Intercontinental Cup (football)

  (Redirected from European/South American Cup)

The Intercontinental Cup, rebranded as Toyota European/South American Cup from 1980 to 2004 after a sponsorship agreement with the automaker, was an international football competition endorsed by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and the Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL),[1][2] contested between representative clubs from these confederations (representatives of most developed continents in the football world), usually the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the South American Copa Libertadores. It ran from 1960 to 2004, when it was succeeded by the FIFA Club World Cup, although they both ran concurrently in 1999–2000.

Intercontinental Cup
European/South American Cup Toyota Cup
Intercontinental cup.png
The trophy given to the winners
Organising bodyUEFA
CONMEBOL
Founded1960
Abolished2004
RegionEurope
South America
Number of teams2
Related competitionsUEFA Champions League
Copa Libertadores
International cup(s)13
Last championsPortugal Porto
(2nd title)
Most successful club(s)Argentina Boca Juniors
Italy AC Milan
Uruguay Nacional
Uruguay Peñarol
Spain Real Madrid
(3 titles each)

From its formation in 1960 to 1979, the competition was as a two-legged tie, with a playoff if necessary until 1968, and penalty kicks later. During the 1970s, European participation in the Intercontinental Cup became a running question due to controversial events in the 1969 final,[3] and some European Cup-winning teams withdrew.[4] From 1980, the competition was contested as a single match played in Japan and sponsored by multinational automaker Toyota, which offered a secondary trophy, the Toyota Cup.[5] At that point, the Japan Football Association was involved at logistic level as host,[6] though it continued to be endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL.[7][8]

The first winner of the cup was Spanish side Real Madrid, who beat Peñarol of Uruguay in 1960. The last winner was Portuguese side Porto, defeating Colombian side Once Caldas in a penalty shoot-out in 2004. The competition ended in 2004 and it merged with the FIFA Club World Cup in 2005.[9]

HistoryEdit

BeginningsEdit

According to Brazilian newspaper Tribuna de Imprensa in 1958, the idea for the Intercontinental Cup rose in 1958 in a conversation between the then president of the Brazilian FA João Havelange and French journalist Jacques Goddet.[10] The first mention of the creation of the Intercontinental and Libertadores Cups was published by Brazilian and Spanish newspapers on 9 October 1958, referring to Havelange's announcement of the project to create such competitions, which he uttered during a UEFA meeting he attended as an invitee.[11][12][13][14] Prior to this announcement, the reigning European champions Real Madrid C.F. played just one intercontinental club competition, the 1957 Tournoi de Paris (they played also the 1956 Pequeña Copa, but they scheduled their participation in it before becoming European champions).[15] According to a French video record of the highlights of the 1957 Tournoi final match, between Real Madrid C.F. and CR Vasco da Gama, this was the first match ever dubbed as "the best team of Europe vs. the best team of South America", as Madrid was the European champions and Vasco was the "Brazilian" (in fact, Rio de Janeiro) champions,[16][17] having this match been held at Parc des Princes, then managed by the aforementioned Jacques Goddet, and for these reasons CR Vasco da Gama executives have claimed that the 1957 match and the 1958 FIFA World Cup Brazilian victory have influenced the Europeans on the importance of South American football, and thus the idea in 1958 for the creation of the Intercontinental Cup[18] (the Madrid team declined to participate in the 1958 Paris Tournoi for it was held just 5 days before the final of the 1957/1958 European Cup).[19] The Madrid-Vasco 1957 match was described as "being like a club world cup match" by the Brazilian press,[20][21] as was a June 1959 friendly between Real Madrid and Torneio Rio – São Paulo champions Santos FC, which Real Madrid won 5–3.[22]

Created in 1960 at the initiative of the European confederation (UEFA), with CONMEBOL's support, the European/South American Cup, known also as the Intercontinental Cup, was contested by the holders of the European Champion Clubs' Cup and the winners of its newly established South American equivalent, the Copa Libertadores. The competition was not endorsed by FIFA,[23] and in 1961 FIFA refused to allow it to take place unless the participants gave it a "private friendly match" status.[24] However, the competition went on regardless, with the endorsement of UEFA and CONMEBOL, both of whom include every edition of the competition in their records.[25][26][27] It was the brainchild of UEFA president Henri Delaunay, who also helped Jules Rimet in the realisation of the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930.[28][29] Initially played over two legs, with a third match if required in the early years (when goal difference did not count), the competition had a rather turbulent existence. The first winners of the competition were Spanish club Real Madrid. Real Madrid managed to hold Uruguayan side Peñarol 0–0 in Montevideo and trounce the South Americans 5–1 in Madrid to win.[30][31][32]

