger guard that acts as a foregrip for the shooter's support hand. The P90 fires from a closed bolt for maximum accuracy, and its design makes extensive use of polymers for reduced weight and cost. Overall, the weapon is relatively lightweight, weighing 2.5 kg (5.6 lb) empty, or 3 kg (6.6 lb) with a loaded 50-round magazine.
The P90 is notable for being fully ambidextrous—it can be operated by right or left-handed shooters with equal ease, and without making any modifications to the weapon. FN Herstal has described it as the "first fully ambidextrous individual automatic weapon." The charging handle, magazine release and backup iron sights are symmetrically distributed on both sides of the weapon, and the firing selector is located directly at the foot of the trigger, where it can be operated from either side by the shooter's trigger finger or support hand thumb. When fired, the P90 ejects spent cartridge casings downward through a chute located behind the grip, so spent cases are kept out of the shooter's line of sight.
The P90 can be fitted with a sling for greater ease of carry, and since the weapon has a fixed stock (as opposed to having a collapsing or folding stock), it can be quickly deployed when needed. The weapon's smooth, rounded contours prevent it from snagging on the shooter's clothing or equipment, and a small vertical protrusion is provided at the front end of the weapon's frame to prevent the shooter's hand from accidentally slipping in front of the muzzle while shooting. A hollow compartment inside the rear of the weapon's frame—accessed by removing the buttplate—allows for convenient storage of a cleaning kit.
The P90 was designed to have a length no greater than a man's shoulder width, to allow it to be easily carried and maneuvered in tight spaces, such as the inside of an armored vehicle. To achieve this, the weapon's design uses the unconventional bullpup configuration, in which the action and magazine are located behind the trigger and alongside the shooter's face so that there is no wasted space in the stock. The P90's dimensions are minimized by its unique horizontally mounted feeding system, wherein the box magazine sits parallel to the barrel on top of the weapon's frame. The weapon overall has an extremely compact profile—it is the most compact fixed-stock submachine gun to be made. The standard version of the weapon has an overall length of 500 mm (19.7 in), a height of 210 mm (8.3 in), and a width of 55 mm (2.2 in).
The P90 requires minimal maintenance, and it can be disassembled quickly and easily. It is a modular firearm, consisting of four main component groups: the barrel and optical sight group, the moving parts group, the frame and trigger group, and the hammer group. The P90's barrel is cold hammer-forged and chrome-lined, with an overall length of 263 mm (10.4 in). The barrel has eight rifling grooves with a right-hand twist rate of 1:231 mm (1:9.1 in), and it is equipped with a diagonally cut flash suppressor that also acts as a recoil compensator. The stated service life of the barrel is 20,000 rounds.
The P90 uses an internal hammer striking mechanism and a trigger mechanism with a three-position rotary dial fire control selector, located at the foot of the trigger. The dial has three settings: S – safe, 1 – semi-automatic fire, and A – fully automatic fire. When set on A, the P90's fire selector provides a two-stage trigger operation similar to that of the Steyr AUG assault rifle—pulling the trigger back slightly produces semi-automatic fire, and pulling the trigger fully to the rear produces fully automatic fire.
Particularly significant to the design of the P90 is the small-caliber, high-velocity bottlenecked cartridge it uses. The 5.7×28mm cartridge was created by FN Herstal in response to a NATO requirement that called for a replacement for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge, which is commonly used in pistols and submachine guns. The 5.7×28mm cartridge weighs 6.0 g (93 grains)—roughly half as much as a typical 9×19mm cartridge—allowing the same number of rounds to be carried for less weight, or allowing more rounds to be carried for the same weight. Since the 5.7×28mm cartridge has a relatively small diameter, an unusually high number of cartridges can be contained in a magazine. The cartridge has a loud report and produces considerable muzzle flash (when fired from a pistol), but it produces roughly 30 percent less recoil than the 9×19mm cartridge, improving controllability. Due to its high velocity, the 5.7×28mm exhibits an exceptionally flat trajectory, compared to typical pistol ammunition.
One of the design intents for the standard 5.7×28mm cartridge type, the SS190, was that it has the ability to penetrate Kevlar protective vests that stop conventional pistol bullets. Fired from the P90, the 5.7×28mm SS190 has a muzzle velocity of roughly 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s, Mach 2) and can penetrate the NATO CRISAT vest or a Level IIIA Kevlar vest at a range of 200 m (219 yd). FN states an effective range of 200 m (219 yd) and a maximum range of 1,800 m (1,969 yd) for the 5.7×28mm cartridge when fired from the P90.
In testing conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) in 1999, the SS190 fired from the P90 at a distance of 25 m (27 yd) exhibited an average penetration depth of 25 cm (9.85 in) in ballistic gelatin covered with a Level II vest. The SS190 exhibited penetration depths ranging from 28 to 34 cm (11 to 13.5 in) when fired from the P90 into bare ballistic gelatin, in tests conducted by Houston Police Department SWAT. In testing, the SS190 and similar 5.7×28mm projectiles consistently turn base over point ("tumble") as they pass through ballistic gelatin and other media, using the 21.6-mm (.85 in) projectile length to create a larger wound cavity. However, some are skeptical of the bullet's terminal performance, and it is a subject of debate among civilian shooters in the United States.
