Gendarmerie General Command

  (Redirected from Turkish Gendarmerie)

The Gendarmerie General Command (Turkish: Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı) is the national Gendarmerie force of the Republic of Turkey. It is a service branch of the Turkish Ministry of Interior responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces (generally in rural areas), as well as assuring internal security along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations. In wartime, some of its elements can be subordinated to Turkish Land Forces by the President

Gendarmerie General Command
Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı
Emblem of the Gendarmerie General Command
Emblem of the Gendarmerie General Command
Flag of the Gendarmerie General Commander
Flag of the Gendarmerie General Commander
Agency overview
Formed1839[1]
Preceding agencies
Employees196,863 sworn members (As of January 2020) + 80,000 to 90,000 Village guards.[2]
1,475 Armored and utility vehicles
59 Helicopters [3]
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionTurkey
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersAnkara
Elected officer responsible
Agency executives
  • General Arif Çetin, Commander
  • Lt. General Ali Çardakçı, Deputy Commander
  • Lt. General Musa Çitil, Deputy Commander
  • Maj. General H.Zafer KOÇ, Deputy Commander
Parent agencyMinistry of the Interior, Turkish Armed Forces,[4] (in war time until 2016)
Notables
Significant operations
Website
jandarma.gov.tr/

The Commander of the Gendarmerie reports to the Minister of the Interior.

The Gendarmerie has its roots in the Ottoman Empire military law enforcement organization "Subaşı" (later known as the "Zaptiye"). A similar, earlier force called "Şurta" existed during the medieval Seljuq Empire.

HistoryEdit

 
Ottoman Gendarmerie Cavalry in Macedonia.

Ottoman eraEdit

After the abolition of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire in 1826, military organizations called Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Mansûre, Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Hâssa, and, in 1834, Asâkir-i Redîfe were established for security and public order in Anatolia and in some provinces of Rumelia.[citation needed]

 
British officers in the Ottoman Gendarmerie, 1904

As the first use of the term Gendarmerie was in the Assignment Decrees published in the years following the 1839 Edict of Gülhane, it is assumed that the Gendarmerie organization was founded after that year, but the exact date of foundation has not yet been determined. Therefore, the date on which the name Asâkir-i Zaptiye Nizâmnâmesi was adopted, June 14, 1839, is usually considered the foundation date of the Turkish Gendarmerie.[5]

After the 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War, Ottoman prime minister Mehmed Said Pasha decided to bring police officers from Britain and France to establish a modern law enforcement organization. The Gendarmerie was used to great effect after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, particularly in Rumelia. In 1909, the Gendarmerie was affiliated with the Ministry of War, and its name was changed to the Gendarmerie General Command (Ottoman Turkish: Umûm Jandarma Kumandanlığı‎).

Gendarmerie units continued their internal security duties as well as taking part in the conflict at various fronts as a part of the Armed Forces during World War I and the Turkish War of Independence.[citation needed]

Republic of TurkeyEdit

20th centuryEdit

The Gendarmerie organization achieved its current legal status on June 10, 1930. In 1939, the Gendarmerie organization was restructured, having three groups: Fixed Gendarmerie Units, Mobile Gendarmerie Units, and Gendarmerie Training Units and Schools.[citation needed]

In 1956, the Gendarmerie General Command was assigned the duties of protecting borders, coasts and territorial waters, and fighting smuggling, which had been previously carried out by the Gümrük Umum Kumandanlığı, under the Ministry of Customs and Monopoly. In 1957, Gendarmerie Border Units were transformed into brigades, and Gendarmerie Training Brigades were established.[citation needed]

In 1961, Gendarmerie Regional Commands were established. In 1968, the first Gendarmerie Aviation Unit was established in Diyarbakır under the name of Light Helicopter Company Command.[citation needed]

In 1974, Gendarmerie Commando Units and Gendarmerie Aviation Units took part in the Turkish military operations in Cyprus.[citation needed]

In 1988, the duty of protecting the land borders and ensuring their security was assigned to the Land Forces Command, but Gendarmerie General Command still holds the responsibility for some parts of the Iranian and Syrian borders and the whole Iraqi border.[citation needed]

The Gendarmerie Criminal Department was founded in Ankara in 1993 and from 1994, Gendarmerie Regional Criminal Laboratory Superiorities? were founded. Crime Scene Examination Teams, Explosive Material Disposal Units, Fingerprints and Palm Prints Branches and Crime Scene Examination Units were also established.[citation needed]

21st centuryEdit

In 2016, the Gendarmerie General Command was affiliated to the Ministry of Interior.[6]