After the victory of Real Madrid in the first edition of the Intercontinental Cup, Barcelona newspaper El Mundo Deportivo hailed the Madrid team as the First World Champion Club, on the one hand pointing out that the competition "did not include Africans, Asians and other countries part to FIFA", on the other hand expressing doubt that these regions might present football of the same high quality of Europe and South America.[33] The Spaniards titled themselves world champions until FIFA stepped in and objected; citing that the competition did not include any other champions from the other confederations, FIFA stated that they can only claim to be intercontinental champions of a competition played between two organisations.[34] Peñarol would appear again the following year and come out victorious after beating Portuguese club Benfica on the playoff; after a 1–0 win by the Europeans in Lisboa and a 5–0 trashing by the South Americans, a playoff at the Estadio Centenario saw the home side squeeze a 2–1 win to become the first South American side to win the competition.[35][36][37]

In 1962 the tournament grew more in worldwide attention after it was swept through the sublime football of a Santos team led by Pelé, considered by some the best club team of all times.[38] Os Santásticos, also known as O Balé Branco (or white ballet), which dazzled the world during that time and containing stars such as Gilmar, Mauro, Mengálvio, Coutinho, and Pepe, won the title after defeating Benfica 3–2 in Rio de Janeiro and thrashing the Europeans 2–5 in their Estádio da Luz.[39][40][41] Santos would successfully defend the title in 1963 after being pushed all the way by Milan. After each side won 4–2 at their respective home legs, a playoff match at the Maracanã saw Santos keep the title after a tight 1–0 victory.[39][42] The competition attracted the interest of other continents. The North and Central America confederation, CONCACAF, was created, among other reasons, to attempt the participation of North-Central-American clubs in Copa Libertadores, and thus in the Intercontinental Cup.[41][43] Milan's fierce rivals, Internazionale, would go on to win the 1964 and 1965 editions, beating Argentine club Independiente on both occasions.[44][45][46][47][48] Peñarol gained revenge for their loss in 1960 by crushing Real Madrid 4–0 in aggregate in 1966.[37][49][50]

Rioplatense violenceEdit

However, as a result of the violence often practised in the Copa Libertadores by Argentine and Uruguayan clubs during the 1960s,[51] disagreements with CONMEBOL, the lack of financial incentives and the violent, brutal and controversial way the Brazilian national team was treated in the 1966 FIFA World Cup by European teams, Brazilian football—including its club sides—declined to participate in international competitions in the late 1960s, including the Copa Libertadores and consequently the Intercontinental Cup. During this time, the competition became dogged by foul play.[52] Calendar problems, acts of brutality, even on the pitch, and boycotts tarnished its image, to the point of bringing into question the wisdom of organising it at all.

The 1967 game between Argentina's Racing Club and Scotland's Celtic was a violent affair, with the third decisive game being dubbed "The Battle of Montevideo" after three players from the Scottish side and two from the Argentine side were sent off. A fourth Celtic player was also dismissed near the end of the game, but amid the chaos he got away with staying on.[53][54][55][56]

 
A.C. Milan's Néstor Combin was left bloodied and unconscious after a brutal series against Estudiantes de La Plata

The following season, Argentine side Estudiantes de La Plata faced England's Manchester United in which the return leg saw Estudiantes come out on top of a bad-tempered series.[57][58][59] But it was the events of 1969 which damaged the competition's integrity.[60] After a 3–0 win at San Siro, Milan went to Buenos Aires to play Estudiantes at La Bombonera.[61][62][63] Estudiantes' players booted balls at the Milan team as they warmed up and hot coffee was poured on the Italians as they emerged from the tunnel by Estudiantes' fans. Estudiantes resorted to inflicting elbows and allegedly even needles at the Milanese team in order to intimidate them. Pierino Prati was knocked unconscious and continued for a further 20 minutes despite suffering from a mild concussion. Estudiantes goalkeeper Alberto Poletti also punched Gianni Rivera, but the most vicious treatment was reserved for Néstor Combin, an Argentinean-born striker, who had faced accusations of being a traitor as he was on the opposite side of the intercontinental match.[60][64][65]

