Army Ranger Wing
The Army Ranger Wing (ARW) (Irish: Sciathán Fiannóglaigh an Airm, "SFA") is the special operations force of the Irish Defence Forces, the military of Ireland. A branch of the Irish Army, it also selects personnel from the Naval Service and Air Corps. It serves at the behest of the Defence Forces and Government of Ireland, operating internally and overseas, and reports directly to the Chief of Staff. The ARW was established in 1980 with the primary role of counter terrorism and evolved to both special operations and counter terrorism roles from 2000 after the end of conflict in Northern Ireland. The unit is based in the Curragh Camp, County Kildare. The 2015 White Paper on Defence announced that the strength of the ARW would be considerably increased.
|Irish Army Ranger Wing|
|Irish: Sciathán Fiannóglaigh an Airm|
|Active||16 March 1980– present|
|Part of||Defence Forces|
|Garrison/HQ||DFTC, Curragh Camp, County Kildare|
|Motto(s)||Glaine ár gcroí, Neart ár ngéag, Agus beart de réir ár mbriathar|
("The cleanliness of our hearts, The strength of our limbs, And our commitment to our promise")
|Colours||Black, Red and Gold|
The unit has served abroad in a number of international peacekeeping missions, including in Somalia, East Timor, Liberia, Chad and Mali. The ARW trains with special forces units around the world, particularly in Europe. The ARW in its domestic counter terrorism role trains and deploys with the Garda Síochána (national police) specialist armed intervention unit, the Emergency Response Unit (ERU).
Military tasks (Green Role)Edit
Offensive operations behind enemy lines
- securing of vital objectives
- long-range reconnaissance patrol (LRRP)
- capture of key personnel
- diversionary operations
- intelligence gathering
Aid to the civil power tasks (Black Role)Edit
- anti-hijack operations
- hostage rescue operations
- airborne and seaborne interventions
- search operations - specialist tasks on land or sea
- pursuit operations
- recapture of terrorist-held objectives
- VIP security operations/close protection of VIPs
- contingency planning to counter terrorist/subversive threats
In the late 1960s, the Defence Forces established Special Assault Groups (SAG) in the Army to meet security challenges on the border with Northern Ireland. A number of Army officers attended the United States Army Ranger School in Fort Benning, Georgia who returned to conduct Army Ranger courses in Ireland with the first held in 1969. Among its founding officers was later-to-be Chief of Staff Lieutenant General Dermot Earley. Special Assault Groups were formed comprising 40 Rangers trained in all arms, engineering and ordnance techniques. By the mid 1970s, the Defence Forces had over 300 Rangers who conducted support operations on the request of the Garda Síochána. Students on these courses were selected from among all ranks and units of the Army, Naval Service and Air Corps. The courses improved standards of physical endurance, marksmanship, individual military skills and small unit tactics. In December 1977, the Garda Síochána formed a counter terrorist unit named the Special Task Force (STF) to operate in border regions that was later to become the Emergency Response Unit.
Following an assessment of the SAG, and Rangers receiving training from the M-Squadron, an elite counter-terrorism (CT) branch of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps, in 1978 it was decided to consolidate the Rangers into a new special forces unit with a counter terrorist capability following an increase in international and national terrorism, such as the 1972 Munich massacre in Germany (then West Germany) and a number of hostage-takings by the Provisional IRA (such as the Balcombe Street siege).
The Army Ranger Wing (ARW) was formally established, in accordance with the Defence Act, by Government order on 16 March 1980. The ARW received its colours in 1981; Black, Red and Gold, signifying Secrecy, Risk and Excellence. In 1991, the ARW was granted permission to wear the Green beret.
In April 2017, it was reported that there had been no increase in the strength of the ARW despite the 2015 White Paper aim to considerably increase the strength of the unit.
Name and mottoEdit
The unit's official name is Sciathán Fiannóglaigh an Airm, which is translated from the Irish language into English as "Army Ranger Wing". Fiannóglaigh (representing "Rangers") is an amalgamation of two words. Fiann is closest to the English word "warrior", and refers to the ancient band of warriors known as Na Fianna in Irish mythology. Óglaigh literally means "young soldiers", and is often translated as '"volunteers". Use in this context refers to the name of the Defence Forces in Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann ("Irish Volunteers"). Na Fianna were purportedly expert warriors, so the addition of the word Fiann before Óglaigh denotes an elite element to the unit. The shoulder flash insignia of the unit uses Fianóglach, which is the singular version of the word Fiannóglaigh.