In 2018, Gendarmerie Special Operations participated in Operation Olive Branch, part of the Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War.[citation needed]

The Gendarmerie General Command currently has a total of 3,600 units, including 3,056 Internal Security Units, 218 Commando Units, 162 Prison Units, 160 Protection Units and four Aviation Units.[citation needed]

DutiesEdit

The duties of the gendarmerie according to the Law No. 2803 on the Organization, Duties and Powers of the Gendarmerie; It is categorized under four main titles as judicial, military, civil and other duties.[7]

Judicial dutiesEdit

  • Finding crimes and criminals,
  • Capturing suspects,
  • Transferring evidence judicial authorities,
  • Conduct preparatory investigations when instructed to by the public prosecutor,
  • Transporting prisoners between jails and courthouses.

Civil dutiesEdit

  • To ensure that the services for general safety and security are carried out in accordance with the relevant legislation,
  • To carry out the services of informing the public about how to protect the society from public order crime, directing children and young people to crime and taking precautionary measures,
  • To evaluate the information and statistics about public order crimes, to conduct or have an analysis of the crime and to determine the methods of combating crime to prevent public order crimes by evaluating them,
  • Carrying out activities to prevent crime,
  • Preventing, pursuing and investigating smuggling,
  • External protection of penal institutions and detention centers.

Military dutiesEdit

  • To perform military services provided by law

Other dutiesEdit

  • These are duties other than judicial, military and civil duties, such as facility and personal protection and transport security, which must be carried out in accordance with laws and regulations, orders and decisions.

StructureEdit

 
Gendarmerie General Command Headquarters

CommandsEdit

Gendarmerie General Command Headquarters (Ankara)

Criminal unitsEdit

  • Provincial Gendarmerie Commands in 81 provinces & in 388 districts.
    • The Crime Scene Investigation Teams (CSIT) (Working under the Provincial and District Gendarmerie Commands systematically examine the crime scene by means of technical and scientific methods; properly gather physical evidences; pack and send them to forensic laboratories.)
    • Explosive Ordnance Disposal Teams ( which have been established in tourism regions, regions with a concentration of terror incidents and big cities, dispose of explosive ordnances.)
    • Crime scene investigation units[12]
    • Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Department (ASOCD)[13]

Other unitsEdit

  • Gendarmerie Traffic Teams
    • The Gendarmerie Motorcycled Public Order Teams (Round-the-clock at the highways established by the protocols in the responsibility areas of the Gendarmerie General Command.)
  • Gendarmerie Dog Teams
  • Gendarmerie Environmental Protection Teams (Environmental Protection Teams have been established in order to protect environment, ecological balance and natural life, to protect living species and areas protected by national legislation and international conventions and to prevent environmental pollution.)[14]
  • The Gendarmerie Mounted Units (Used in performing patrolling services at resort areas, forestlands, recreation spots and museums (Topkapı Palace), and in performing preventive law enforcement services.)[15]

GalleryEdit

The Gendarmerie MuseumEdit

 
Museum

The Gendarmerie Museum is established in order to reflect the developments in periodical order beginning with the foundation of the Gendarmerie organization; to exhibit its activities, heroic deeds, services in the history; to protect all kinds of military cultural assets related to the Gendarmerie by collecting them and to transfer them to the future generations. The Gendarmerie Museum in the Beytepe Lieutenant General İsmail SELEN Quarters in Ankara and is open to public.[16]

EquipmentEdit

HandgunsEdit

ShotgunsEdit

Submachine gunsEdit

Assault and battle riflesEdit

Machine gunsEdit

Sniper riflesEdit

Rocket and grenade launchersEdit

MortarsEdit

VehiclesEdit

Model Image Origin Type Variant Number Details
Armored personnel carriers
Sisu Nasu     Finland Tracked All-Terrain Vehicle NA-140 BT 47
Kirpi     Turkey MRAP Kirpi 4x4 200 Based on the Israeli Hatehof Navigator.[37]
Cobra     Turkey MRAP Cobra I 200 Its suspension / wheel base is based on the American HMMWV which led some to mistakenly claim that Turkey actually uses the HMMWV as one of its utility vehicles.[38]
Otokar Akrep   Turkey MRAP unknown Turkish Land Forces as new models enter the equipment slowly giving the old equipment to the gendarmerie.
Cadillac Gage Commando     United States Armored Personnel Carrier V-150S 124 Lacking a dedicated vehicle for its reconnaissance battalions, Turkey ordered 124 LAV-150 vehicles in 1992 from the Cadillac Corporation.[citation needed]
Otokar ZPT     Turkey Armored Car 250 After the cancellation of Akrep, Otokar started to produce cheaper alternative for the law enforcement agencies and the army. ZPT is based on Shorland S-55.
BTR-60     Soviet Union/  Germany Armored Personnel Carrier BTR-60PB 323[39] Bought from ex-GDR stockpile after German unification.[40] All modernized.
Condor     Germany Armored Personnel Carrier Condor 1 25[39]
Dragoon     United States Armored Personnel Carrier Dragoon 300 60
Concealed Armored D-Max [2]   Turkey Armored Car Pick-Up x 4+1 passenger capacity
Aircraft
Beechcraft Super King Air[41][42]     United States Light transport aircraft B350[43] Unknown Used by Gendarmerie Aviation Command[42]
Cessna C-680     United States Light transport aircraft C-680[44] Unknown Used by Gendarmerie Aviation Command[42]
Dornier Do 28     Germany Transport Do-28D 2[45]
Helicopters
UH-60 Black Hawk     United States/  Turkey Utility helicopter S-70A