Combin was kicked in the face by Poletti and later had his nose and cheekbone broken by the elbow of Ramón Aguirre Suárez. Bloodied and broken, Combin was asked to return to the pitch by the referee but fainted. While unconscious, Combin was arrested by Argentine police on a charge of draft dodging, having not undertaken military service in the country. The player was forced to spend a night in the cells, eventually being released after explaining he had fulfilled national service requirements as a French citizen.[60] Estudiantes won the game 2–1 but Milan took the title on aggregate.[60][63][64][65]

Italian newspaper Gazzetta dello Sport dubbed it "Ninety minutes of a man-hunt". The Argentinean press responded with "The English were right" – a reference to Alf Ramsey's famous description of the Argentina national football team as "animals" during the 1966 FIFA World Cup.[60][64][65] The Argentinean Football Association (AFA), under heavy international pressure, took stern action. Argentina's President, military dictator Juan Carlos Onganía, summoned Estudiantes delegate Oscar Ferrari and demanded "the severest appropriate measures in defence of the good name of the national sport. [It was a] lamentable spectacle which breached most norms of sporting ethics".[60][64][65] Poletti was banned from the sport for life, Suárez was banned for 30 games, and Eduardo Manera for 20 with the former and latter serving a month in jail.[60]

DegradationEdit

Due to the brutality in the 1967 edition, FIFA was called into providing penalties and regulating the tournament. However, FIFA stated that it could not stipulate regulations in a competition that it did not organise. Though the competition was endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL, René Courte, FIFA's General Sub-Secretary, wrote an article shortly afterwards (1967) stating that FIFA viewed the competition as a "European-South American friendly match".[66] Courte's statement was endorsed by then–FIFA president Sir Stanley Rous, who then stated that FIFA saw the Intercontinental Cup as a friendly match.[67][68][69][70] After these controversial statements, Madrid newspaper ABC then pointed out that, though the Intercontinental Cup was not endorsed by FIFA, it was endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL, therefore being an "intercontinental jurisdiction" cup.[71] However, with the Asian and North-Central-American/Caribbean club competitions in place, FIFA opened the idea of supervising the Intercontinental Cup if it included those confederations, which was met with a negative response from its participating confederations, UEFA and CONMEBOL. According to Stanley Rous, CONCACAF and the Asian Football Confederation had requested, in 1967, their participation in the Intercontinental Cup, which was rejected by UEFA and CONMEBOL. In 1970, the FIFA Executive Committee gathering put forward, unsuccessfully, a proposal for the expansion of the Intercontinental Cup into a Club World Cup with representative clubs of every existing continental confederation.[72][73][74][75][76][77] Nevertheless, some European champions started to decline participation in the tournament after the events of 1969.[78]

Estudiantes would face Dutch side Feyenoord the following season, which saw the Europeans victorious. Oscar Malbernat ripped off Joop van Daele's glasses and trampled on them claiming that he was "not allowed to play with glasses".[79][80][81][82] Dutch side Ajax, European champions of 1971, would decline to face Uruguay's Nacional due to violence in previous editions, which resulted in European Cup runners-up, Greek side Panathinaikos, participating.[83][84][85] Ajax fears about Nacional's brutal game were confirmed. In the first game in Athens, Uruguayian striker Julio Morales broke the leg of Yiannis Tomaras with a brutal blow. According to the Greek press of the time, the sound of the fracture was heard up to the stands. The Greek defender collapsed on the ground and was transported unconscious out of the field. The medical diagnosis was a fracture of the tibia and fibula, an injury that effectively ended his career.[86] Nacional won the series 3–2 on aggregate.[83][84][85][87]

 
Dutch team Ajax won the 1972 series v. Argentine club Independiente

Ajax participated in 1972 against Independiente.[88][89][90] The team's arrival at Buenos Aires was extremely hostile: Johan Cruyff received several death threats from Independiente's local fan firms.[91] Due to the indifference from the Argentine police, Ajax manager Ştefan Kovács appointed an organised emergency security detail for the Nederlandse meester, headed by himself and team member Barry Hulshoff, described as a big and burly man.[91] In the first leg, Cruyff opened the scoring in Avellaneda at the 5th minute. As a result, Dante Mircoli retaliated with a vicious tackle a couple of minutes later; Cruyff was too injured to continue and the Dutch team found themselves being assaulted with tackles and punches.[88][89][90] Kovács had to convince his team to play on during half-time as his players wanted to withdraw.[88][89][90] Ajax squeezed a 1–1 tie and followed up with a 3–0 trounce in Amsterdam to win the Cup.[88][89][90][92] Although Ajax were the defending champions, they again declined to participate a year later after Independiente won the Libertadores again, leaving it to Juventus, European Cup runners-up, to play a single-match final won by the Argentines.[89][90][93][94]