The 5.7×28mm projectile potentially poses less risk of collateral damage than conventional pistol bullets, because the projectile design limits overpenetration, as well as risk of ricochet. The lightweight projectile loses much of its kinetic energy after traveling only 400 m (437 yd), whereas a conventional pistol bullet such as the 9×19mm retains significant energy beyond 800 m (875 yd), posing greater risk of collateral damage in the event of a miss. This range exceeds the engagement distances expected for the 5.7×28mm cartridge's intended applications, so the cartridge's limited energy at long range is not considered to be disadvantageous. Since the SS190 projectile does not rely on fragmentation or the expansion of a hollow point, the cartridge (and 5.7×28mm weapons) is considered suitable for military use under the Hague Convention of 1899, which prohibits the use of expanding bullets in warfare.
|Cartridge type||SS195LF||SS197SR||EA Protector||EA Varmintor||EA S4|
|Projectile weight||1.8 g (28 gr)||2.6 g (40 gr)||2.6 g (40 gr)||2.3 g (35 gr)||1.8 g (28 gr)|
|Muzzle velocity||777 m/s (2,550 ft/s)||640 m/s (2,100 ft/s)||716 m/s (2,350 ft/s)||747 m/s (2,450 ft/s)||930 m/s (3,100 ft/s)|
|Muzzle energy||550 J (130 cal)||530 J (130 cal)||665 J (159 cal)||650 J (160 cal)||785 J (188 cal)|
The P90 uses a unique horizontally mounted feeding system—patented in the United States—that contributes to the weapon's compact profile and unusual appearance. U.S. Patent 4,905,394 ("Top mounted longitudinal magazine") was awarded in 1990, naming René Predazzer as the sole inventor. The detachable box magazine is mounted parallel to the P90's barrel, fitting flush with the top of the weapon's frame, and it contains 50 rounds of ammunition which lie in two rows facing left, offset 90° from the bore axis. As the cartridges are pushed back by spring pressure and arrive at the rear end of the magazine, they are fed as a single row into a spiral feed ramp and rotated 90 degrees, aligning them with the chamber. The magazine body is composed of polymer, and it is translucent to allow the shooter to see the amount of ammunition remaining at any time.
Sights and accessoriesEdit
The P90 was originally equipped with the Ring Sights HC-14-62 reflex sight, but the current weapon is instead fitted with the Ring Sights MC-10-80 sight, which was specifically designed for it. The HC-14-62 has a polymer housing and uses a forward-aimed fiber optic collector to illuminate the white daytime reticle, which consists of a large circle of about 180 minutes of arc (MOA), with a 20 MOA circle surrounding a 3.5 MOA dot in the center. The MC-10-80 has an anodized aluminium housing, and has a similar black reticle. The night reticle for both the HC-14-62 and the MC-10-80 consists of an open T that is primarily illuminated by a tritium module, and, in the HC-14-62, ambient light drawn in by an upward-facing collector. The sight is adjustable for both windage and elevation, and it can be used in conjunction with night vision equipment. As backup in case the reflex sight is damaged, a set of fixed iron sights is provided on each side of the reflex sight housing.
The P90 has provisions for mounting a number of different types of accessories, including tactical lights and laser aiming devices. A sling can be attached to the P90 for greater ease of carry, or it can be fitted with various sound suppressors such as the Gemtech SP90, which was designed specifically for the weapon in cooperation with FN Herstal. This stainless steel suppressor with a black oxide finish is built according to MIL-SPECs, including saltwater corrosion resistance. It has a length of 184 mm (7.2 in), a diameter of 35 mm (1.4 in) and a weight of 680 g (1.5 lb). When subsonic ammunition is used in conjunction with the suppressor, it reduces the sound signature of the P90 by 33 dB. A small case collector pouch for the P90 is available which fits over the ejection port and collects spent cases as they are ejected downward; the pouch will collect up to one hundred cases before filling.
- P90 TR
- The P90 TR (Triple Rail) model, also known as the "flat-top," was introduced in late 1999. It features a receiver-mounted triple MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail interface system, or "Triple Rail," for mounting accessories. Also, instead of the integrated reflex sight, this model uses standard tritium iron sights. There is one full-length accessory rail integrated into the top of the receiver, and two rail stumps are included on the sides of the receiver. The top rail will accept various optical sights with no tools or additional mounting hardware required, and the side rails serve to mount secondary accessories, such as tactical lights or laser aiming devices. This is the most well known model, particularly in first person shooters like Call of Duty.
- P90 USG
- The P90 USG (United States Government) model is similar to the standard P90, except the reflex sight housing is aluminium, and the sight has a revised reticle. The black reticle consists of a tiny dot inside of a small ring, which is joined by three posts that glow red in low light conditions due to tritium-illumination. The USG reflex sight can be removed and replaced with a special MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail mount for attaching a different sight.
- P90 Laserex models
- The P90 LV (Laser Visible) and P90 IR (InfraRed) models, both of which were introduced in late 1995, have an integrated laser sight manufactured by Laserex Technologies in Australia. The P90 LV model projects an 8 mW visible laser intended to be used as a low-light shooting aid or for dissuasive effect, while the P90 IR model projects a 4.5 mW infrared laser that can only be seen with night vision equipment. Both laser systems are compact, consisting of a small, flat panel integrated into the front end of the weapon's frame.
The Laserex P90 laser systems have a weight of 131 g (0.29 lb), and they are activated by means of a green pressure switch located on the underside of the weapon's pistol grip. The lasers can be configured for three different internal settings: Off – disabled to prevent accidental activation, Training – low intensity for eye safety and extended battery life in training, or Combat – high intensity for maximum visibility. The Laserex P90 laser systems have a battery life of 250 hours when used on the Training setting, or a life of 50 hours when used on the Combat setting.
