Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (// or //; German: [ˈaːʀənt]; 14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American political theorist. Her 18 books and numerous articles, ranging from works on totalitarianism to thinking and judging, greatly influence political philosophy to this day. Arendt is widely considered one of the most important thinkers of the twentieth century.
Mural of Hannah Arendt in Hanover, by graffitos BeneR1 and koarts, based on a photograph by Käthe Fürst
14 October 1906|
Linden, Prussian Hanover, German Empire
(present-day Hanover, Germany)
|Died||4 December 1975
New York City, United States
|Political theory, modernity, philosophy of history|
She escaped from Europe during the Holocaust, becoming an American citizen. Her works deal with the nature of power and the subjects of politics, direct democracy, authority, and totalitarianism. The Hannah Arendt Prize is named in her honor.
Early Life and EducationEdit
Arendt was born into a secular family of German Jews in Linden (now a part of Hanover), the daughter of Martha (born Cohn) and Paul Arendt. She grew up in Königsberg (renamed Kaliningrad when it was annexed to the Soviet Union in 1946) and Berlin. Arendt's family was thoroughly assimilated and she later remembered: "With us from Germany, the word 'assimilation' received a 'deep' philosophical meaning. You can hardly realize how serious we were about it."
Arendt came to define her Jewish identity negatively after encountering antisemitism as an adult. She came to greatly identify with Rahel Varnhagen, a 19th-century Prussian hostess who desperately wanted to assimilate into German culture, only to be rejected because she was born and had grown up Jewish. Arendt later wrote about Varnhagen that she was "my very closest woman friend, unfortunately dead a hundred years now."
After completing her high school studies in 1924, she enrolled at the University of Marburg, where she spent a year studying philosophy with Martin Heidegger. According to Hans Jonas, her only German-Jewish classmate, in her year at the University of Marburg Arendt embarked on a long and highly problematic romantic relationship with Heidegger, for which she was later criticized because of Heidegger's support for the Nazi Party when he was rector at the University of Freiburg. After a year at Marburg, Arendt spent a semester at Freiburg University attending the lectures of Edmund Husserl. In 1926 she moved to the University of Heidelberg, where in 1929 she completed her dissertation under the existentialist philosopher-psychologist Karl Jaspers; her thesis title was Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin: Versuch einer philosophischen Interpretation ("On the concept of love in the thought of Saint Augustine: Attempt at a philosophical interpretation").
In 1929, in Berlin, she married Günther Stern, later known as Günther Anders. They divorced in 1937. The dissertation was published in 1929. In 1932, Arendt was deeply troubled by reports that Heidegger was speaking at National Socialist meetings, and wrote to him asking him to deny that he was attracted to National Socialism. Heidegger wrote back to her and in his letter did not seek to deny the rumors (which were true), and merely assured her that his feelings for her were unchanged. Arendt was prevented from habilitating because she was Jewish. She researched antisemitism for some time before being arrested and briefly imprisoned by the Gestapo in 1933.
In 1933, Arendt left Germany for Czechoslovakia and then Geneva, where she worked for some time at the League of Nations before leaving for Paris, where she befriended the Marxist literary critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin, her first husband's cousin. While in France, she worked to support and aid Jewish refugees. In 1937, she was stripped of her German citizenship. In 1940, she married the German poet and Marxist philosopher Heinrich Blücher, a founding member of the KPD who had been expelled due to his work in the Conciliator faction. Later that year, after the German military occupation of northern France, the Vichy regime began deporting foreign Jews to internment camps in the unoccupied south of France, and she was interned in Camp Gurs as an "enemy alien".
Like many others, Arendt was able to leave Gurs after a few weeks, and left France in 1941 with her husband and her mother, traveling via Portugal to the United States. They relied on visas illegally issued by the American diplomat Hiram Bingham, who aided roughly 2,500 Jewish refugees in this way. Varian Fry, another American humanitarian, paid for their travel and helped obtain the visas. Upon arriving in New York, Arendt became active in the German-Jewish community. From 1941 to 1945, she wrote a column for the German-language Jewish newspaper Aufbau. From 1944, she directed research for the Commission of European Jewish Cultural Reconstruction and in that capacity traveled to Europe after the war.
