Portal:Luxembourg

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Location of Luxembourg within Europe

Luxembourg (/ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/ (audio speaker iconlisten) LUK-səm-burg; Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuəɕ] (audio speaker iconlisten); French: Luxembourg; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in Western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the four official capitals of the European Union (together with Brussels, Frankfurt, and Strasbourg) and the seat of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbors, making it a mixture of French and German cultures. Luxembourgish is the only national language of the Luxembourgish people, as defined by law. In addition to Luxembourgish, French and German are used in administrative and judicial matters; the three languages are jointly considered administrative languages of Luxembourg.

With an area of 2,586 square kilometers (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2019, Luxembourg had a population of 634,730, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate. Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining sovereign grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. The City of Luxembourg, with its old quarters and fortifications, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.

The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, "little castle", and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage, war and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Count of Luxembourg Henry VII became King of the Germans and later Holy Roman Emperor. The House of Luxembourg produced four German emperors during the High Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the county to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The duchy eventually became part of the Burgundian Circle and then one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was gradually built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresa, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon. (Full article...)

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Map of the Greater Region, showing its constituent regions

The Greater Region (French: Grande Région, German: Großregion, Luxembourgish: Groussregioun), is a geopolitical region within Europe, created to promote economic, cultural, touristic and social development and cooperation. It occupies an area of 65,401 square kilometres (25,251 sq mi) with Luxembourg at its center and including adjacent regions of Belgium, Germany and France. It covers the area of Saarland, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Wallonia. It is not identical with the SaarLorLux Euroregion, despite being in the same territory.

It is situated between the Rhine, Moselle, Saar and Meuse rivers, has an overall area of 65,401 km². Its population counts 11.2 million inhabitants, representing 2.5% of the total population of the 27-state European Union, and accounting for the same proportion of the EU GDP. (Full article...)
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