The motto of the Army Ranger Wing is taken from an old Fianna poem, in Irish it is: "Glaine ár gcroí, Neart ár ngéag, Agus beart de réir ár mbriathar", which translates as: "The purity of our hearts, the strength of our limbs and our commitment to our promise" in English.
The Officer Commanding the Army Ranger Wing is responsible for the administrative, disciplinary and operational control of the unit, and is in turn directly under the command of the Chief of Staff at Defence Forces Headquarters (DFHQ). Information on the numerical strength of the unit and the identity of its personnel is restricted. Estimates variously put the strength at "well over a hundred" or between 140 and 150 personnel. In 2015, the Defence White Paper announced an increase in strength with reports of the unit doubling in size. The Wing is divided into operational task units each comprising several assault teams relative to each operator's area of speciality. After serving one year in an assault team an operator can apply to join a specialist team such as combat diving team, free fall parachuting team and sniping team. An example of an operational task unit is the Special Operations Maritime Task Unit (SOMTU). Support platoons provide expertise in bomb disposal, medical treatment, maritime and aviation operations. The Army Ranger Wing is headquartered at the Defence Forces Training Centre (DFTC) in the Curragh Camp, with Army Rangers required to live within a defined radius. Training is carried out nationwide at a number of Department of Defence properties, including Lynch Camp in Kilworth, County Cork.
The ARW is on immediate call 24/7, 365 days a year for operations throughout the state and abroad. The ARW is on five days notice to deploy overseas on special operations. The ARW is on a 2-hour alert for anti-terrorist operations to deploy anywhere on land in the Republic of Ireland using Air Corps aircraft and up to 200 miles out to sea via the Naval Service vessels. In the event of a major terrorist, hijacking or hostage incident, the ARW may be called to aid the Garda ERU, and in the past they have been put on standby to assist the Irish Prison Service during major prison riots. The ARW have also provided security at Ireland's maximum-security Portlaoise Prison. The unit has on occasion been tasked for search and rescue (SAR) operations, as the ARW have trained Arctic survival specialists.
Besides sanctioned international military missions, the unit may be deployed overseas to protect Irish diplomatic missions and diplomats (particularly in times of war or civil unrest in host countries), to provide close protection to members of the Irish government travelling overseas, to rescue kidnapped Irish citizens or to conduct intelligence operations.
The ARW is equipped with SINCGAR ITT, Harris and Racal communications equipment, which have an inbuilt encryption and frequency-hopping systems. It is also equipped with satellite communications, through the ARW C3 (Command, Control & Communications) function and in cooperation with the Communications and Information Services Corps (CIS). This means ARW teams can communicate with their GHQ from anywhere in the world. The Army Ranger Wing Intelligence Section has the ability to remotely intercept electronic and telephonic communications, working with the Directorate of Military Intelligence (J2) and Army CIS Corps.
Selection and trainingEdit
Candidates must be serving members of the Permanent Defence Forces (PDF) from any of the three branches (Army, Air Corps or Naval Service). The candidate must be medically fit and have attained the rank of at least 3 Star Private (or equivalent). There is no age limit to attempt selection. Selection has been open to females since 1984, however, none have been successful. Usually 40 to 80 candidates attempt selection annually.
The ARW recently revised its selection and assessment procedures combining the previous Selection course & Basic Skills course into a new single course named the Special Operations Force Qualification Course (SOFQ). The SOFQ is conducted over 10 months (40 weeks). The Selection Course had been conducted over 3 weeks after being reduced in 2006 from 4 weeks. The Basic Skills course had been conducted over 5 months.
The SOFQ is divided into 5 distinct modules:
- Assessment & Evaluation
- Skills & Leadership
- SOF Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures TTPs
- Counter-Terrorism Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures TTPs
- Continuation training
Module 1 assesses a candidate's level of physical fitness, motivation and suitability to progress on towards further modules (2-5) of the SOFQ course similar to the previous selection course. Candidates must pass a series of fitness assessments, map reading and individual navigation assessments, claustrophobia, water confidence, and psychometric testing. The final phase of Module 1 includes individual navigation exercises with set weights over unknown distances and completion times which can be over 250 km, culminating in an additional 65 km cross-country march carrying a 65 lb combat load in the Dublin & Wicklow mountain range. On average candidates get between four and five hours sleep per a night. Officer and senior NCO candidates are subjected to separate, rigorous scrutiny of their planning and decision-making skills to determine the suitability. The length of Module 1 is 3 weeks similar to the previous selection course length. Typically 85% of candidates fail Module 1. Between 2000 and 2005, approximately 240 attempted selection, including a female, with 50 successful.
