Hagen (German pronunciation: [ˈhaːɡn̩] (About this soundlisten)) is the 41st-largest city in Germany. The municipality is located in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is located on the south eastern edge of the Ruhr area, 15 km south of Dortmund, where the rivers Lenne and Volme (met by the river Ennepe) meet the river Ruhr. As of 31 December 2010, the population was 188,529.

Hagen
Old Town Hall (right) and Square. In the center the Volme Galerie (City Mall).
Old Town Hall (right) and Square. In the center the Volme Galerie (City Mall).
Flag of Hagen
Flag
Coat of arms of Hagen
Coat of arms
Location of Hagen
Hagen is located in Germany
Hagen
Hagen
Hagen is located in North Rhine-Westphalia
Hagen
Hagen
Coordinates: 51°22′N 7°29′E / 51.367°N 7.483°E / 51.367; 7.483Coordinates: 51°22′N 7°29′E / 51.367°N 7.483°E / 51.367; 7.483
CountryGermany
StateNorth Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. regionArnsberg
DistrictUrban districts of Germany
Government
 • Lord MayorErik O. Schulz (independent)
Area
 • Total160.4 km2 (61.9 sq mi)
Elevation
106 m (348 ft)
Population
 (2019-12-31)[1]
 • Total188,686
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
58089–58099, 58119, 58135
Dialling codes02331, 02334, 02337, 02304
Vehicle registrationHA
Websitewww.hagen.de

The city is home to the FernUniversität Hagen, which is the only state-funded distance education university in Germany. Counting more than 67,000 students (March 2010), it is the largest university in Germany.[2]

HistoryEdit

Hagen was first mentioned around the year 1200, and is presumed to have been the name of a farm at the confluence of the Volme and the Ennepe rivers. After the conquest of Burg Volmarstein in 1324, Hagen passed to the County of Mark. In 1614 it was awarded to the Margraviate of Brandenburg, according to the Treaty of Xanten. In 1701 it became part of the Kingdom of Prussia.

After the defeat of Prussia in the Fourth Coalition, Hagen was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Berg from 1807–13. In 1815 it became part of the new Prussian Province of Westphalia.

The city developed more rapidly in the 19th century, stimulated by industrialization: the mining of coal and the production of steel in the Ruhr Area. In reaction to the Kapp Putsch in March 1920, when rightists tried to overthrow the elected government and restore the monarchy, tens of thousands of leftist workers in the Ruhr Valley, Germany's most important industrial area, rose up in protest. They were known as the Red Ruhr Army.

 
Memorial to the Ruhr Uprising, Hagen

Thousands of workers went on strike and fought during the Ruhr Uprising, 13 March - 2 April 1920. Government and paramilitary forces were ordered against the workers, suppressing the uprising, and killing an estimated 1,000 workers. A memorial to the uprising was installed in Hagen.

By 1928, Hagen had developed into a city of more than 100,000 inhabitants.[citation needed]

During World War II, Hagen was bombed repeatedly, by both the Royal Air Force and the United States Eighth Air Force. On the night of 1 October 1943, 243 Lancasters and 8 Mosquitoes from the Royal Air Force's Bomber Command attacked the city. According to the Bomber Command Campaign Diary, "This raid was a complete success achieved on a completely cloud-covered target of small size, with only a moderate bomber effort and at trifling cost."[citation needed] Hagen sustained severe damage from that raid, and hundreds of civilians were killed.

After World War II, the city was included in the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, also known as West Germany).[citation needed]

EconomyEdit

Owing to the extensive use of water power along the rivers Ruhr, Lenne, Volme and Ennepe, metal processing played an important role in the region of Hagen in and even before the 15th century.[citation needed] In the 17th and 18th centuries, textile and steel industries, as well as paper production were developed here.[citation needed]

In the early 21st century, Hagen is the home of the Suedwestfaelische Industrie- und Handelskammer, as well as Sparkasse Hagen, the local municipal savings bank. The bank's former headquarters, the Sparkasse Hagen tower, was a regional landmark until its demolition in 2004.[citation needed]

The city is heavily indebted and in the process of cutting city services in order to balance its budget.[citation needed]

The city has capitalized on the export of a wide variety of breads, most notably Hagenschmagenbrot, a traditional dark bread.