T-20

S-70i

27 Avionics upgraded by ASELSAN.T-70 variant in use. 30 more on order
UH-1 Huey     United States/  Turkey Utility helicopter AB-205[46] 13 Avionics upgraded by ASELSAN.
TAI/AgustaWestland T129 ATAK     Turkey Attack helicopter T129 8[47] 12 more on order. Produced by TAI.
Mil Mi-17     Russia/  Turkey Utility helicopter Mi-17 IVA 18 Avionics upgraded by ASELSAN.
Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles
TAI Anka     Turkey UAV Anka B

Anka S

2[48]

6[49]

Elazig Gendarmerie UAV command[50][51]
Bayraktar TB2     Turkey UAV TB2 18[52]
Bayraktar Mini UAV     Turkey UAV C unknown
Black Hornet Nano[53]     Norway Micro-UAV PD-100 Black Hornet unknown

InsigniaEdit

OfficerEdit

General Field Officer Junior Officer Reserve Officer
Colonel general Lieutenant general Major General Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain First lieutenant Second lieutenant Third lieutenant

Noncommissioned OfficerEdit

Senior Sergeant Major Sergeant Major Senior Staff Sergeant Staff Sergeant Senior Sergeant Sergeant
 

Specialist GendarmeEdit

Specialist Gendarme

Eighth Stage Sergeant

Specialist Gendarme

Seventh Stage Sergeant

Specialist Gendarme

Sixth Stage Sergeant

Specialist Gendarme

Fifth Stage Sergeant

Specialist Gendarme

Fourth Stage Sergeant

Specialist Gendarme

Third Stage Sergeant

Specialist Gendarme

Second Stage Sergeant

Specialist Gendarme

First Stage Sergeant

Specialist Gendarme Sergeant

Enlisted SpecialistEdit

Specialist Sergeant Specialist Corporal

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı Tarihçesi". Jandarma.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  2. ^ "TSK Mevcut Personel Sayısını Açıkladı". Aktif Haber. 2 January 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  3. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). web.archive.org. 2020-06-21. Retrieved 2021-03-20. Cite uses generic title (help)
  4. ^ {{https://www.tr.undp.org/content/turkey/en/home/projects/strengthening-the-civilian-oversight-of-internal-security-forces.html
  5. ^ "THE SHORT HISTORY OF THE GENDARMERIE GENERAL COMMAND". Jandarma.tsk.tr. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
  6. ^ "Tarihçe". jandarma.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  7. ^ "JANDARMA TEŞKİLAT, GÖREV VE YETKİLERİ KANUNU" (PDF). mevzuat.gov.tr.
  8. ^ "Turkish police, gendarmerie forces join Afrin operation". aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  9. ^ "Rescue teams find bodies of two missing hikers - Turkey News". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  10. ^ "The SAK team dives for waste this time National News". National News (in Turkish). 2019-10-31. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  11. ^ "Turkish gendarmerie band welcomes arrival of winter with 'Game of Thrones' tribute". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  12. ^ "photo of csi unit".
  13. ^ "A ton of marijuana found afloat off Ayvalık coast - Turkey News". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  14. ^ "Jandarma Çevre Koruma Timleri". jandarma.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  15. ^ Netherl, Royal; Marechaussee, s. "Turkish Gendarmerie". FIEP | International Association of Gendarmeries and Police Forces with Military Statues. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  16. ^ "T.C. İçişleri Bakanlığı Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı". jandarma.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Jandarma Komutanligi". Turkish Gendarmerie. Archived from the original on 2014-12-14. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
  18. ^ http://imgur.com/MAqKrEM
  19. ^ "JANDARMA PERSONELINDEN Canik Tp9 sf elite s | Silah Vitrini". www.silahvitrini.com. Retrieved 2021-04-13.
  20. ^ Army Recognition. "Turkish Military Forces". Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  21. ^ Standard Catalog of Military Firearms: The Collector's Price and Reference Guide, p. 323, at Google Books