Modules 2 to 4 consist of assessment and training in weapons and marksmanship, live-fire tactical training, special operations tactics, techniques, and procedures (green role) and counter terrorism tactics, techniques, and procedures (black role), combat water survival, Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Extraction (SERE), communications and medical training. Upon successful completion of Module 3, candidates are awarded the Fianóglach shoulder tab and are provisionally assigned to the unit. Upon successful completion of Module 4, candidates are awarded the distinctive ARW green beret.
Module 5 Continuation training is the conclusion of the SOFQ course, and candidates are posted to an operational ARW task unit as an assault team operator. 3 Star Privates (and equivalents) who are successful in completing the SOFQ course pass out at the rank of Acting Corporal, and the lowest commissioned rank in the unit is that of Captain. All candidates must successfully complete the basic parachute course of five (5) static line jumps from 3,000 feet using T10 round canopies.
As of 2012, it was reported that since the units inception less than 400 had completed training to become a Ranger.
Further specialist training courses for Rangers include advanced combat medical skills, military freefall, combat diving (taught by the specialist Naval Service Diving Section) and boat handling, close protection and handling of advanced weapons.
Prior to 2000 with The Troubles, approximately 85% of Ranger training had been dedicated to counter-terrorism. The average age of a Ranger is 31 years old with the eldest 44 years old. On average, a member of the ARW spends between 5 and 10 years serving with the unit before being returned to their home unit bringing their skills with them, but it is not uncommon for some to spend 15 years in the unit.
The ARW has its own purpose built tactical training facilities, including shooting ranges, kill houses and various urban and rural settings. The main facility is known as "Tac Town", based in the Curragh. Other ranges are located in County Wicklow. These facilities are also made available to the ERU.
The ARW has trained with other military and law enforcement special operations forces, including;
- Australia – Special Air Service Regiment (SASR)
- Belgium – Special Forces Group (SFG)
- Canada – Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2) & Canadian Special Operations Regiment (CSOR)
- France – GIGN & RPIMa
- Germany – GSG 9 & KSK
- Italy – GIS & COMSUBIN
- Netherlands – UIM
- New Zealand – New Zealand Special Air Service (NZSAS)
- Poland – JW GROM
- Sweden – SOG & FJS
- United Kingdom – Special Air Service (SAS)
- United States – 75th Ranger Regiment, Delta Force, Navy SEALs & Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance
In 2015, the Irish Defence Forces signed agreements with their British counterparts to deepen joint special forces peacekeeping co-operation, extending from previous deployments with British special forces in a number of combat zones.
Rangers have seen active service in a number of peacekeeping missions around the world with the United Nations, European Union (EU) and Partnership for Peace (PfP) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (the Republic of Ireland is not a member of NATO, due to its policy of military neutrality). Individual deployments include Lebanon, Bosnia, Cyprus, Iraq and Western Sahara.
The ARW's first deployment overseas was in Somalia in 1993 as part of UNOSOM II where a number of teams joined the United States led peacekeeping coalition tasked with imposing a ceasefire in the Baidoa region. Over 100 Irish troops took part in the mission, during which the ARW wore US military uniforms to blend in with American troops.
On one regular return journey, from protecting a food convoy/supply run to Mogadishu, Irish and Indian UN troops were ambushed by insurgents. Following an intense firefight, there were more than 10 enemy killed with no Irish or Indian fatalities reported. Following this, the Irish contingent was supplied with armoured vehicles as they had previously being relying on soft-skinned vehicles mounted with heavy calibre machine guns.
In October 1999, No 1 IRCON (Irish Contingent), an ARW platoon of 30 Rangers deployed to East Timor as part of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) to restore peace and security following the independence referendum in August. The Australian led mission had begun nearly a month earlier with an allied special forces coalition of Australian Special Air Service, New Zealand Special Air Service and British Special Boat Service (SBS) named Response Force.
No 1 IRCON was embedded in the reconnaissance company in the 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Regiment (1 RNZIR) Battalion Group together with an infantry company from the Canadian 3rd Battalion, Royal 22 Regiment bringing the battalion to full strength. The Battalion Group based in Suai was responsible for securing the south west of the country from pro-Indonesian militia and Indonesian military (TNI) that included a long section of the border between East and Indonesian controlled West Timor.