The PS90 is a carbine version of the P90, intended for civilian shooters for personal protection and sporting use; it was introduced in 2005, and continues to be offered in several configurations. The PS90 will accept the standard 50-round P90 magazines, but the gun is supplied with a magazine that is blocked to a capacity of 10 or 30 rounds, allowing it to be sold in jurisdictions where magazine capacities are restricted by law.
In order to be legal for purchase by civilians without obtaining a tax stamp for a Short Barreled Rifle (SBR) as defined by the United States National Firearms Act, the PS90 carbine has an extended 407 mm (16 in) barrel and is semi-automatic, with a trigger pull of approximately 31–36 newtons (7.0–8.1 lbf). The lengthened barrel has eight rifling grooves, with a right-hand twist rate of 1:229 mm (1:9 in) and a rifled length of 376 mm (14.8 in); the muzzle is equipped with a fixed "birdcage" type flash suppressor.
Despite the added barrel length, the PS90 is relatively compact and lightweight, with an overall length of 667 mm (26.3 in), and a weight of 3.4 kg (7.5 lb) with a fully loaded 50-round magazine. Due to the added barrel length, the PS90 can achieve a muzzle velocity of up to 777 m/s (2,550 ft/s) with SS195LF ammunition, or up to 930 m/s (3,050 ft/s) with third-party ammunition.
- PS90 Standard
- The PS90 Standard is the current model of the PS90 offered by FN Herstal. It features a MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail fitted to the top of the receiver, which allows the shooter to mount their preferred optical sight. The rail includes a set of integrated iron sights, as backup in case the primary sight is damaged. As of 2019 the PS90 Standard is available with a black frame.
- PS90 SBR
- The SBR variant is functionally identical to the “PS90 Standard”, but instead of the extended 16 inch barrel, this variant retains the standard 10.5 inch barrel of its selective-fire counterpart, thus making it the ballistic equivalent, in semi-automatic only form. The PS90 SBR is not usually listed on FN Herstal’s website, but is offered commercially through third-party extensions. These are made either through factory standard layouts, or conversions made by swapping the barrel. Of course, this renders the weapon a “short barreled rifle”, and thus the required tax stamp is necessary in order to purchase and/or transfer it. Bear in mind, this weapon is regulated as “Title II”, and special certification is required in most states. As with all factory standard PS90 receivers special welding is in place to complicate full auto conversion.
- PS90 TR
- The PS90 TR is now discontinued. It featured a "Triple Rail" receiver assembly identical to that of the P90 TR. The top of the receiver consisted of an MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail, allowing the shooter to mount his or her preferred optical sight. Two polymer side rails—one on each side of the receiver—were included for mounting secondary accessories, such as lasers or tactical lights. Like the PS90 Standard, the PS90 TR was available with either an olive drab or black frame. As of 2013, the PS90 TR model is no longer listed by FNH USA.
- PS90 USG
- The PS90 USG is now discontinued. In the same fashion as the P90 USG, this model has an aluminium reflex sight housing with a revised reticle. The black reticle consists of a tiny dot inside of a small ring, which is joined by three posts that glow red in low light conditions due to tritium-illumination. The USG reflex sight can be removed and replaced with a special MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail mount for attaching a different sight, and like other models of the PS90, the USG was available with either an olive drab or black frame. As of 2011, the PS90 USG model is no longer listed by FNH USA, but the USG reflex sight is still offered as a standalone accessory.
Despite being originally intended as a defensive weapon for military personnel whose primary role is not fighting with small arms (such as vehicle drivers), most sales of the P90 have been to special forces and counter-terrorist groups who use it for offensive roles. The P90 first saw operational use in the 1991 Gulf War, where it was used by the Belgian special forces group.
In 1997, suppressed P90s were used in combat by the Peruvian special forces group (Grupo de Fuerzas Especiales) in Operation Chavín de Huantar, the hostage rescue siege that ended the Japanese embassy hostage crisis. The operation was a success: all 14 MRTA revolutionaries were killed, and 71 hostages were rescued. The MRTA revolutionaries who had taken the hostages were equipped with body armor, but it was defeated by the Peruvian special forces' P90s. In 2011, P90s were used by Muammar Gaddafi's military forces in the 2011 Libyan civil war, and some of these examples were captured and used in the war by Libyan rebel forces.
By 2009, the P90 was in service with military and police forces in over 40 countries. In the United States, Houston Police Department was the first local law enforcement agency to adopt the P90, acquiring it for their SWAT team in 1999. In 2003, the Houston SWAT team became one of the first agencies in the country to use the weapon in a shootout. By 2009, the P90 was in use with over 200 law enforcement agencies in the United States, including the Secret Service and Federal Protective Service. In response, the National Rifle Association added the P90 and PS90 to its NRA Tactical Police Competition standards, allowing law enforcement agencies to compete in the event using either weapon.