Also in 1973, French newspaper L'Équipe, which helped to bring about the birth of the European Cup, volunteered to sponsor a Club World Cup contested by the champions of Europe, South America, Central and North America and Africa, the only continental club tournaments in existence at the time; the competition was to potentially take place in Paris between September and October 1974 with an eventual final to be held at the Parc des Princes.[78][95][96][97] The proposal, supported by the South Americans,[78] was dismissed due to the negativity of the Europeans.[97] In 1974, João Havelange was elected FIFA president, having made the proposal, among others, of creating a multicontinental Club World Cup. In 1975, L'Équipe once again made its 1973 proposal, again to no avail.

West German club Bayern Munich also declined to play in 1974 as Independiente again qualified to participate.[98][99][100][101] European Cup runners-up Atlético Madrid from Spain won the competition 2–1 on aggregate.[98][99] Once again, Independiente qualified to participate in 1975; this time, both finalists of the European Cup declined to participate and the competition was not played.[102] That same year, L'Équipe tried, once again, to create a Club World Cup, in which the participants would have been: the four semifinalists of the European Cup, both finalists of the Copa Libertadores, as well as the African and Asian champions. However, UEFA declined once again and the proposal failed.[103]

In 1976, when Brazilian side Cruzeiro won the Copa Libertadores, the European champions Bayern Munich willingly participated, with the Bavarians winning 2–0 on aggregate. In an interview with Jornal do Brasil, Bayern's manager Dettmar Cramer denied that Bayern's refusal to dispute the 1974 and 1975 Intercontinental Cups were a result of the rivals being Argentine teams. He claimed it was a scheduling impossibility, rather, which kept the Germans from participating. He also stated that the competition was not economically rewarding due to the team's fan base's disinterest in the Cup. To cover the costs of playing the first leg in Munich's Olympiastadion, the organizers needed to have a minimum of 25,000 spectators. However, due to heavy snow and cold weather, only 18,000 showed up. Because of this deficit, Cramer stated that if Bayern were to win the European Cup again, they would decline to participate as it held no assurances of income.[104]

 
Argentine Boca Juniors played West German Borussia Mönchengladbach after European champions Liverpool declined to participate in the 1977 edition

Argentine side Boca Juniors qualified for the 1977 and 1978 editions, for which the European champions, English club Liverpool, declined to participate on both occasions. In 1977, Boca Juniors defeated European Cup runners-up, German club Borussia Mönchengladbach, 5–2 on aggregate.[105][106][107][108] Boca Juniors declined to face Belgian club Brugge in 1978 leaving that edition undisputed.[102] Paraguay's Olimpia won the 1979 edition against European Cup runners-up, Swedish side Malmö FF, after winning both legs.[109][110][111][112] However, the competition had greatly declined in prestige. After the 0–1 win of the South Americans in the first leg at Malmö, which saw fewer than 5,000 Swedish fans turn up, Spanish newspaper El Mundo Deportivo called the Cup "a dog without an owner".[78]

The truth is that the Intercontinental Cup is an adventitious competition without foundation.[clarification needed] It has no known owner, it depends on a strange consensus and the interested clubs are not tempted to risk much for so little money, as evidenced by the attendance at the game in Malmö, played, of course, in absence of this year's champion, Nottingham Forest, by the Swedish team, finalist in one of the most boring and worst games played to cap off the European Cup since 1956.

Spanish newspaper El Mundo Deportivo[78]

According to Brazilian newspaper O Estado de São Paulo, the deal for the establishment of the Interamerican Cup was made in 1968 by CONMEBOL and CONCACAF, and established that the Interamerican Cup champion club would be entitled to represent the American continent in the Intercontinental Cup.[113] According to the Mexican newspapers, after winning the 1977 and 1980 editions of the Interamerican Cup, Mexican clubs América and PUMAS Unam, and the Mexican Football Association, demanded, unsuccessfully, to participate in the Intercontinental Cup, either by representing the American continent against the European champions or by creating a UEFA-CONMEBOL-CONCACAF tournament.[114][115][116]

Rebirth in JapanEdit

 
Uruguayan club Nacional won the first edition held in Japan, 1980

Seeing the deterioration of the Intercontinental Cup, Japanese motor corporation Toyota took the competition under its wing. It created contractual obligations to have the Intercontinental Cup played in Japan once a year in which every club participating were obliged to participate or face legal consequences. This modern format breathed new air into the competition which saw a new trophy handed out along with the Intercontinental Cup, the Toyota Cup.