No 1 IRCON completed a four-month deployment followed by No 2 IRCON. In February 2000, INTERFET handed over command of military operations to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). No 2 IRCON completed its four-month deployment in June 2000 with subsequent rotations from infantry platoons. The Battalion Group had several contacts (fire fights) and a number of incidents with threat forces sustaining no casualties.
The ARW was deployed in Liberia in the aftermath of the Second Liberian Civil War as part of a peacekeeping contingent of more than 400 troops from the Irish Army, in turn part of the mixed Irish-Swedish Force Reserve Battalion of the United Nations mission in the country, UNMIL (2003). The ARW's area of operations (AO) was "all of Liberia", consisting of 4.7 million people and 111,369 sq km (43,000 sq mi).
One of their most successful missions during this deployment was the rescue of a large group of civilians captured by gunmen from renegade Liberian forces. Acting on intelligence, a team of twenty heavily armed Rangers were dropped via helicopters at the town of "Gbapa". To avoid casualties among the hostages, the ARW implemented a policy of less-lethal intervention and, after surrounding a 40-foot container holding 35 hostages, rescued the innocent civilians and captured the rebel forces, including their commander. The incident, which resulted in no Irish casualties, drew praise from the international community and boosted the reputation of the ARW worldwide.
Chad and Central African RepublicEdit
In February 2008, a Special Forces Task Group of 58 Rangers deployed to Abéché in Chad as part of the European Union Force Chad/CAR based at Camp Croci. The ARW was an Initial Entry Force together with other EUFOR special forces that conducted special reconnaissance within the Irish assigned south eastern Chad area of operations. The ARW was later based at Multi-National Base-South at Goz Beïda known as Camp Ciara in the area of operations providing security during the construction of the base. The ARW conducted vehicle patrols along the Chad / Sudan border in their Ford F-350 Special Reconnaissance Vehicles. The ARW mission ended in June 2008 with the arrival of the 97th Infantry Battalion.
In June 2019, Dáil Éireann approved sending an ARW Task Unit and staff officers to the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) in intelligence and operational roles, on 4-month rotations for two years. The ARW were deployed in response to an upsurge in violence in north-eastern Mali, led by militants affiliated with al-Qaeda. The Irish contingent are due to be primarily tasked with conducting long-range reconnaissance patrols (LRRP) and deployed as part of a German-led ISTAR Task Force, benefiting from the protections and medical support in place for the larger force. 14 ARW operators are reported to be involved per rotation.
MINUSMA is the most dangerous UN peacekeeping mission. As of October 2019, 204 peacekeepers had been killed out of a total of 15,000 deployed uniformed personnel. It is the first overseas operational deployment for the ARW as a unit, in ten years.
In February 2020, three ARW personnel were injured when an IED blast hit the armoured patrol vehicle they were travelling in, 70 km east of Gao. The personnel were airlifted to hospital but after two weeks were reported to be "back to work".
Other overseas missionsEdit
In October 2005, Rangers and Arabic-speaking intelligence officers from Military Intelligence (J2) were deployed to Baghdad, Iraq, following the abduction of Irish journalist Rory Carroll by al-Qaeda militants. Following negotiations with Irish, British and American governments, Rory Carroll was released unharmed days later and returned safely to Ireland.
In 2009, the ARW were involved in the evacuation of GOAL aid worker Sharon Commins who was kidnapped by Janjaweed in Darfur, Sudan for more than 100 days before being released, although the government denied the involvement of the ARW at the time.
From 2006 to 2014, it has been reported that operatives from the ARW, including from the Intelligence Section and Military Intelligence Directorate, had been on the ground in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Sudan, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Kosovo and Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of various international missions.
With the fall of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011 and the Libyan Civil War, the ARW, Air Corps and other Defence Forces assets were deployed in order to evacuate upwards of 115 Irish citizens from the country, mainly via the capital Tripoli. The ARW operated out of the British diplomatic mission in Malta. It was reported at the time that Irish officials printed fake boarding passes in order to bypass "tight" security at Tripoli airport, where authorities refused to allow a large number of aircraft to land or take off. Three Irish aircraft were involved in the operation.
In 2012, it was reported that the ARW could deploy 30 Rangers in the Gulf of Aden, subject to Government, Dáil and UN approval ("triple-lock"), to protect international shipping lanes against Somali pirates as part of the EU's Operation Atalanta.
As of 2014, Rangers were serving missions on three continents, including training foreign forces in Africa and the Balkans, protection duties in Lebanon for the United Nations mission and security and intelligence operations on the Israeli-Syrian border (Golan Heights).