During World War II, Arendt worked for Youth Aliyah, a Zionist organization, which saved thousands of children from the Holocaust and settled them in the British Mandate of Palestine. She became a close friend of Karl Jaspers and his wife, developing a deep intellectual friendship with him. She began corresponding with the American author Mary McCarthy around this time.
In 1950, Arendt became a naturalized citizen of the United States. The same year, she started seeing Heidegger again, and had what the American writer Adam Kirsch called a "quasi-romance" that lasted for two years with the man who once had been her mentor, teacher and lover. During this time, Arendt began to defend Heidegger from criticism of his actions under the Third Reich when he had been a proud member of the NSDAP, portraying Heidegger as a naïve man swept up by forces beyond his control, and that at any rate Heidegger's philosophy had nothing to do with National Socialism. She served as a visiting scholar at the University of Notre Dame, University of California, Berkeley, Princeton University, and Northwestern University. In 1959, she was named the first female lecturer at Princeton. She also taught at the University of Chicago from 1963 to 1967, where she was a member of the Committee on Social Thought; The New School in Manhattan where she taught as University Professor from 1967 until her death in 1975; Yale University, where she was a fellow, as well as the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan University (1961–62, 1962–63).
In 1961 while covering the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt wrote to Jaspers a letter that Kirsch described as reflecting "pure racism" towards Sephardic Jews from the Middle East and Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe, where she wrote: "On top, the judges, the best of German Jewry. Below them, the prosecuting attorneys, Galicians, but still Europeans. Everything is organized by a police force that gives me the creeps, speaks only Hebrew, and looks Arabic. Some downright brutal types among them. They would obey any order. And outside the doors, the oriental mob, as if one were in Istanbul or some other half-Asiatic country." Though Arendt remained a Zionist activist both during and after World War II, after the war's conclusion, she also made it clear she favored the creation of a Jewish-Arab federated state in Palestine, rather than a purely Jewish state, as a means of both addressing Jewish statelessness and avoiding the pitfalls of nationalism.
Arendt was instrumental in the creation in 1974 of Structured Liberal Education (SLE) at Stanford University. She wrote a letter to the president of Stanford to persuade the university to enact Mark Mancall's vision of a residentially-based humanities program.
The Origins of TotalitarianismEdit
Arendt's first major book was titled The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951), which traced the roots of Stalinism and Nazism in both antisemitism and imperialism. In it, Arendt argues that totalitarianism was a "novel form of government," different from other forms of tyranny in that it applied terror to subjugate mass populations rather than just political adversaries. The book was opposed by some on the Left on the grounds that it presented the two movements as equally tyrannical. She further contends that Jewry was not the operative factor in the Holocaust, but merely a convenient proxy. Totalitarianism in Germany was, in the end, about terror and consistency, not eradicating Jews only.
The Human ConditionEdit
In what is arguably her most influential work, The Human Condition (1958), Arendt differentiates political and social concepts, labor and work, and various forms of actions; she then explores the implications of those distinctions. Her theory of political action, corresponding to the existence of a public realm, is extensively developed in this work. Arendt argues that, while human life always evolves within societies, the social-being part of human nature, political life, has been intentionally constructed by only a few of these societies as a space for individuals to achieve freedom through the construction of a common world. These conceptual categories, which attempt to bridge the gap between ontological and sociological structures, are sharply delineated. While Arendt relegates labor and work to the realm of the social, she favors the human condition of action as the political that is both existential and aesthetic.
Men in Dark TimesEdit
Her collection of essays, Men in Dark Times, presents intellectual biographies of some creative and moral figures of the 20th century, such as Walter Benjamin, Karl Jaspers, Rosa Luxemburg, Hermann Broch, Pope John XXIII, and Isak Dinesen.
Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of EvilEdit
In her reporting of the 1961 Adolf Eichmann trial for The New Yorker, which evolved into Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1963), she coined the phrase "the banality of evil" to describe the phenomenon of Eichmann. She raised the question of whether evil is radical or simply a function of thoughtlessness, a tendency of ordinary people to obey orders and conform to mass opinion without a critical evaluation of the consequences of their actions and inaction. She was sharply critical of the way the trial was conducted in Israel. She also was critical of the way that some Jewish leaders, notably M.C. Rumkowski, acted during the Holocaust. This caused a considerable controversy and even animosity toward Arendt in the Jewish community. Her friend Gershom Scholem, a major scholar of Jewish mysticism, broke off relations with her. Arendt was criticized by many Jewish public figures, who charged her with coldness and lack of sympathy for the victims of the Holocaust. Because of this lingering criticism, neither this book nor any of her other works were translated into Hebrew until 1999. This controversy was answered by Hannah Arendt in the book's Postscript.
The controversy began by calling attention to the conduct of the Jewish people during the years of the Final Solution, thus following up the question, first raised by the Israeli prosecutor, of whether the Jews could or should have defended themselves. I had dismissed that question as silly and cruel, since it testified to a fatal ignorance of the conditions at the time. It has now been discussed to exhaustion, and the most amazing conclusions have been drawn. The well-known historico-sociological construct of "ghetto mentality" … has been repeatedly dragged in to explain behavior which was not at all confined to the Jewish people and which therefore cannot be explained by specifically Jewish factors. … This was the unexpected conclusion certain reviewers chose to draw from the "image" of a book, created by certain interest groups, in which I allegedly had claimed that the Jews had murdered themselves.
Arendt ended the book by writing:
Just as you [Eichmann] supported and carried out a policy of not wanting to share the earth with the Jewish people and the people of a number of other nations—as though you and your superiors had any right to determine who should and who should not inhabit the world—we find that no one, that is, no member of the human race, can be expected to want to share the earth with you. This is the reason, and the only reason, you must hang.
Arendt presents a comparison of two of the main revolutions of the 18th century, the American and French Revolutions. She goes against a common view of both Marxist and leftist views when she argues that France, while well studied and often emulated, was a disaster and that the largely ignored American Revolution was a success. The turning point in the French Revolution occurred when the leaders rejected their goals of freedom in order to focus on compassion for the masses. In the United States, the Founding Fathers never betray the goal of Constitutio Libertatis. However, Arendt believes the revolutionary spirit of those men had been lost, and advocates a “council system” as an appropriate institution to regain that spirit.
Arendt's essay On Violence distinguishes between violence and power. She maintains that, although theorists of both the Left and Right regard violence as an extreme manifestation of power, the two concepts are, in fact, antithetical. Power comes from the collective will and does not need violence to achieve any of its goals, since voluntary compliance takes its place. As governments start losing their legitimacy, violence becomes an artificial means toward the same end and is, therefore, found only in the absence of power. Bureaucracies then become the ideal birthplaces of violence since they are defined as the "rule by no one" against whom to argue and, therefore, recreate the missing links with the people they rule over.
The Life of the MindEdit
Her posthumous book, The Life of the Mind (1978, edited by Mary McCarthy), remained incomplete. During Arendt's tenure at the New School, in 1974, she presented a graduate level Political Philosophy class entitled, "Philosophy of the Mind". It was during these class lectures that Arendt crystallized her concepts. The class was based on her working draft of "Philosophy of the Mind", which was later edited to "Life of the Mind". Arendt's working draft of Philosophy of the Mind was distributed to graduate students at the New School during her visiting professorship in 1974. Also, stemming from her Gifford Lectures at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, her last writing focused on the mental faculties of thinking and willing. In a sense, Life of the Mind went beyond her previous work concerning the vita activa. In her discussion of thinking she focuses mainly on Socrates and his notion of thinking as a solitary dialogue between Me and Myself. This appropriation of Socrates leads her to introduce novel concepts of conscience (which gives no positive prescriptions, but instead, tells me what I cannot do if I would remain friends with myself when I re-enter the two-in-one of thought where I must render an account of my actions to myself) and morality (an entirely negative enterprise concerned with non-participation in certain actions for the sake of remaining friends with one's self).