|Argentina||Agrupación de Buzos Tácticos tactical diver group of the Argentine Navy||P90||−||−|||
|Policía de Seguridad Aeroportuaria (PSA; Airport Security Police)||P90||−||−|||
|Grupo Alacrán special group of the Argentine National Gendarmerie||P90||−||−|||
|Austria||Jagdkommando (Jakdo) special group of the Austrian Army||P90,
|Kommando Militärstreife & Militärpolizei (Kdo MilStrf&MP) close protection teams||P90 TR||−||−|||
|Belgium||Marinecomponent/Composante Marine (Belgian Navy) commandos||−||−||−|||
|Landcomponent/Composante Terre (Belgian Army), replacing the Uzi||−||−||2004–|||
|Détachement d'Agents de Sécurité (DAS) dignitary protection group||P90||53||−|||
|Directorate of Special Units (DSU) group of the Federale Politie/Police Fédérale/Föderale Polizei||−||−||−|||
|Former Gendarmerie/Rijkswacht paramilitary police force||P90||114||−|||
|Special Forces Group (SFG; used in the 1991 Gulf War)||P90||−||−|||
|Aarschot municipal police force||P90||−||−|||
|Liège metropolitan police force (replaced the Uzi)||−||−||2002–|||
|Zone de Police Boraine (Boussu/Colfontaine/Frameries/Quaregnon/Saint-Ghislain municipalities) police force||P90 TR||−||−|||
|Brazil||Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais (BOPE) of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State||−||−||−|||
|Canada||Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2) special group of the CF Special Operations Forces Command||−||−||2005–|||
|Halifax Regional Police force in Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia||−||−||−|||
|Service de police de la Ville de Montréal (SPVM) SWAT in Montreal, Quebec||−||−||−|||
|Chile||Fuerzas Especiales (Special Forces)||−||−||−|||
|Cyprus||Εθνική Φρουρά (Cypriot National Guard) special forces||P90||350||2000–|||
|Colombia||Colombian National Army
AFEUR Urban tactical group
Batallón Guardia Presidencial Escort team
Fuerzas de Despliegue Rápido (FUDRA) tactical assault & attack group
|Czech Republic||Útvar Rychlého Nasazení (URNA) of the Czech National Police||P90||−||2000s–|||
|Dominican Republic||Cuerpo de Ayudantes Militares del Presidente de la República||−||−||−|||
|Dominican Republic's counter-terrorist group||−||150||2002–|||
|Fuerzas Armadas de la República Dominicana (Military of the Dominican Republic)||−||−||−|||
|El Salvador||Comando Especial Antiterrorista (CEAT)||−||350||2002–|||
|France||Commandement des Opérations Spéciales (COS) joint special operations command||−||−||−|||
|GIGN counter-terrorism group of the Gendarmerie Nationale||P90 TR||−||−|||
|GIPN counter-terrorism group of the Police Nationale||−||−||−|||
|RAID counter-terrorism group of the Police Nationale||−||−||−|||
|Germany||Bundeskriminalamt (BKA; Federal Criminal Police Office) Sicherungsgruppe (SG; tasked with protection of the chancellor and other officials)||P90 TR||−||−|||
|Georgia||Ministry of Internal Affairs||-||−||−|||
|Greece||Ειδική Κατασταλτική Αντιτρομοκρατική Μονάδα (EKAM) unit of the Hellenic Police||−||−||−|||
|Guatemala||Secretaría de Asuntos Administrativos de Seguridad de la Presidencia (SAAS)||P90||20||2009–|||
|India||Special Protection Group (SPG; tasked with protection of the prime minister and other officials)||P90,
|Indonesia||Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group of the Indonesian Navy||−||−||−|||
|Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group of the Indonesian Army||−||−||−|||
|Ireland||Army Ranger Wing special forces of the Irish Defence Forces||−||−||2003–|||
|Italy||Col Moschin 9o Reggimento d'Assalto Paracadutisti (9th Parachute Assault Regiment) special forces of the Italian Army||P90 TR||−||−|||
|Israel||YAMAM unit of the Border Police||−||−||−|
|Jordan||Jordanian Armed Forces||−||−||−|||
|Lebanon||Forces de Sécurité Intérieure (FSI)||−||−||−|||
|Libya||Military of Libya (used by Muammar Gaddafi's military forces in the 2011 Libyan civil war, and some of these examples were captured and used in the war by Libyan rebel forces)||−||367||2008–|||
|Luxembourg||Unité Spéciale de la Police (USP) group of the Grand Ducal Police||P90 TR||−||−|||
|Malaysia||Pasukan Khas Laut (PASKAL) special operations group of the Royal Malaysian Navy||−||−||−|||
|Mali||National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad||−||At least 1||-|||
|Mauritania||BASEP presidential security battalion||−||−||−|||
|Mauritius||Various police forces||P90||−||−|||
|Mexico||Ejército Méxicano (Mexican Army) Special Forces||P90||−||−|||
|Estado Mayor Presidencial (EMP; Presidential Guard)||−||−||−|||
|Fuerzas Especiales (FES) of the Mexican Navy||−||−||−|||
|Policía Federal (PF; Federal Police) of the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública||−||−||−|||
|Netherlands||Korps Commandotroepen (KCT) of the Royal Netherlands Army (replaced the Uzi)||P90 TR||−||2000–|||
|Unit Interventie Mariniers (UIM) of the Netherlands Marine Corps||P90 TR||−||2001–|||
|Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten (BSB) of the Dutch Gendarmerie||−||−||−|||
|Nigeria||National Intelligence Agency (NIA), State Security Service (SSS)||P90||100||2011–|||
|Pakistan||Special Services Group||−||−||−|||
|Papua New Guinea||Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF)||−||−||−|||
