List of companies involved in the Holocaust

This list includes corporations and their documented collaboration with implementation of the Holocaust.

ListEdit

Company name Year established Place of origin Activity
AEG 1883 Germany Forced labour from concentration camps.[1]
Allianz 1890 Berlin, Germany Provided insurance for facilities and workers at concentration camps.[2]
Associated Press 1846 New York, United States Censorship and cooperation with Nazi Germany.[3][4]
Audi (Auto Union)[5] 1910 Zwickau, Germany Forced labour from concentration camps.[5]
Baccarat (company)[6] 1764 Baccarat, France Produced propaganda items for Nazi State and Vichy Collaborating State.
Bahlsen[7] 1889 Hannover, Germany Employed about 200 forced labourers between 1943 and 1945 - most of whom were women from Nazi-occupied Ukraine.
BASF[8][9] 1865 Ludwigshafen, Germany Collaborated with Degussa AG - now Evonik Industries - and IG Farben - to produce sodas used in Zyklon B - utilized in Concentration Camps to commit mass murder. The BASF built the chemical factory IG Auschwitz.
Bayer[8][10] 1863 Barmen, Germany Forced labour and medical experimentation in concentration camps,[11] production of the chemicals and pharmaceuticals supplies of Nazi Germany.
BMW[8][12][13] 1916 Munich, Germany Forced labour from concentration camps,[14] produced fighting sidecar motorcycles BMW R75 and aircraft engines.
Carl Walther GmbH[citation needed] 1886 Zella-Mehlis, Germany Produced Gewehr military carabines and Walther handguns.
Chase National Bank[15][16][17] 1877 Manhattan, New York State, USA Assisted in the sale of Nazi war bonds (Rueckwanderer Marks) to German Americans.
Degussa AG (now Evonik Industries)[18][19][8] 1843 Frankfurt, Germany Zyklon B pesticide production used for executions in gas chambers.
Dehomag (a subsidiary of IBM)[20][page needed][21][22] 1896 Germany Provided data computers for the Gestapo state police notably for arrests.
DEST[23] 1938 Berlin, Germany SS owned stone works and later, armaments manufacturer. Used slave labour.
Deutsche Bank[8][24] 1870 Berlin, Germany Provided construction loans for Auschwitz.
Deutsche Bergwerks- und Hüttenbau[25] Late 1800s Germany Mine and quarries.
Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe[citation needed] 1940 Germany Holding company for SS-owned businesses.
Dresdner Bank[8][26][27] 1872 Dresden, Germany Major stakeholder in the construction company for Auschwitz.
Eisenwerke Oberdonau[citation needed] 1938 Germany Steel production. Part of Reichswerke Hermann Göring.
Flugmotorenwerke Ostmark[28] 1941 Lower Austria Engine production mainly for aircraft.
Focke-Wulf[29]: 118  1924 Bremen, Germany Produced Focke-Wulf military planes.
Franz Eher Nachfolger[30] 1887 Munich, Germany Produced books and the famous Mein Kampf under the control of the Nazi party.
General Motors[31] 1900 Detroit, United States Automotive industry, provided passenger vehicles for the SS, Wehrmacht and the Nazi party.
Hoesch AG[8] 1871 Dortmund, Germany Mines and steel productions.
Hugo Boss[32] 1924 Metzingen, Germany Produced propaganda items for Nazi State and Vichy Collaborating State.
IBM[20] 1911 Armonk, New York, USA Produced early computers utilized in the pursuit of the Holocaust by Nazi Germany.
IG Farben[33] 1925 Frankfurt am Main, Germany Zyklon B main manufacturer.
Krupp[33][34][1] (now part of ThyssenKrupp) 1811 Essen, Germany Zyklon B was produced by the company along with other ones. Some more of the productions were Panzer Tank Series, U-boats, military ships, artillery guns.
Maggi (now owned by Nestlé) 1884 Vevey, Switzerland Benefited from slave labour.[35]
Mercedes-Benz (as well as then-owner Daimler-Benz)[8][36][37] 1926 Stuttgart, Germany Forced labour from concentration camps, produced turret for tanks. Also were the limos of choice of Nazi leaders such as Hitler, Göring, Himmler, and Heydrich. (See Mercedes-Benz 770)
Porsche[38] 1931 Stuttgart, Germany Forced labour,[39] created design for the first version of the outgunning heavy Tiger tank series: the Tiger I despite the trials it was not retained for further production.
Puma 1924 Herzogenaurach, Germany As Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory, with Adidas. Shoe supplier to Hitler Youth.[40]
Reichswerke Hermann Göring[41] 1937 Berlin, Germany State-owned steelworks.
Siemens[8][42][1] 1847 Kreuzberg, Berlin, Germany Forced labour,[43] Trucks possibly other productions as trains.
Škoda Works[citation needed] 1869 Pilsen, Czechia Produced artillery for the Wehrmacht.
Standard Oil[44] 1870 Cleveland, Ohio Provided fuel for U-boats.
Steyr Arms[45] 1864 Steyr, Austria Forced labour in the Steyr-Münichholz subcamp, production of weapons.
Steyr-Daimler-Puch[46] 1864 Steyr, Austria Constructed military facilities and military vehicles as the light RSO Raupenschlepper Ost (with cargo, selfpropelled antitank and traction versions).
Stoewer 1899 Stettin, Germany Used forced labour in its factory.[47] It manufacturer leichter geländegängiger Einheits-PKW, a versatile four-wheel drive car, for Wehrmacht.[48]
Swarovski[49][50] 1895 Wattens, Austria Members of the executive board were members of the Nazi Party.
Thyssen AG (now part of ThyssenKrupp)[8] 1891 Hamborn, Germany Produced steel, machines, weapons and steelworks.
Topf and Sons[51] 1878 Erfurt, Germany Designed, manufactured and installed crematoria for concentration and extermination camps.
Volkswagen Group 1937 Berlin, Germany Forced labour from concentration camps.[8][52] Produced V-1 flying bomb[53] and Kübelwagen military vehicles.[38]