 
The Toyota Cup (delivered together with the Intercontinental Cup) in the FC Porto museum

In order to protect themselves against the possibility of European withdrawals, Toyota, UEFA and every European Cup participant signed annual contracts requiring the eventual winners of the European Cup to participate at the Intercontinental Cup—as a condition UEFA stipulated to the clubs' participation in the European Cup—or risk facing an international lawsuit from UEFA and Toyota.[117]

The first Toyota Cup was held in 1980 which saw Uruguay's Nacional triumph over Nottingham Forest. The 1980s saw a domination by South American sides as Brazil's Flamengo and Grêmio, Uruguay's Nacional and Peñarol, Argentina's Independiente and River Plate take the spoils once each after Nacional's victory in 1980. Only Juventus, Porto and Milan managed to bring the trophy to the European continent.

In that decade, the English Football Association tried organising a Club World Cup sponsored by promoting company West Nally only to be shot down by UEFA.[118]

The 1990s proved to be a decade dominated by European teams, as Milan, Red Star Belgrade, Ajax, Juventus, Real Madrid, Manchester United, and newcomers Borussia Dortmund of Germany were fuelled to victory by their economic powers and heavy poaching of South American stars. Only three titles went to South America, as São Paulo and Argentina's Vélez Sársfield came out the winners, each of them defeating Milan, with São Paulo's inaugural win being over Barcelona.

The 2000s would see Boca Juniors win the competition twice for South America, while European victories came from Bayern Munich, Real Madrid, and Porto. The 2004 Intercontinental Cup proved to be the last edition, as the competition was merged with the FIFA Club World Cup.

International participationEdit

All the winning teams from Intercontinental Cup were regarded as de facto "world club champions".[119][120][121][122] According to some texts on FIFA.com, due to the superiority at sporting level of the European and South American clubs to the rest of the world, reflected earlier in the tournament for national teams, the winning clubs of the Intercontinental Cup were named world champions and can claim to be symbolic World champions,[123][124] in a "symbolic" club world championship,[125] while the FIFA Club World Cup would have another dimension,[126] as the "true" world club showdown,[127][128][129] created because, with the passage of time and the development of football outside Europe and South America, it had become "unrealistic" to continue to confer the symbolic title of world champion upon the winners of the Intercontinental Cup,[130] the idea to expand it being mentioned for the first time in 1967 by Stanley Rous as CONCACAF and the AFC had established their continental club competitions and requested the participation,[70][72][73][74][75][76][77] an expansion that was to occur only in 2000 through the 2000 FIFA Club World Championship. Nevertheless, some European champions started to decline participation in the tournament after the events of 1969.[78] Though "symbolic" or de facto as a club world championship,[27] the Intercontinental Cup has always been an official title at interconfederation level, with both UEFA and CONMEBOL having always considered all editions of the competition as part of their honours.[7][8]

FIFA recognitionEdit

Throughout the history of football, various attempts have been made to organise a tournament that identifies "the best club team in the world" – such as the Football World Championship, the Lipton Trophy, the Copa Rio, the Pequeña Copa del Mundo and the International Soccer League– due to FIFA's lack of interest or inability to organise club competitions,[131] – the Intercontinental Cup is considered by FIFA as the predecessor[132] to the FIFA Club World Cup, which was held for the first time in 2000.

On 27 October 2017, the FIFA Council, while not promoting statistical unification between the Intercontinental Cup and the Club World Cup, in respect to the history of the two tournaments[133] (which merged in 2005),[9] has made official (de jure) the world title of the Intercontinental Cup, recognising all the winners as club world champions,[134][135][136][137][138][139][140][141][142] with the same title of the FIFA Club World Cup winners, or "FIFA Club World Champions".[143][137][144][140][145][146][142][147][141]

FIFA recognises the Intercontinental Cup as the sole direct predecessor of the Club World Cup, and the champions of both aforementioned competitions are the only ones uncontroversially officially recognised by FIFA as Club World Champions, as seen in the FIFA Club World Cup Statistical Kit, the official document of FIFA's club competition.