|Peru||Grupo de Fuerzas Especiales (GRUFE) of the Peruvian Armed Forces||−||−||−|||
|Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales (FOES) of the Peruvian Navy||P90||53||−|||
|Paracaidistas del Ejército (Peruvian Army paratroopers)||−||−||−|||
|Philippines||Special Action Force (SAF) of the Philippine National Police||−||−||−|||
|Poland||Jednostka Wojskowa Grom||P90 TR||−||2006–|||
|Biuro Ochrony Rządu (used primarily for dignitary protection)||P90||−||2007–|||
|Portugal||Grupo de Operações Especiais (GOE) of the Polícia de Segurança Pública||−||−||2002–|||
|Romania||Detaşamentul de Intervenţie Rapidă special operations group of the Romanian Military||−||−||−|||
|Singapore||Singapore Armed Forces Commando Formation (CDO FN)||−||2002–|||
|Spain||Grupo Especial de Operaciones (GEO) of the Cuerpo Nacional de Policía||P90 TR||−||−|||
|Escuadrón de Zapadores Paracaidistas (EZAPAC) special group of the Ejército del Aire (Spanish Air Force)||P90,
|Suriname||Military of Suriname||−||900||2001–|||
|Taiwan||Republic of China Armed Forces||P90||−||1992–|||
|Thailand||กองทัพบกไทย (Royal Thai Army) special units||−||−||−|||
|Trinidad and Tobago||Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force||−||−||−|||
|Turkey||Karşı Atak Timi, prime minister's close protection teams.||−||−||−|||
|Polis Özel Harekat special operations group of the General Directorate of Security||−||−||−|||
|Jandarma Özel Asayiş Komutanlığı domestic special operations group of the Turkish Gendarmerie||−||−||−|||
|Ukraine||Ukrainian police force (unspecified)||P90 LV||30||2008–|||
|United States||U.S. Federal Protective Service branch of the DHS (formerly a branch of ICE)||P90||−||2001–|||
|U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service||−||−||−|||
|U.S. Secret Service||P90 TR||−||1990s–|||
|Addison police department in Texas (first agency in the country to issue it to patrol cars)||PS90 TR||52||2007–|||
|Alaska State Troopers in Alaska||P90 LV||9||−|||
|Birmingham Police Department SWAT in Alabama||P90||−||−|||
|Bryan police department SWAT in Texas||−||−||−|||
|Chula Vista Police Department SWAT in California||P90 TR||−||−|||
|Creve Coeur police department in Missouri||−||−||−|||
|Edina police department in Minnesota||−||11||2005–|||
|Houston Police Department SWAT in Texas (first local law enforcement agency in the country to adopt and use the weapon)||P90||5||1999–|||
|Kutztown police department in Pennsylvania||−||−||−|||
|Olathe police department ERT in Kansas||−||23||2001–|||
|Passaic County sheriff's department SWAT in New Jersey||−||−||2002–|||
|Richland County Sheriff's Department SRT in South Carolina||−||−||2000–|||
|Sioux Falls Police Department SWAT in South Dakota||−||−||−|||
|Sparta Police Department in New Jersey||−||−||−|||
|McLennan County Sheriff's Office in Texas||−||−||−|
|Zapata County sheriff's department in Texas||−||−||−|||
|Venezuela||Bodyguards assigned to the Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores||−||−||−|||
|COPEMI unit of the Armada Bolivariana de Venezuela (Venezuelan Navy)||−||−||−|||
|CSAR unit of the Aviación Militar Venezolana (Venezuelan Air Force)||−||−||−|||
|Ejército Bolivariano de Venezuela (Venezuelan Bolivarian Army)||−||−||−|||
|Guardia Nacional Bolivariana de Venezuela (Venezuelan Bolivarian National Guard) and the Anti-Extortion and Kidnapping National Command (CONAS)||−||−||−|||
|Various police forces||−||−||−|||
|Vietnam||Binh chủng Đặc công (Special Forces) of the People's Army of Vietnam||P90||−||−|||
- Díez, Octavio (2000). Armament and Technology: Handguns. Barcelona: Lema Publications, S.L. ISBN 9788484630135.
- Otero, Silvia (January 19, 2008). "Armas del Ejército de EU, en narco mexicano". El Universal (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
- Fux, Eric (April 21, 2011). "Bericht van het front in Libië" (in Dutch). De Redactie. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- Francotte, Auguste; Claude, Gaier; Robert, Karlshausen, eds. (January 2008). Ars Mechanica – The Ultimate FN Book. Vottem: Herstal Group. ISBN 9782874158773.
- "The P90 Series". FNH USA. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- "The PS90 Series". FNH USA. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Jones, Richard D.; Ness, Leland S., eds. (January 27, 2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010 (35th ed.). Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 9780710628695.
- "FNH USA Tactical Weapons – The P90 Series". FNH USA. 2012. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. London: Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 9781840652451.
- Oliver, David (2007). "In the Line of Fire". Global Defence Review. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Watters, Daniel E. "The 5.56 × 45mm Timeline: 1990–1994". The Gun Zone. Archived from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Kevin, Dockery (2007). Future Weapons. New York: Berkley Trade. ISBN 9780425217504.
- Tirans, Ivars (2009). "Baltic Defence Research and Technology 2009 Conference Proceedings". Military Review: Scientific Journal for Security and Defence (ISSN 1407-1746), Nr. 3/4 (132/133), p 103.
- White, Tim (2009). FN PS90 Product Video. FNH USA. Archived from the original (f4v) on 2011-09-27.