In late 2015, Private John O'Mahony (Ret.) gave evidence as a witness in a military trial in Beirut, Lebanon against Mahmoud Bazzi, a former Lebanese militia fighter accused of murdering Private Thomas Barrett and Private Derek Smallhorne of the Irish Army in April 1980 in Southern Lebanon (see At Tiri Incident). O'Mahony was accompanied during his entire time in Lebanon by a Close Protection Team from the Army Ranger Wing.
The ARW was chosen to spearhead the special operations task group (SOTG) for the EU Battlegroup rapid reaction force based in Germany, deploying in late 2019. It is the fourth time the Irish Defence Forces have served in the Battlegroup, but the first time the ARW have as a unit. The wider force comprises 1,500 troops from EU member states. The ARW is due to train with the battlegroup for six months after which they are planned to remain on standby with it for 18 months. This overlaps with the unit's rotations to MINUSMA in Mali.
Reported domestic missionsEdit
In December 1983 the ARW was involved in an operation against an I.R.A. unit on the loose in woodland in the South of County Leitrim that had been holding hostage for ransom a kidnapped businessman, the ARW having been sent in by the Government after the I.R.A. unit had murdered a Garda officer and an Irish Army soldier that had found their hideout.
In January 1997, two teams of 12 from the ARW were sent to Mountjoy Prison in central Dublin where three prisoners armed with knives had taken two prison officers hostage and barricaded themselves inside the Medical Unit where they were threatening to kill the prison officers. The ARW took up positions ready to blow down the steel door to the unit and eliminate the threat posed by the hostage-takers. The siege ended within a few hours of the ARW being called in, after the hostage takers were made aware of their presence during negotiations and surrendered.
In May 2011, the unit had a major role in protecting Queen Elizabeth II on her state visit to Ireland, where "viable" assassination attempts by dissident republican terrorists were prevented. The ARW had airborne sniper teams in three AgustaWestland AW139 helicopters, counter assault teams in the motorcade and a number of ground teams, including 20 close protection officers.
Also in May 2011, President of the United States Barack Obama received protection from the ARW on his visit to Ireland just days after the visit of the Queen. The two visits were the largest civil security operations ever undertaken in the Republic of Ireland, both ultimately successful.
From January to July 2013, the wing formed part of the security apparatus for the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, held by Ireland for six months, which included supplying sniper and spotter teams. Also in June 2013, they helped secure the Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border on land and at sea as part of the security operation for the 39th G8 summit in Northern Ireland.
Three Rangers are known to have died while serving in the unit since its foundation in 1980, one of them overseas. Sergeant Derec Mooney, aged 33, of Blackrock, Dublin, died after the Land Rover Defender he was driving in a convoy overturned due to poor road conditions, 40 km south of Monrovia, Liberia on 27 November 2003. Sgt Kevin Mayne (1987) and RQMS Patsy Quirke (1998) also lost their lives while serving in the unit, however no details regarding the cause of their deaths are publicly available. No other losses have been publicly disclosed.
In Paul O'Brien and Wayne Fitzgerald's book Shadow Warriors, it states "four operatives losing their lives while on active service" with the ARW, however their names and details are omitted at the request of the Irish Defence Forces. They are remembered on a memorial located within the ARW compound at the Curragh Camp.
In addition to standard weapons of the Irish Defence Forces, weapons used by the ARW include:-
- Denel Vektor M1 60mm Mortar Commando mortar
- Carl Gustav 84mm recoilless rifle – including M2 and M3 variants
- AT4 Short Range Anti-Armour Weapon
- Raytheon Javelin Anti-tank guided missile
- M203 grenade launcher
- FN 7.62mm GPMG
- Browning M2 heavy machinegun .50cal
- Heckler & Koch GMG 40mm automatic grenade launcher
- 13 x Ford F-350 Special Reconnaissance Vehicle (SRV) - WMIK (Weapons Mount Installation Kit) by Ricardo Engineering
- 3 x ACMAT VLRA tactical support vehicle (to re-supply SRV)
- Nissan Navara (tactical assault vehicle)
- Nissan Patrol (armoured)
- Ford Ranger (T6)
- Mitsubishi Pajero
- Range Rover (modified for counter-terrorism duties)
- Yamaha 660 All-terrain vehicles
- KTM motorcycles
- Suzuki DR350 and DR-Z400 motorcycles
- Dräger LAR VII Rebreather
- STIDD Diver Propulsion Device (DPD)
- Klepper MK13 kayak
- Nautiraid Mark VI kayak
- Zodiac M9 inflatable boat
- Combat Rubber Raiding Craft
- Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boats (RHIBs) (Delta 7 metre, Lencraft 5.1 metre dive, and Lencraft 7.5 & 6.5 metre intruder RIBs)
- "Army Ranger Wing - 10 Years in Existence" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 50 (4): 2–3. April 1990. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Defence Forces Training Centre". Defence Forces. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Sciathán Finnóglach na hAirm (Army Ranger Wing)". 28 January 2009. Shadow Spear. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- "The Army Ranger Wing". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Bourke, Wesley (April 2010). "ARW 30 years in action" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 70 (3). Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Bourke, Wesley (August 2007). "Tomorrow's Forces Today" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 67 (6): 6–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "White Paper on Defence". Department of Defence. August 2015. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- OC ARW (April 2010). "Special Forces in the 21st Century" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 70 (3): 24.