TrophyEdit

The competition trophy bears the words "Coupe Européenne-Sudamericaine" ("European-South American Cup") at the top. At the base of the trophy, there is the round logo of UEFA and a map of South America in a circle.

During the sponsorship by Toyota, the competition awarded an additional trophy, entitled "Toyota Cup", usually given to the winning team's vice-captain.

Cup formatEdit

From 1960 to 1979, the Intercontinental Cup was played in two legs. Between 1960 and 1968, the cup was decided on points only, the same format used by CONMEBOL to determine the winner of the Copa Libertadores final through 1987. Because of this format, a third match was needed when both teams were equal on points. Commonly this match was host by the continent where the last game of the series was played. From 1969 through 1979, the competition adopted the European standard method of aggregate score, with away goals.

Starting in 1980, the final became a single match. Up until 2001, the matches were held at Tokyo's National Stadium. Finals since 2002 were held at the Yokohama International Stadium, also the venue of the 2002 FIFA World Cup final.

ResultsEdit

Key
Match was won during extra time
Match was won on a penalty shoot-out
Play-off match where teams were tied on points (1 win and 1 defeat each)
# European runner-up contested in place of European champion
Year Country Winners Score Runners-up Country Venue Location Refs
1960   ESP Real Madrid 0–0 Peñarol   URU Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay [148]
5–1 Santiago Bernabéu Stadium Madrid, Spain
1961   URU Peñarol 0–1 Benfica   POR Estádio da Luz Lisbon, Portugal [149]
5–0 Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
2–1 Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1962   BRA Santos 3–2 Benfica   POR Estádio do Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [150]
5–2 Estádio da Luz Lisbon, Portugal
1963   BRA Santos 2–4 AC Milan   ITA San Siro Milan, Italy [151]
4–2 Estádio do Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1–0 Estádio do Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1964   ITA Internazionale 0–1 Independiente   ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina [152]
2–0 San Siro Milan, Italy
1–0 (a.e.t.) Santiago Bernabéu Stadium Madrid, Spain
1965   ITA Internazionale 3–0 Independiente   ARG San Siro Milan, Italy [153]
0–0 La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina
1966   URU Peñarol 2–0 Real Madrid   ESP Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay [154]
2–0 Santiago Bernabéu Stadium Madrid, Spain
1967   ARG Racing 0–1 Celtic   SCO Hampden Park Glasgow, Scotland [155]
2–1 El Cilindro Avellaneda, Argentina
1–0 Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1968   ARG Estudiantes 1–0 Manchester United   ENG Estadio Boca Juniors Buenos Aires, Argentina [156]
1–1 Old Trafford Manchester, England
1969   ITA AC Milan 3–0 Estudiantes   ARG San Siro Milan, Italy [157]
1–2 Estadio Boca Juniors Buenos Aires, Argentina
1970   NED Feyenoord 2–2 Estudiantes   ARG Estadio Boca Juniors Buenos Aires, Argentina [158]
1–0 De Kuip Rotterdam, Netherlands
1971   URU Nacional 1–1 Panathinaikos#1[159]   GRE Karaiskakis Stadium Piraeus, Greece [160]
2–1 Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1972   NED Ajax 1–1 Independiente   ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina [161]
3–0 Olympic Stadium Amsterdam, Netherlands
1973   ARG Independiente 1–0 Juventus#2[162]   ITA Stadio Olimpico Rome, Italy [163]
1974   ESP Atlético Madrid#3[164] 0–1 Independiente   ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina [165]
2–0 Estadio Vicente Calderón Madrid, Spain
1975   Bayern Munich and   Independiente could not arrange for the game to be played. [166]
1976   FRG Bayern Munich 2–0 Cruzeiro   BRA Olympiastadion Munich, West Germany [167]
0–0 Mineirão Belo Horizonte, Brazil
1977   ARG Boca Juniors 2–2 Borussia Mönchengladbach#4[168]   FRG Estadio Boca Juniors Buenos Aires, Argentina [169]
3–0 Wildparkstadion Karlsruhe, West Germany
1978   Liverpool and   Boca Juniors declined to play each other. [166]
1979   PAR Olimpia 1–0 Malmö FF#5[170]   SWE Malmö Stadion Malmö, Sweden [171]
2–1 Defensores del Chaco Asunción, Paraguay
1980   URU Nacional 1–0 Nottingham Forest   ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [172]
1981   BRA Flamengo 3–0 Liverpool   ENG [173]
1982   URU Peñarol 2–0 Aston Villa   ENG [174]
1983   BRA Grêmio 2–1 (a.e.t.) Hamburger SV   FRG [175]
1984   ARG Independiente 1–0 Liverpool   ENG [176]
1985   ITA Juventus 2–2 (a.e.t.) (4–2 p) Argentinos Juniors   ARG [177]
1986   ARG River Plate 1–0 Steaua București   ROU [178]
1987   POR Porto 2–1 (a.e.t.) Peñarol   URU [179]
1988   URU Nacional 2–2 (a.e.t.) (7–6 p) PSV Eindhoven   NED [180]
1989   ITA AC Milan 1–0 (a.e.t.) Atlético Nacional   COL [181]
1990   ITA AC Milan 3–0 Olimpia   PAR [182]
1991   YUG Red Star Belgrade 3–0 Colo-Colo   CHI [183]
1992   BRA São Paulo 2–1 Barcelona   ESP [184]
1993   BRA São Paulo 3–2 AC Milan#6[185]   ITA [186]
1994   ARG Vélez Sársfield 2–0 AC Milan   ITA [187]
1995   NED Ajax 0–0 (a.e.t.) (4–3 p) Grêmio   BRA [188]
1996   ITA Juventus 1–0 River Plate   ARG [189]
1997   GER Borussia Dortmund 2–0 Cruzeiro   BRA [190]
1998   ESP Real Madrid 2–1 Vasco da Gama   BRA [191]
1999   ENG Manchester United 1–0 Palmeiras   BRA [192]
2000   ARG Boca Juniors 2–1 Real Madrid   ESP [193]
2001   GER Bayern Munich 1–0 (a.e.t.) Boca Juniors   ARG [194]
2002   ESP Real Madrid 2–0 Olimpia   PAR International Stadium Yokohama, Japan [195]
2003   ARG Boca Juniors 1–1 (a.e.t.) (3–1 p) AC Milan   ITA [196]
2004   POR Porto 0–0 (a.e.t.) (8–7 p) Once Caldas   COL [197]