- Detty, Mike (October 2008). "FNH 5.7×28mm Dynamic Duo". Special Weapons For Military & Police. Archived from the original on July 17, 2010. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
- Gourley, S.; Kemp, I (November 26, 2003). "The Duellists". Jane's Defence Weekly (ISSN 0265-3818), Volume 40 Issue 21, pp 26–28.
- Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Miami: Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 9781930983144.
- "FNH USA Carbines — The PS90 Standard". FNH USA. 2012. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- "P90® Submachine Gun, 5.7x28mm". FN Herstal. 2002. Archived from the original on 2002. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- "Personal Defense Weapons: P90® Standard". FN Herstal. 2011. Archived from the original on March 17, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
- Wall, Sandy (April 2003). "Experiences with the FN P90". Hendon Publishing Co. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "FNH USA, Inc. 5.7×28mm Weapon System". FNH USA. 2002. Archived from the original on December 25, 2002. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
- Fortier, David (2008). "Military Ammo Today". Handguns Magazine. Archived from the original on 2010-08-15. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Amselle, Jorge (November 2011). "FN FIVE-SEVEN 5.7×28mm". Special Weapons For Military & Police. Archived from the original on December 24, 2011. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Cutshaw, Charlie (May 2006). "FN Herstal's Five-seveN Pistol". Tactical Response.
- Sterett, Larry S. (2005). "FN 5.7mm Five-seveN Pistol Makes Civilian Model Debut". Gun Week. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Bahde, Dave (November 2009). "FNH Five-seveN ODG 5.7×28mm". Combat Handguns. Archived from the original on July 17, 2010. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
- Humphries, Michael O. (May 2008). "Radical Tactical Firepower". Tactical Weapons. Archived from the original on November 12, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- "FNH USA 2008 Product Catalog – 5.7×28mm Ammunition" (PDF). FNH USA. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2010. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- Quinn, Jeff (May 27, 2009). "PS90 USG 5.7x28mm Semi-Auto Carbine from FNH-USA". Gunblast. Archived from the original on August 31, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
- "U.S. Patent 4,905,394 (Top mounted longitudinal magazine)". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Archived from the original on October 19, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- Rodriguez, Greg (2008). "FN's Fun 5.7 Firepower". Shooting Times. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved October 24, 2009.
- "Ring Sights MC-10-80". Ring Sights. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- "Revolution in Slow Motion". International Defense Review (Switzerland), Volume 29 Issue 1, pp 13–14 (January 1, 1996).
- "FN P90 Laser Target Designator". Remtek. 1999. Archived from the original on March 30, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2009.[self-published source]
- Detty, Mike (January 1, 2008). "FNH USA PS90 Carbine" (PDF). Police Magazine. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2011. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
- "Peru's Special Forces: Operation Chavin de Huantar". Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
- Lewis, Jack (September 26, 2007). The Gun Digest Book of Assault Weapons (7th ed.). Iola: Krause Publications. ISBN 9780896894983.
- Allen, Terry J. (September 3, 2004). "On the Streets of New York: Security". In These Times. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
- "NRA Adds FN 5.7×28mm Caliber Firearms to Tactical Police Competition Standards". FNH USA. 2009. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
- Noro, Lauro. "Cómo se hace un Buzo Táctico" (in Spanish). Def Digital Argentina. Archived from the original on February 21, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- Villada, Christian. "La ARA de visita en Puerto Madryn" (in Spanish). SAORBATS. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- Villamil, Roberto; Taibo, Javier (August 2009). "ARES World Defence & Security Nro. 12" (in Spanish). Ares Worldefense. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
- Villada, Christian. "Fotos de las Fuerzas Armadas Argentinas" (in Spanish). SAORBATS. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- Sünkler, Sören (March 6, 2008). Elite und Spezialeinheiten Europas [Elite and Special Forces in Europe] (in German). Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 9783613028531.
- Baumgartner, Franz (2009). "Militärstreife & Militärpolizei im ÖBH 2010" (in German). Austrian Armed Forces. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2009.
- Sueur, émilie (August 28, 2008). "L'Engagement Militaire Belge a Désormais un Volet Maritime". La Libre Belgique (in French). Archived from the original on December 19, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "Question Orale de Mme Isabelle Durant au Ministre de la Défense sur l'Appel d'Offres pour de Nouveaux Fusils pour la Défense Nationale (no 3-328)" (in French). Belgian Senate. May 27, 2004. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Dupont, Gilbert (July 11, 2001). "Cent P90 (l'Arme du 3e Millénaire) Dans la Nature..." (in French). DH News. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2009.
- "Mondelinge Vraag van de heer Patrik Vankrunkelsven aan de Minister van Binnenlandse Zaken over de Verspreiding van de P90 en Andere Oorlogswapens (nr. 2-199)" (in Dutch). Belgian Senate. May 30, 2000. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- "Politie Geeft Geheimen Prijs". Het Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). October 4, 2004. Archived from the original on June 12, 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- "Autorisation d'Utilisation du Pistolet-mitrailleur FN P90" (in French). City of Liège. February 19, 2004. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- "Voyage d'étude aux Etats-Unis" (in French). City of Liège. October 20, 2004. Retrieved September 29, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "Plus de la Zone: Tir Laser" (in French). Site de la Zone de Police Boraine. 2007. Archived from the original on March 17, 2009. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
- Lasterra, Juan Pablo (2008). "La Police Militaire Brésillienne en état de Guerre" (in Spanish). Police Pro No. 11 (September 2008).