Arendt's critique of human rightsEdit
In The Origins of Totalitarianism Hannah Arendt devotes a lengthy chapter to a critical analysis of human rights. Arendt isn’t skeptical of the notion of political rights in general, but instead defends a national or civil conception of rights. Human rights, or the Rights of Man as they were commonly called, are universal, inalienable and possessed simply in virtue of being human. In contrast, civil rights are possessed in virtue of belonging to a political community, most commonly by being a citizen. Arendt’s primary criticism of human rights is that they are ineffectual and illusory because their enforcement is in tension with national sovereignty. She argued that since there is no political authority above that of sovereign nations, state governments have little incentive to respect human rights when such policies conflict with national interests. This can be seen most clearly by examining the treatment of refugees and other stateless people. Since the refugee has no state to secure their civil rights, the only rights they have to fall back on are human rights. In this way Arendt uses the refugee as a test case for examining human rights in isolation from civil rights.
Arendt’s analysis draws on the refugee upheavals in the first half of the 20th century along with her own experience as a refugee fleeing Nazi Germany. She argued that as state governments began to emphasize national identity as a prerequisite for full legal status, the number of minority resident aliens increased along with the number of stateless persons whom no state was willing to legally recognize. The two potential solutions to the refugee problem, repatriation and naturalization, both proved incapable of solving the crisis. Arendt argued that repatriation failed to solve the refugee crisis because no government was willing to take them in and claim them as their own. When refugees were forcibly deported to neighboring countries such immigration was deemed illegal by the receiving country, and so failed to change the fundamental status of the migrants as stateless. Attempts at naturalizing and assimilating refugees also had little success. This was primarily due to resistance from both state governments and the majority of citizens, since both tended to see the refugees as undesirables who threatened their national identity. Resistance to naturalization also came from the refugees themselves who resisted assimilation and attempted to maintain their own ethnic and national identities. Arendt contends that neither naturalization nor the tradition of asylum were capable of handling the sheer number of refugees. Instead of accepting some refugees with legal status, the state often responded by denaturalizing minorities who shared national or ethnic ties with stateless refugees.
Arendt argues that the consistent mistreatment of refugees, most of whom were placed in internment camps, is evidence against the existence of human rights. If the notion of human rights as universal and inalienable is to be taken seriously, they must be realizable given the features of the modern liberal state. Arendt contends that they are not realizable because they are in tension with at least one feature of the liberal state, national sovereignty. One of the primary ways in which a nation exercises sovereignty is through control over national borders. State governments consistently grant their citizens free movement to traverse national borders. In contrast, the movement of refugees is often restricted in the name of national interests. This presents a dilemma for liberalism in that liberal theorists are typically committed to both human rights and the existence of sovereign nations.
Some critics find anti-black racism in Arendt's works, including her references to "savages" in Africa and her analysis of the right of white Americans to enforce racial segregation. Arendt wrote of segregation: ‘The right to free association, and therefore to discrimination, has greater validity than the principle of equality," and that therefore there cannot be a right to enter any hotel or recreation area.
In the intended third volume of The Life of Mind, Arendt was planning to engage the faculty of judgment but she did not live to write it. Nevertheless, although her notion of judging remains unknown, Arendt did leave manuscripts (such as Thinking and Moral Considerations and Some Questions on Moral Philosophy) and lectures (Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy) concerning her thoughts on this mental faculty. The first two articles were edited and published by Jerome Kohn, an assistant of Arendt and a director of the Hannah Arendt Center at The New School in New York, and the last was edited and published by Ronald Beiner, professor of political science at the University of Toronto. Her personal library was deposited at Bard College at the Stevenson Library in 1976, and includes approximately 4,000 books, ephemera, and pamphlets from Arendt's last apartment. The college has begun archiving some of the collection digitally, which is available at The Hannah Arendt Collection.
Arendt's life and work are still part of current culture and thought. In 2012 the film Hannah Arendt (film) was produced and distributed depicting the controversy over Arendt's coverage of the Eichmann trial. In 2016 the filmmaker Ada Ushpiz produced a documentary on Hannah Arendt, "Vita Activa: The Spirit of Hannah Arendt." The New York Times designated it a NYT's critics pic. Since the election of Donald Trump to the US Presidency, some journals are resurrecting her ideas to help make sense of the current situation. 
- The asteroid 100027 Hannaharendt is named in her honor.