NotesEdit

PerformancesEdit

The performance of various clubs is shown in the following tables:[166][200]

Performance by clubEdit

Club Winners Runners-up Winning years Runner-up years
  AC Milan 3 4 1969, 1989, 1990 1963, 1993, 1994, 2003
  Peñarol 3 2 1961, 1966, 1982 1960, 1987
  Real Madrid 3 2 1960, 1998, 2002 1966, 2000
  Boca Juniors 3 1 1977, 2000, 2003 2001
  Nacional 3 1971, 1980, 1988
  Independiente 2 4 1973, 1984 1964, 1965, 1972, 1974
  Juventus 2 1 1985, 1996 1973
  Santos 2 1962, 1963
  Internazionale 2 1964, 1965
  São Paulo 2 1992, 1993
  Ajax 2 1972, 1995
  Bayern Munich 2 1976, 2001
  Porto 2 1987, 2004
  Estudiantes 1 2 1968 1969, 1970
  Olimpia 1 2 1979 1990, 2002
  Grêmio 1 1 1983 1995
  River Plate 1 1 1986 1996
  Manchester United 1 1 1999 1968
  Racing 1 1967
  Feyenoord 1 1970
  Atlético Madrid 1 1974
  Flamengo 1 1981
  Red Star Belgrade 1 1991
  Vélez Sarsfield 1 1994
  Borussia Dortmund 1 1997
  Benfica 2 1961, 1962
  Liverpool 2 1981, 1984
  Cruzeiro 2 1976, 1997
  Celtic 1 1967
  Panathinaikos 1 1971
  Borussia Mönchengladbach 1 1977
  Malmö FF 1 1979
  Nottingham Forest 1 1980
  Aston Villa 1 1982
  Hamburger SV 1 1983
  Argentinos Juniors 1 1985
  Steaua București 1 1986
  PSV Eindhoven 1 1988
  Atlético Nacional 1 1989
  Colo-Colo 1 1991
  Barcelona 1 1992
  Vasco da Gama 1 1998
  Palmeiras 1 1999
  Once Caldas 1 2004