- Taylor, Scott (October 17, 2005). "Don't Just Equip JTF2". Esprit de Corps. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
- "Feedline: A Newsletter Dedicated to Members of Halifax Regional Fire & Emergency" (PDF). Halifax Regional Municipality. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- Selves, Bertrand. "La Police Québécoise D'Investigation" (PDF) (in French). OFQJ: Office Franco-Québécois pour la Jeunesse. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 10, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- "Ejército de Chile – CANTIDADES" (in Spanish). Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- Díez, Octavio (2010). "Las armas de la Urna Checa" (in Spanish). Revista Armas. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- "Advierten Karin se Escuda en Vínculos con Presidente" (in Spanish). Dominicanos Hoy. December 4, 2008. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Cf. Raf Sauviller, l.c. (2004). "Le Registre est un nid à Problèmes – Des P90 de la FN ont été Livrésau Surinam et en République Dominicaine: de quoi se Scandaliser?" (in French). La Libre Belgique (August 26, 2002).
- Montes, Julio (2003). "Unidades de élite en Centroamérica" (in Spanish). Tecnología Militar, 2003. N. 4, pp 16–20.
- "Terre: Matériels forces spéciales — P90" (in French). French Ministry of Defence. September 15, 2010. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Micheletti, Eric (September 30, 2004). Le GIGN: Trente Ans d'Actions [The GIGN: Thirty Years of Actions] (in French). Paris: Histoire & Collections. ISBN 9782913903944.
- Mokeev, Sanjar (May 6, 2003). "Полицейский спецназ — Подразделения RAID & GIPN (Police Commandos — RAID & GIPN Departments)" (in Russian). Agentura.Ru. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2009.
- Fiamenghi, Jean-Louis (September 15, 2005). Le RAID: Unité d'élite de la Police Nationale [RAID: The elite unit of the national police] (in French). Chaumont: Crépin-Leblond. ISBN 9782703002642.
- Dunand, Emmanuel (October 11, 2004). "German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder arrives to meet with German soldiers". AFP / Getty Images. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-19. Retrieved 2015-08-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- http://www.geo-army.ge/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=819%3A-26052014-&catid=46%3A2&lang=en[permanent dead link]
- "Greece Ministry of Public Order Press Office: Special Anti-Terrorist Unit" (PDF). Hellenic Police. July 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-08. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
- Quinto, Ricardo (May 3, 2009). "Advierten Sobre Compra de Armas" (PDF). Prensa Libre (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2009. Retrieved October 1, 2009.
- Unnithan, Sandeep (August 22, 2008). "If Looks Could Kill". India Today. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "Kopassus & Kopaska — Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Ministarstvo obrane Republike Hrvatske. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2009.
- Thompson, Leroy (March 1, 2013). "Ireland's Army Rangers". Special Weapons For Military & Police. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2013.
- "Col Moschin 9o Reggimento d'Assalto Paracadutisti". RAIDS Italia Magazine (ISSN 1721-3460), 2007.
- Bourne, Mike; Berkol, Ilhan. "Deadly Diversions: Illicit Transfers of Ammunition for Small Arms and Light Weapons" (PDF). Small Arms Survey. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- Thomas Smith Jr., W. (October 10, 2007). "Black-Masked Commandos Training By The Sea". National Review. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- "FN-Libye: Demotte Justifie l'Autorisation Wallonne". La Libre Belgique (in French). October 5, 2009. Archived from the original on October 8, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "L'Unite d'Intervention de la Police Luxembourgeoise" (PDF) (in French). RAIDS magazine. March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2009.
- Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces". Special Weapons For Military & Police. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
- "From the picture is Royal Malaysian Navy PASKAL tactical team with FN P90, HK MP5A5, HK MP5/M203, AWM, UMP45, G36 and M4A1 during Sultan Muhammad visits the RMN base in Lumut". Archived from the original on 2017-05-08. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
- Small Arms Survey (2015). "Expanding Arsenals: Insurgent Arms in Northern Mali" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2015: weapons and the world (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 176. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-01-28. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
- Pézard, Stéphanie (June 2010). "Arms in and around Mauritania – National and Regional Security Implications" (PDF). Small Arms Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2010.
- Soobye, Ali (March 12, 2006). "Mauritius police forces parade". AFP / Getty Images. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- "Adquirió México Armas Cuestionadas por Defensores de los Derechos Humanos". La Jornada (in Spanish). December 19, 2005. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- "The present Dutch Special Forces "Korps Commandotroepen"". Dutch Defence Press. October 5, 2002. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- "Royal Netherlands Marine Corps, Dutch Core Expeditionary Force". Dutch Defence Press. January 4, 2001. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
- "Training exercise BSB (Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten)". Dutch Defence Press. August 16, 2012. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- "2011 Budget Summary – Intelligence Community" (PDF). Nigerian Federal Ministry of Finance. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 26, 2011. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
- "Pakistan's SSG". specwarnet.net. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- Alpers, Philip (2005). "Gun-Running in Papua New Guinea" (PDF). Small Arms Survey. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 8, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
- Taibo, Javier. "Así fue SITDEF 2009" (in Spanish). Defensa. Archived from the original on August 10, 2010. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- "Desfile Militar día Nacional del Perú. 27 de Julio de 2007" (in Spanish). Dintel GID. July 27, 2007. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2009.
- Obando, Enrique. "Mapping South American Small Arms Stockpiles and Surpluses: The Case of Peru". Perú Instituto de Estudios Políticos y Estratégicos. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
- Mejía, Lewis (May 19, 2009). "Los Paracaidistas del Ejército" (in Spanish). Peru Defensa. Archived from the original on August 20, 2009. Retrieved September 2, 2009.