  22. ^ "'Hayata Dönüş' ilk kez gün ışığına çıktı". Radikal.com.tr. 7 July 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  23. ^ Aybars [@aybarsbtr] (2020-05-01). "Muğla Jandarma Asayiş, SAR-109T ile. t.co/gOwTLiVTe2" (Tweet) (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2020-05-08. Retrieved 2021-06-27 – via Twitter.
  24. ^ "MP UZI - SALW Guide". web.archive.org. 2018-08-31. Retrieved 2021-04-13.
  25. ^ "3 koldan milli tüfek teslimatı". aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2020-06-15.
  26. ^ https://imgur.com/bUtdQRz
  27. ^ https://imgur.com/OX04Mq0
  28. ^ "TURKISH DEFENCE INDUSTRY PRODUCT CATALOGUE". www.ssb.gov.tr. Retrieved 2021-04-13.
  29. ^ http://imgur.com/R14NjM9
  30. ^ http://imgur.com/Uhnlomj
  31. ^ http://imgur.com/Gg8Hv9i
  32. ^ http://imgur.com/iLRd1jy
  33. ^ http://imgur.com/aouZnUQ
  34. ^ a b http://imgur.com/Q1E6zl7
  35. ^ [1] Archived September 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "SİLAHLAR". web.archive.org. 2014-12-14. Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-09-07. Retrieved 2016-06-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ "Otokar Cobra is a true all-terrain fighting machine". Fox News. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  39. ^ a b Pike, John. "Jandarma". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2009-09-03. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
  40. ^ Ron, Harold E. Stassen Chair of International Affairs James; Staff, Human Rights Watch Arms Project; Ron, James; Watch (Organization), Human Rights (1995). Weapons Transfers and Violations of the Laws of War in Turkey. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-161-9.
  41. ^ "Hava Araçlarımız". www.jandarma.gov.tr. Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  42. ^ a b c "Hava Araçlarımız". www.jandarma.gov.tr. Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  43. ^ "Hava Araçlarımız". www.jandarma.gov.tr. Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  44. ^ "Hava Araçlarımız". www.jandarma.gov.tr. Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  45. ^ The Military Balance 2020. — P. 156
  46. ^ "Hava Araçlarımız". www.jandarma.gov.tr. Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  47. ^ SavunmaSanayiST.com [@SavunmaSanayiST] (2021-04-25). "🔴İlave iki adet teslimat ile birlikte şu anda Kara Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı, Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı ve Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü'ne teslim edilen T129 ATAK sayısı, 62'ye yükseldi. - Prof. Dr. Temel KOTİL / CNN t.co/5uzhC10TLM" (Tweet) (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2021-05-07. Retrieved 2021-06-27 – via Twitter.
  48. ^ Özen, Ege Buğra (2019-09-12). "Jandarma'ya 4 adet ANKA-S teslimatı". AirTurkHaber.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  49. ^ "Jandarma'daki silahlı Anka-S sayısı 6 oldu". Haber Aero | Havacılık, Turizm ve Savunma haberleri (in Turkish). 2019-09-13. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  50. ^ Rasim Anıl Kunt [@RasimAnilKunt] (2017-07-21). "@TUSASTAI @tcsavunma Elazığ Jandarma İHA Birlik K.lığında hizmet veren ANKA İHA'lar.En sağda SARPER SAR/ISAR/GMTI ve ASELFLIR 300T ile ANKA-B dikkat çekiyor. t.co/5q5fzXbHPM" (Tweet) (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-06-27 – via Twitter.
  51. ^ "Elazığ İnsansız Hava Aracı Anka Görevine Başladı-2 - Dailymotion Video". Dailymotion. Retrieved 2020-02-08.
  52. ^ Marco Dijkshoorn [@Didyman] (2020-03-04). "@air_intel TCJ18 might be a Jandarma Bayraktar (J-13 in the picture). Eignteen were delivered (6 x mar17, 6 x aug18, 6 x sep19) so it is very well possible. t.co/2w8umfzQmP" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 2021-06-21. Retrieved 2021-06-27 – via Twitter.
  53. ^ Aybars [@aybarsbtr] (2018-11-20). "Turkish Gendarmerie with Black Hornet Nano UAV. t.co/sg44EEOcbk" (Tweet). Retrieved 2021-06-27 – via Twitter.

External linksEdit