- Brady, Tom (2 January 2014). "Frontline forces: elite Ranger Wing grows in size by one-third". Irish Independent. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Roles of the Army Ranger Wing". Defence Forces. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Bourke, Wesley (August 2009). "The 69' Rangers" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 69 (6): 16–17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- "Lt Gen Dermot Earley retires". RTÉ News. 9 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
- "Army Ranger Wing History". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007.
- "Rank and Structure in the Garda Síochána and the Role of the Emergency Response Unit". Barr Tribunal Report (Ireland) 2006. Damien Mulley. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Irish Army Ranger Wing (ARW) Selection & Training". www.bootcampmilitaryfitnessinstitue.com.
- Carry, Robert (28 May 2010). "Ireland's most infamous tiger kidnappings". joe.ie. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Unit History". Fianoglach. Archived from the original on 3 August 2008.
- Williams, Paul (22 April 2017). "Coveney's promise to double the number of Army Rangers has gone nowhere". Independent.ie. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- "Sciathán Fiannóglaigh an Airm (SFA)". 2014. Defence Forces Ireland (as Gaeilge). Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Army Ranger Wing". Kildare.ie. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "Army Ranger Wing - C3 Function". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 17 February 2002.
- "Army Ranger Wing". kildare.ie. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Minister for Defence (Deputy Simon Coveney) (19 November 2015). "Defence Forces Personnel Data". Houses of the Oireachtas Service. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Minister of State at the Department of Defence (Mr. Kitt) (7 December 2005). "Written Answers - Defence Forces Deployment". Houses of the Oireachtas Service. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Lavery, Michael (18 March 2010). "The Rangers at 30". The Evening Herald. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Lee, Jim (27 August 2015). "Government's new White Paper on Defence published". Flying in Ireland - The Irish Aviation Magazine. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Murtagh, Peter (20 May 2016). "Army Ranger Wing to double in size due to terror threat". The Irish Times. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "ARW Selection Course". Defence Forces. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Representative Association of Commissioned Officers (Winter 2015). "Tip Of The Spear: Special Forces - Strategic Asset of a Modern Military Force". Signal Magazine. 13 (2): 12–17. ISSN 1649-7635. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Power, Vincent (3 May 1993). "An elite, secretive anti-terrorist unit". The Cork Examiner. p. 4.
- Kennedy, Sgt Rena (August 2007). "Multitasked" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 67 (6): 14–16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Millar, Cpl Paul (September 2013). "ARW Maritime Task Unit". An Cosantóir. 73 (7): 18–19. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "April 2016". An Cosantóir. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- O'Riordan, Sean (11 August 2014). "Army sets its sights on €1m digital firing range at Kilworth camp". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Bushe, Andrew (16 February 2011). "Ireland to beef up crack commando unit". Irish Echo. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Airlift of stricken Wicklow climbers begins". breakingnews.ie. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Donohoe, Miriam (7 August 1999). "Army might be used to guard Irish embassies". Irish Times. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "Enda Kenny visits war-torn Lebanon under protection of Irish elite forces". Irish Daily Star. 17 June 2014. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- McMahon, Cathal (17 June 2014). "'We've got your back Taoiseach': Enda Kenny visits troops in south Lebanon". Irish Mirror. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- Harden, Tony (25 October 2005). "Westerners face new fears as Rory returns to his delighted family". Irish Independent. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Brady, Tom (11 February 2018). "Irish Ranger Wing handed key role in elite EU battle-group". Irish Independent. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- Ingle, Roisin (18 September 1999). "Keynote of Army elite is controlled aggression". The Irish Times. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- "A Look at Intelligence Section" (PDF). An Cosantóir. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- "Military 'can help stop cyber attacks'". The Irish Examiner. 20 February 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "Written Answers - Defence Forces Strength". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. 4 June 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "ARW Selection Course". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011.