- Wilk, Remigiusz (April 2008). "Nowe gromy GROM" (in Polish). Raport—wojsko, technika, obronnosc. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
- "United Nations Register of Conventional Arms: Poland Small Arms Imports and Exports". United Nations. May 30, 2008. Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
- Varela, Carlos (September 10, 2002). "A Arma Revolucionaria". Correio da Manhã (in Portuguese). Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- "Menirea Interventiei Rapide" (in Romanian). Presa Militara Romana. Archived from the original on April 8, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
- Bonn International Center for Conversion; Bundeswehr Verification Center. "FN P90". SALW Guide: Global distribution and visual identification. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
- Zengkun, Feng (July 15, 2009). "When Terror Strikes" (PDF). The Straits Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 8, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- Boey, David (September 9, 2002). "New SAF Systems to be Unveiled". Defence Science & Technology Agency. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- "Singapore Land Forces military equipment and vehicles". Army Recognition. 2010. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- "Web Del Grupo Especial De Operaciones (GEO)" (in Spanish). Cuerpo Nacional de Policía. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- "Grupo Especial de Operaciones 30 Aniversario" (PDF). La Web Del GEO. April 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 24, 2009. Retrieved October 13, 2009.
- Díez, Octavio (July 22, 2011). "Comandos del Ejército del Aire. Las armas del EZAPAC" (in Spanish). Revista Armas. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "Vlaams Parlement Stuk 1815 (2002–2003) – Nr. 3" (PDF). Vlaams Parlement. May 6, 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved April 24, 2010.
- "Small Arms Market Survey: Giat France/FN Herstal Belgium" (January 25, 1992). Jane's Defence Weekly (ISSN 0265-3818), Volume 17 Issue 4, p 127.
- "Taiwan Faces G11 Snub" (December 1, 1992). Defence UK, Volume 23 Issue 12, p 6.
- Popenker, Maxim (October 31, 2001). "FN P90 Personal Defense Weapon/Submachine Gun". Modern Firearms. Archived from the original on October 31, 2001. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- "Erdoğan Zırh Delen Silahlarla Korunuyor". Vatan (in Turkish). February 23, 2007. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2009.
- "Hayata Dönüs ilk kez Gün Isigina çikti" (in Turkish). Radikal. July 7, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- "Formula Pistini özel tim Koruyacak" (in Turkish). Istanbul Haber. June 3, 2009. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. Retrieved September 23, 2009.
- "United Nations Register of Conventional Arms: Small Arms Imports and Exports" (PDF). United Nations. July 14, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 10, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
- "Immigration & Customs Enforcement — Ammunition Solicitation Number". Federal Business Opportunities. September 10, 2005. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
- "White House Photo Blog: Armed and Dangerous". Time magazine. October 30, 2009. Archived from the original on November 5, 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2009.
- Collier, Alicia M. (December 16, 2007). "Addison Police Pack Powerful, Futuristic Rifle". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
- Miller, Bill (November 19, 2007). "Addison Cops Get Futuristic Firepower to Match Bad Guys". Star-Telegram. Archived from the original on March 12, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
- "Town of Addison: City Council" (PDF). City of Addison, Texas. June 26, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- "Alaska Office of Management & Budget — Trooper Law Enforcement Equipment" (PDF). State of Alaska. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-11-08. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
- Robinson, Carol (November 14, 2008). "Standoff Continues Outside Apartment". Alabama Local. Archived from the original on August 27, 2011. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- Bryant, Joseph D (July 23, 2008). "Update: As he Predicted, Langford's Secret's out". Alabama Local. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009.
- "Bryan Police Department Operations Manual" (PDF). City of Bryan, Texas. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 18, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2009.
- Jensen, Brian (August 6, 2012). "Golden State Five-O". Tactical Life. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- "Creve Coeur Newsletter 2008" (PDF). City of Creve Coeur, Missouri. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 22, 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
- "Minutes of the Regular Meeting of the Edina City Council Held at City Hall". City of Edina, Minnesota. April 5, 2005. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- "Berks County Pennsylvania Policing Study" (PDF). County of Berks, Pennsylvania. July 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 6, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "Midwest 2001 SWAT/SMG Championships Results". HKPRO. 2001. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2009.[self-published source]
- "The History of Richland County Sheriff's Department" (PDF). Richland County Sheriff's Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 16, 2010. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
- "State v. Chavez 2002 SD 84 – Opinion Filed On Wednesday July 17, 2002". South Dakota Unified Judicial System. July 17, 2002. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
- "On the Range". The Sparta Independent. June 2, 2010. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
- Sandoval, Polo. "Showdown in Zapata County". KRGV-TV. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
- Davila Truelo, Laura (July 8, 2007). "Bandas se Dedican al Alquiler de Armas". El Universal Caracas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on September 30, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
- Nunez, Sailu Urribarri (November 27, 2007). "Investigan a 19 Funcionarios Porque se Presume Complicidad Interna". El Universal Caracas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on September 30, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2009.
- Rodríguez, Gustavo (September 28, 2008). "Los Plateados Resurgen de la Sangre". El Universal Caracas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2009.
- Jiménez, Walter Santana. "Una revisión del "stopping power" a la luz de la guerra en Irak" (in Spanish). Segured. Archived from the original on 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Vietnam Special Forces - Binh chủng Đặc công - Pasukan Khusus Vietnam (at the 1:45 time mark)". July 11, 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2019.