- The German railway authority operates a Hannah Arendt Express between Karlsruhe and Hanover.
- The Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities at Bard College is named in her honor.
- The Hannah Arendt Center at The New School is named in her honor.
- The Hannah Arendt Institute for the Research on Totalitarianism is named in her honor.
- The Hannah Arendt Prize is named in her honor.
- Various gymnasiums (German high schools) have been dedicated to Arendt.
- The portrait of Hannah Arendt by the photographer Fred Stein has become famous.
- In 2012, a German film titled Hannah Arendt was released, directed by Margarethe von Trotta, and with Barbara Sukowa in the role of Arendt. The film concentrates on the Eichmann trial, and the controversy caused by Arendt's book, which at the time was widely misunderstood as defending Eichmann and blaming Jewish leaders for the Holocaust.
- In 2014, Google Doodle celebrated her 108th birthday.
- In 2014, the French philosopher Michel Onfray devoted a series of lectures broadcast on the national French radio station France Culture to an analysis of the work of Arendt.
- Der Liebesbegriff bei Augustin. Versuch einer philosophischen Interpretation (1929).
- The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951). Revised ed.; New York: Schocken, 2004. (Includes all the prefaces and additions from the 1958, 1968, and 1972 editions.)
- The Human Condition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958).
- Rahel Varnhagen: the life of a Jewess. (German: Rahel Varnhagen: Lebensgeschichte einer deutschen Jüdin aus der Romantik; originally conceived as a habilitation thesis.) Translated by Richard and Clara Winston (1958). Complete ed.; Ed. Liliane Weissberg (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), also in March 2000. 400 pages. ISBN 978-0-8018-6335-6.
- Die ungarische Revolution und der totalitäre Imperialismus (1958).
- Reflections on Little Rock (1959).
- Between Past and Future: Six exercises in political thought (New York: Viking, 1961). (Two more essays were added in 1968.)
- On Revolution (New York: Viking, 1963).
- Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1963). (Rev. ed. New York: Viking, 1968.)
- Men in Dark Times (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1968).
- On Violence. Harvest Books (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1970). (Also included in Crises of the Republic.)
- Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics; Civil Disobedience; On Violence; Thoughts on Politics and Revolution (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1972). "Civil Disobedience" originally appeared, in somewhat different form, in The New Yorker. Versions of the other essays originally appeared in The New York Review of Books.
- The Jew as Pariah: Jewish Identity and Politics in the Modern Age, edited with an introduction by Ron H. Feldman (1978).
- Life of the Mind, unfinished at her death, Ed. Mary McCarthy, 2 vols. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978). ISBN 0-15-107887-4.
- Hannah Arendt / Karl Jaspers Correspondence, 1926–1969. Edited by Lotte Kohler and Hans Saner, translated by Robert Kimber and Rita Kimber (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992).
- Essays in Understanding, 1930-1954: Formation, Exile, and Totalitarianism, Ed. Jerome Kohn (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1994). Paperback reprint edition, September 10, 1983, ISBN 0-300-03099-1. Paperback ed. (New York: Schocken, 2005).
- Love and Saint Augustine. Edited with an Interpretive Essay by Joanna Vecchiarelli Scott and Judith Chelius Scott (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996/1998).
- Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy. Edited and with an Interpretive Essay by Ronald Beiner (The University of Chicago Press, 1992).
- Within Four Walls: The Correspondence between Hannah Arendt and Heinrich Blücher, 1936–1968. Edited by Lotte Kohler, translated by Peter Constantine (New York: Harcourt, 1996).
- Responsibility and Judgment. Edited with an introduction by Jerome Kohn (New York: Schocken, 2003).
- Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger. Letters, 1925–1975, Ed. Ursula Ludz, translated Andrew Shields (New York: Harcourt, 2004).
- The Promise of Politics. Edited with an Introduction by Jerome Kohn (New York: Schocken, 2005).
- Arendt und Benjamin: Texte, Briefe, Dokumente. Edited by Detlev Schöttker and Erdmut Wizisla (2006).
- The Jewish Writings. Edited by Jerome Kohn and Ron H. Feldman. Schocken Books (2007).