- "Here come the girls" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 70 (10): 14–153. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Written Answers - Defence Forces Deployment". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. 7 December 2005. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Photo". Facebook - Irish Defense Forces. 10 October 2015.
- Bourke, Wesley (August 2007). "Being 'THE BEST'" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 67 (6): 8–10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Army Ranger Wing training". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 18 November 2007.
- Bourke, Wesley (January 2008). "Many Are Called, Few Are Chosen" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 68 (1): 18–19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Army Ranger Wing - Training Parachuting". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 13 June 2002.
- "Hostile Environment (RTÉ One)". RTÉ Television. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Brady, Tom (2 December 1998). "Elite anti-terrorist units join forces for rescue exercise". Irish Independent. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Army Ranger Wing of the Republic of Ireland Military Forces". State of Guns. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Lally, Conor (29 April 2009). "Garda centre axed over cutbacks". Irish Times. Retrieved 15 May 2014. (subscription required)
- Thompson, Leroy (1 March 2013). "Ireland's Army Rangers (page 1)". Tactical-Life. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Army Ranger Wing - Training - International Interchange". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 21 February 2002.
- "Irish Army Ranger Wing". Spec Ops Magazine. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- McDonald, Henry (23 December 2001). "Elite Irish troops on standby to keep peace in Afghanistan". The Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Lavery, Michael (19 June 2009). "Ireland's elite Army special forces unit are celebrating their 40th anniversary". The Herald. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Murtagh, Peter (24 November 2015). "Can Ireland really prepare for a terrorist attack?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- Williams, Paul; Brady, Tom (24 November 2015). "Units to counter terrorism step up training". Irish Independent. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "Defence co-operation agreement a sign of deepening relationship with our neighbours - "Marching in step with UK"". The Irish Times. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Collins, Stephen (12 January 2015). "Ireland and UK agree historic defence agreement". The Irish Times. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- "Second United Nations Operation in Somalia". Defence Forces Ireland. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "Ireland's History with the UN". 2000. Irish armed forces in service of the United Nations. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Irish Camouflage Patterns". 2014. Camopedia. Retrieved 17 May 2014.[better source needed]
- O'Brien, Paul; Fitzgerald, Wayne. SHADOW WARRIORS - The Irish Army Ranger Wing. Mercier Press. ISBN 978-1-78117-762-4.
- Donohoe, Miriam (21 September 1999). "Army team in talks on role for Rangers". Irish Times. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Rangers unit is an elite fighting machine". The Irish Times. 16 September 1999. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- "UNMET/UNTAET". Defence Forces Ireland. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- O'Clery, Conor (30 October 1999). "Rangers guard eerily quiet Timor town". The Irish Times. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Whittaker, Capt John. "ARW in East Timor" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 59 Number 9 (December–January 2000): 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- Blaxland, John (2015). East Timor intervention : a retrospective on INTERFET. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Publishing. ISBN 9780522867770.
- Tom Brady (8 January 2004). "Crack troops rescue hostages from gunmen in daring raid". Irish Independent. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- "Smith praises Irish UN rescue in Liberia". Radio Telefís Éireann. 8 January 2004. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
- Ruairi Kavanagh. "Liberia: Waking from the Nightmare" (PDF). Signal Magazine. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- James McKenna (28 November 2003). "Irish Army Ranger killed in Liberia". Indymedia.ie. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- Minister for Defence Deputy Willie O’Dea (26 February 2008). "Written Answers - Overseas Missions". Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Earley, Lt Gen Dermot (February 2008). "Chad Mission - Irish Soldiers deploying to Chad will continue our proud tradition" (PDF). An Cosantóir. 68 (2): 7–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Nash, Lt Gen Pat (Summer 2008). "Command & Control" (PDF). Signal Magazine. Representative Association of Commissioned Officers: 25–26. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Lally, Conor (22 May 2008). "Chad rebels confront Army Rangers". The Irish Times. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Cunningham, Paul (Reporter). Irish Special Forces, Elite Army Ranger Wing in Chad, RTÉ News. News (Television production). Raidió Teilifís Éireann. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Lt Gen D Earley's - Address to the Annual Delegate Conference". Defence Forces Ireland. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- O'Halloran, Marie (20 June 2019). "Army Rangers set for UN mission in Mali after 77-39 Dáil vote". The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- Fitzgerald, Wayne (November 2019). "Rangers Head to Mali (Page 16/17)". An Cosantóir, Official magazine of the Irish Defence Forces. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- "MINUSMA United Nations Peacekeeping". United Nations. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- Brady, Tom (25 February 2020). "Three Irish soldiers injured after bomb blast hit their patrol in warn-torn Mali". Irish Independent. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Lally, Connor (25 February 2020). "Three Irish Army Rangers lightly wounded in Mali roadside blast". The Irish Times. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Brady, Tom (9 March 2020). "The Army Rangers get back to work after roadside bomb blast". Irish Independent. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- King, Stephen (21 October 2009). "British spooks' story sheds light on key aspects of modern Irish history". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- MacAskill, Ewan (20 October 2005). "Guardian journalist abducted in Baghdad". The Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Kidnapped reporter freed in Iraq". BBC News. 21 October 2005. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Clonan, Tom (5 November 2019). "'Lisa Smith's story will continue to divide and provoke Irish public opinion - and rightly so'". thejournal.ie. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- "Oral answers (6 contributions) (Question to Minister for Defence)". Oireachtas.ie. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- Clonan, Tom. "Irish Intelligence Staff Work From Kosovo To Kabul". 1 January 2006. Dublin Institute of Technology | School of Media. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Dáil Éireann Debate - Tuesday 17 April 2018 - Written Answers - Overseas Missions". Parliamentary debates - Record. Houses of the Oireachtas. 17 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Lally, Conor (5 July 2019). "Smith faces complex dynamic in bid to leave Syria for Ireland". The Irish Times. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- "How fake boarding passes became tickets out of Tripoli". The Irish Times. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- "Army's elite to take on Somali pirates in Aden". Irish Independent. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Hosford, Paul (1 December 2015). ""It brought me back to the day in 1980 when he rounded us up and took us out to shoot us."". thejournal.ie. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- O'Riordan, Sean (10 October 2019). "Members of Ireland's special forces deployed to German based EU Battlegroup for first time". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
- R.T.E. News report, December 1983. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGgfGdJJSrs
- 'The Rangers at 30', 'Herald.ie', 18 March 2010. https://www.herald.ie/news/the-rangers-at-30-27945665.html
- "Rangers signal new UN role for Irish troops". The Irish Times. 18 September 1999. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- Lavery, Don (22 January 2013). "No-fly zone over Dublin Castle for EU Presidency". Irish Independent. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Kelleher, Lynne (6 April 2014). "Arrests made to protect Queen, reveals Callinan". Irish Independent. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- McDonald, Henry (16 May 2011). "Irish police arrest dissident republicans before Queen's visit". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- Lavery, Don (1 December 2012). "Snipers equipped with record-breaking rifle". The Independent. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Roberts, Laura (17 May 2011). "The Queen in Ireland: security operation is largest in republic's history". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Hogan, Eugene (23 November 2012). "Visit sparks biggest security operation in history of State". Irish Independent. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- McDonald, Henry (11 June 2013). "G8 summit: Irish trade unions call in human rights monitors". The Observer. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Finn, Melaine (24 November 2012). "Bad road a factor in death of Army ranger in Liberia". Irish Independent. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "In memory of those who died while serving in the Army Ranger Wing". 19 March 2010. Defence Forces Ireland. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "Army Ranger Wing - Weapons & Equipment". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 12 August 2002.
- Gourley, S.; Kemp, I (November 2003). "The Duellists". Jane's Defence Weekly (ISSN 0265-3818), Volume 40 Issue 21, pp 26–28.
- "New ARW Weapons". D&I Magazine (July 2004)
- Lavery, Don (6 November 2011). "Snipers equipped with record-breaking rifle". Sunday Independent. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Army Home Weapon". Defence Forces. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012.
- Tactical Weapons, May 2010 Issue. Guns of the Elite: Multi-Mission Warriors, page 93.
- "Army - Company Level Weapons". Defence Forces. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Army - Platoon Level Weapons". Defence Forces. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Army - Battalion Level Weapons". Defence Forces. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Lavery, Don. "World's toughest trucks for Rangers". The Independent. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- "WMIK (Weapons Mount Installation Kit) Programme - Defence" (PDF). Ricardo. pp. 14–15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Thompson, Leroy (1 March 2013). "Ireland's Army Rangers (page 2)". Tactical-Life. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Dräger LAR VII Combi FA". Dräger. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Diver Propulsion Device (DPD)". STIDD Systems. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- "Lencraft Boats". Lencraft Boats Ireland. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "Drop zone". Shadow warriors (pg137 April 2020)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irish Army Ranger Wing.|