GalleryEdit


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Markham, James M. (1986-01-09). "Company Linked to Nazi Slave Labor Pays $2 Million". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  2. ^ Sandomir, Richard (September 10, 2008). "Naming Rights and Historical Wrongs". New York Times. Archived from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  3. ^ "The Associated Press Cooperated With The Nazis". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  4. ^ "Revealed: How Associated Press cooperated with the Nazis". TheGuardian.com. 30 March 2016.
  5. ^ a b "German car maker Audi reveals Nazi past". The Times of Israel.
  6. ^ Köster, Roman. "Baccarat, 1940-1944. Crystal carafe in honor of Hermann Goering". Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  7. ^ "Choco Leibniz biscuit heiress apologises over Nazi-era labour comments". BBC News. BBC.com. May 16, 2019. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "German industry unveils Holocaust fund". BBC News. 1999-02-16. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  9. ^ "IG Farben to be dissolved". BBC. 2001-09-17. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  10. ^ Moskowitz, Sanford L. (2009). "Bayer". In Charles Wankel (ed.). Encyclopedia of Business in Today's World. Vol. 1. SAGE Publications. pp. 126–128.
  11. ^ "Bayer".
  12. ^ "MUNICH-ALLACH: WORKING FOR BMW". www.ausstellung-zwangsarbeit.org. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016.
  13. ^ Kay, Anthony (2002). German Jet Engine and Gas Turbine Development 1930–1945. Airlife Publishing. ISBN 9781840372946.
  14. ^ "BMW and the Holocaust".
  15. ^ "Thousands of Intelligence Documents Opened under the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act" (Press release). National Archives and Records Administration. May 13, 2004. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
  16. ^ Breitman, Richard; Goda, Norman; Naftali, Timothy; Wolfe, Robert (April 4, 2005). "Banking on Hitler: Chase National Bank and the Rückwanderer Mark Scheme, 1936–1941". U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis. Cambridge University Press. pp. 173–202. ISBN 978-0521617949. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  17. ^ Yeadon, Glen; Hawkins, John (June 1, 2008). The Nazi Hydra in America: Suppressed History of a Century. Joshua Tree, California: Progressive Press. p. 195. ISBN 9780930852436. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
  18. ^ Wiesen, S. Jonathan (2005-11-16). "From Cooperation to Complicity: Degussa in the Third Reich (review)". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 19 (3): 528–531. doi:10.1093/hgs/dci047. ISSN 1476-7937.
  19. ^ Bernstein, Richard (2003-11-14). "Berlin Holocaust Shrine Stays With Company Tied to Nazi Gas". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  20. ^ a b Edwin Black (2001). IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation. ISBN 0-316-85769-6.
  21. ^ Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray, "Computer a History of the Information Machine – Second Edition", Westview Press, p. 37, 2004.
  22. ^ See IBM during World War II
  23. ^ Rudolf A. Haunschmied; Jan-Ruth Mills; Siegi Witzany-Durda (2007). St. Georgen - Gusen - Mauthausen: Concentration Camp Mauthausen Reconsidered. BoD – Books on Demand. p. 45. ISBN 978-3-8334-7440-8.
  24. ^ Schmid, John; Tribune, International Herald (1999-02-05). "Deutsche Bank Linked To Auschwitz Funding". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  25. ^ Tuvia Friling (1 July 2014). A Jewish Kapo in Auschwitz: History, Memory, and the Politics of Survival. Brandeis University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-61168-587-9.
  26. ^ Young, Marc (2006-02-18). "Dresdner Bank and the Third Reich: Hitler's Willing Bankers". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  27. ^ "Report: German Bank Helped Build Auschwitz". Deutsche Welle. 2006-01-23. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  28. ^ Bartrop, Paul R.; Dickerman, Michael (2017). The Holocaust: An Encyclopedia and Document Collection [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 427. ISBN 9781440840845.