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- Hannah Arendt, white supremacist The Jerusalem Post, June 5, 2016
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- Honkasalo, Julian (2016). Sisterhood, Natality, Queer: Reframing Feminist Interpretations of Hannah Arendt (Ph.D. thesis). Helsinki: University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-951-51-1895-0.
- Shenhav, Yehouda (2013) “Beyond ‘instrumental rationality’: Lord Cromer and the imperial roots of Eichmann’s bureaucracy”. Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 15, Issue 4, pp: 379–399
- "Hannah Arendt, Adolf Eichmann, and how Evil Isn't Banal" online lecture by Dr. Yaacov Lozowick, former Director of the Yad Vashem Archives
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- Sheldon, Garrett Ward. The History of Political Theory: Ancient Greece to Modern America. Peter Lang Publishing (2007); ISBN 978-0-8204-0848-4 (hbk)/ISBN 978-0-8204-2300-5 (pbk)
- Avineri, Shlomo. "Where Hannah Arendt Went Wrong", Haaretz, 10 March 2010.
- Benhabib, Seyla. The Reluctant Modernism of Hannah Arendt. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2003. ISBN 978-0-7425-2151-3
- Nedelsky, Jennifer & Ronald Beiner, ed. Judgment, Imagination, and Politics: Themes from Kant and Arendt. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2001; ISBN 978-0-8476-9971-1
- Birmingham, Peg. Hannah Arendt and Human Rights: The Predicament of Common Responsibility. Indian University Press (2006); ISBN 978-0-253-21865-0
- Passerin d'Entrèves, Maurizio. The Political Philosophy of Hannah Arendt. New York: Routledge, 1994; ISBN 978-0-415-08790-2
- Keen, David. 2007. Learning About the Iraq War from Hannah Arendt. Counterpunch. 24 September 2007.
- Jakopovich, Daniel. Hannah Arendt and Nonviolence, Peace Studies Journal, Volume 2, Issue 1, Fall 2009
- Berkowitz, Roger & Thomas Keenan, Jeffrey Katz, ed. Thinking in Dark Times: Hannah Arendt on Ethics and Politics Fordham University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-0-8232-3076-1
- Susan, Visvanathan. "Hannah Arendt and the Problem of our Age", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol XXXVI No. 16, 21 April 2001
- Zamora, J.A. y Arribas, S. (Coord). "Hannah Arendt. Pensar en tiempos sombríos.". Arbor, Vol 186, No 742 (2010). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. doi:10.3989/arbor.2010.i742 (in Spanish).
- Hansen, Phillip Birger. Hannah Arendt: politics, history and citizenship. Stanford University Press, 1993; ISBN 978-0-8047-2145-5
- Kopić, Mario. Otkucaji drugoga/The Beats of the Other. Belgrade: Službeni glasnik, 2013; ISBN 978-86-519-1721-2
- Slonem, Marc. Men in Dark Times. The New York Times Book Review, November 17, 1968, p. 6.
- Swift, Simon (2008). Hannah Arendt. Routledge Critical Thinkers. City: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-281-79658-5.
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- Website and bibliography of Hannah Arendt's writings
- Hannah Arendt Center
- "Beware of pity - 'Hannah Arendt and the power of the impersonal'" by Adam Kirsch, The New Yorker, January 12, 2009.
- Hannah Arendt personal papers collection at the Library of Congress contains her personal archive, with scanned portions available on the internet.
- New York Review of Books (subscription-based essays)
- Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- d'Entreves, Maurizio Passerin. "Hannah Arendt". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Hannah Arendt profile, in Paula Hyman and Deborah Dash Moore (eds.), Jewish Women in America. New York: Routledge, 1997.
Works about ArendtEdit
- The Role of Experience in Hannah Arendt's Political Thought: Three Essays by Jerome Kohn
- "Hannah Arendt: Practice, Thought and Judgement"
- Vogel, Lawrence A. (2008). "The Responsibility of Thinking in Dark Times: Hannah Arendt versus Hans Jonas". Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal: 253–293.
- Hannah Arendt on Internet Movie Database, Margarethe von Trotta's 2012 film
- FBI file on Hannah Arendt