EducationEdit

One of the five branches of South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences is located in the city (also: Fachhochschule Südwestfalen (FH SWF)), which offers various engineering programmes. This institution was founded in the city in 1824.

AttractionsEdit

Hagen is home to the LWL-Freilichtmuseum Hagen, or Hagen Westphalian Open-Air Museum, a collection of historic industrial facilities. Trades such as printing, brewing, smithing, milling, and many others are represented, not only with static displays, but as living, working operations that visitors may in some cases participate in. It is located near the Hagen community of Eilpe.

The Historisches Centrum Hagen includes the city museum and Werdringen castle. In the Blätterhöhle cave in Hagen, the oldest fossils of modern people in Westphalia and the Ruhr were found. Some date to the early Mesolithic, 10,700 years B.C.E. It seems that the descendants of Mesolithic people in this area maintained a foraging lifestyle for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies.[3]

 
Panoramic view of Hagen (taken from urban forest of Hagen)

BoroughsEdit

 
Half-timbered houses "Lange Riege" (17th century)
Borough Population
Oct 2007
Area
in km²
Hagen-Mitte 78.952 20.5
Hagen-Nord 38.451 29.6
Hagen-Haspe 30.360 22.2
Hagen-Eilpe/Hagen-Dahl 17.148 51.1
Hagen-Hohenlimburg 31.306 37.0

some localities of Hagen:

DemographicsEdit

The following table shows the largest foreign resident groups in the city of Hagen.[4]

Rank Nationality Population (31.12.2017)
1   Turkey 7,196
2   Italy 3,558
3   Romania 3,175
4   Poland 2,534
5   Bulgaria 1,481
6   Portugal 1,082
7   Kosovo 928
8   Croatia 876
10   Algeria 710
11   Bosnia and Herzegovina 678
12   Morocco 543

Lord mayorsEdit

  • 1946–1956: Fritz Steinhoff (SPD)
  • 1956–1963: Helmut Turck (SPD)
  • 1963–1964: Fritz Steinhoff (SPD)
  • 1964–1971: Lothar Wrede (SPD)
  • 1971–1989: Rudolf Loskand (SPD)
  • 1989: Renate Löchter (SPD)
  • 1989–1999: Dietmar Thieser (SPD)
  • 1999–2004: Wilfried Horn (CDU)
  • 2004–2009: Peter Demnitz (SPD)
  • 2009–2014: Jörg Dehm (CDU)
  • since 2014: Erik O. Schulz (independent)

TrafficEdit

 
Marshalling yard Hagen-Vorhalle

The Autobahnen A1, A45 and A46 touch Hagen.

Hagen has been an important rail junction for the southeastern Ruhr valley since the first rail line opened in 1848. The marshalling yard of Hagen-Vorhalle is among Germany's largest, and the central station offers connections to the ICE network of Deutsche Bahn as well as to local and S-Bahn services. Since December 2005, Hagen has also been the starting point for a new service into Essen, operated by Abellio Deutschland.

Local traffic is handled by Hagener Straßenbahn (Hagen Tramways), which, despite its name, offers only bus services, as the last tramway route in Hagen was abandoned in May 1976. All in all there is a large-scale network of 36 bus lines in Hagen. All local rail and bus services operate under the transport association VRR.

SportEdit

The German Basketball Federation (DBB) is based in Hagen

Sport clubs in Hagen:

International relationsEdit

Hagen is twinned with the following towns:

PersonalitiesEdit

 
Karl Ernst Osthaus 1902
 
Friedrich Harkort around 1820

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2019" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-23. Retrieved 2010-10-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "2000 Years of Parallel Societies in Stone Age Central Europe." Ruth Bollongino, Olaf Nehlich, Michael P. Richards, Jörg Orschiedt, Mark G. Thomas, Christian Sell, Zuzana Fajkošová, Adam Powell, Joachim Burger. Science. Published Online October 10, 2013. DOI: 10.1126/science.1245049 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2013/10/09/science.1245049
  4. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2013". Westfalenpost. Retrieved 2016-04-23.

External linksEdit