  29. ^ Vajda, Ferenc A.; Dancey, Peter (1998). German Aircraft Industry and Production, 1933-1945. McFarland. ISBN 9781853108648.
  30. ^ Tavernaro, Thomas (2004). Der Verlag Hitlers und der NSDAP: die Franz Eher Nachfolger GmbH. Wien: Edition Praesens. ISBN 978-3-7069-0220-5.
  31. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/nov98/nazicars30.htm
  32. ^ Köster, Roman. "Hugo Boss, 1924-1945. A Clothing Factory During the Weimar Republic and Third Reich" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  33. ^ a b Göring, Hermann; Weinberg, Gerhard L.; International Military Tribunal. (1971). Trial of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945-1 October 1946. Vol. IX. Nuremberg Ger. ISBN 978-0-404-53650-3.
  34. ^ "Krupp AG | German company". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  35. ^ "Nestlé paid $14.6 million for using slave labor". The Independent. 2000-08-28. Archived from the original on 2015-07-03. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  36. ^ Services, From Times Wire (1988-06-12). "Daimler-Benz to Pay $12 Million for War Forced Labor". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  37. ^ Klara, Robert (2015-09-13). "Hitler's car exerts grim fascination even if it just gave the Führer a lift to the airport". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  38. ^ a b Hawranek, Dietmar (2009-07-21). "Designing Cars for Hitler: Porsche and Volkswagen's Nazi Roots". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  39. ^ "The Dark Pre-History of the World's Favorite Sports Car".
  40. ^ "The Nazi Origins of Adidas and Puma".
  41. ^ Overy, R.J. (1995). War and economy in the Third Reich. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820599-6.
  42. ^ Wiesen, S. Jonathan (2012-10-30). "German Industry and the Third Reich: Fifty Years of Forgetting and Remembering". Braun Holocaust Institute. Anti-Defamation League. Archived from the original on 2012-10-30. Retrieved 2013-09-19.
  43. ^ "Siemens Offers $12 Million to WWII Slave Labor Victims". Los Angeles Times. 24 September 1998.
  44. ^ Bruer, William (2002-06-18). "Standard Oil provided the Nazis with fuel for their U-boats, on some occasions even giving Germans the first pick of oil fields". ISBN 9780471207474. Retrieved 2018-11-11.
  45. ^ "Forced Labour in the Arms Industry - KZ-Gedenkstätte Mauthausen".
  46. ^ Orth, Karin (2010). "Camps". In Peter Hayes; John K. Roth (eds.). The Oxford handbook of Holocaust studies. New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199211869.003.0025. ISBN 978-0-19-921186-9.
  47. ^ Kazimierz Golczewski, Pomorze Zachodnie na przełomie dwu epok, 1944-1946, Wydawn. Poznańskie, 1964, p. 29.
  48. ^ L.C. Odin, World in Motion 1939, The whole of the year's automobile production. Belvedere Publishing, 2015. ASIN: B00ZLN91ZG.
  49. ^ Szigetvari, András (2018-12-23). "Swarovskis Kampf mit seiner NS-Vergangenheit". DER STANDARD (in Austrian German). Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  50. ^ Schreiber, Horst. "Im Einklang mit der NSDAP – Das Unternehmen Swarovski in der NS-Zeit" (in de-DE). Retrieved 2020-11-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  51. ^ Alan Rosenberg; Gerald Eugene Myers (2009). Echoes From The Holocaust: Philosophical Reflections on a Dark Time. Temple University Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-1-4399-0161-8.
  52. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Volkswagen". Holocaust Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on December 31, 2021.
  53. ^ Clairmont, Frederic F. (January 1998). "Volkswagen's history of forced labor". Le Monde Diplomatique. Archived from the original on June 14, 2002. Retrieved 3 September 2011.

External linksEdit