Performance by countryEdit

Country Winners Runners-up Winning clubs Winning years
  Argentina 9 9 Boca Juniors, Independiente, Estudiantes, River Plate, Racing Club, Vélez Sarsfield 1967, 1968, 1973, 1977, 1984, 1986, 1994, 2000, 2003
  Italy 7 5 AC Milan, Juventus, Internazionale 1964, 1965, 1969, 1985, 1989, 1990, 1996
  Brazil 6 5 Santos, São Paulo, Grêmio, Flamengo 1962, 1963, 1981, 1983, 1992, 1993
  Uruguay 6 2 Peñarol, Nacional 1961, 1966, 1971, 1980, 1982, 1988
  Spain 4 3 Real Madrid, Atlético Madrid 1960, 1974, 1998, 2002
  Germany 3 2 Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund 1976, 1997, 2001
  Netherlands 3 1 Ajax, Feyenoord 1970, 1972, 1995
  Portugal 2 2 Porto 1987, 2004
  England 1 5 Manchester United 1999
  Paraguay 1 2 Olimpia 1979
  Yugoslavia 1 Red Star Belgrade 1991
  Colombia 2
  Scotland 1
  Greece 1
  Sweden 1
  Romania 1
  Chile 1

Performance by confederationEdit

Confederation Winners Runners-up Winning clubs Winning countries
CONMEBOL 22 21 13 4
UEFA 21 22 12 7

NotesEdit

  • After the events of the 1969 Intercontinental Cup, many European Cup champions refused to play in the Intercontinental Cup. On five occasions, they were replaced by the tournaments' runners-up. Additionally, two Intercontinental Cups were called off after runners-up, too, declined to participate.[198]

CoachesEdit

PlayersEdit

All-time top scorersEdit

 
Pelé is the all-time top goalscorer in Intercontinental Cup's history with 7 goals in 3 matches
  • Pelé is the all-time top scorer in the competition having scored seven goals in three matches.
  • Only six players scored at least three goals in the Intercontinental Cup.[205]
Player Club Goals Apps Years
  Pelé   Santos 7 3 1962, 1963
  Alberto Spencer   Peñarol 6 6 1960, 1961, 1966
  Luis Artime   Nacional 3 2 1971
  José Sasía   Peñarol 3 3 1961
  Santana   Benfica 3 4 1961, 1962
  Sandro Mazzola   Internazionale 3 4 1964, 1965

Hat-tricksEdit

  • Pelé is the only player in the history of the competition to have scored a hat-trick (Lisbon, 1962, second leg, against Benfica).
Player Nation Club Opponent Goals Goal times Score Tournament Round Date
Pelé   Brazil   Santos   Benfica 3   15'25'64' 5–2 1962 Intercontinental Cup Second leg 11 October 1962

Man of the MatchEdit

 
Martín Palermo, the Man of the Match in 2000

The man of the match was selected since 1980. Here is the list of the winners.[206]

Year Player Club
1980   Waldemar Victorino   Nacional
1981   Zico   Flamengo
1982   Jair   Peñarol
1983   Renato Gaúcho   Grêmio
1984   José Percudani   Independiente
1985   Michel Platini   Juventus
1986   Antonio Alzamendi   River Plate
1987   Rabah Madjer   Porto
1988   Santiago Ostolaza   Nacional
1989   Alberigo Evani   AC Milan
1990   Frank Rijkaard   AC Milan
1991   Vladimir Jugović   Red Star Belgrade
1992   Raí   São Paulo
1993   Toninho Cerezo   São Paulo
1994   Omar Asad   Vélez Sársfield
1995   Danny Blind   Ajax
1996   Alessandro Del Piero   Juventus
1997   Andreas Möller   Borussia Dortmund
1998   Raúl   Real Madrid
1999   Ryan Giggs   Manchester United
2000   Martín Palermo   Boca Juniors
2001   Samuel Kuffour   Bayern Munich
2002   Ronaldo   Real Madrid
2003   Matías Donnet   Boca Juniors
2004   Maniche   Porto

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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BibliographyEdit

  • Amorim, Luís (1 December 2005). Intercontinental Cup 1960-2004. LuísAmorimEditions. ISBN 978-989-95672-5-2.
  • Amorim, Luís (1 September 2005). Taça Intercontinental 1960-2004. Multinova. ISBN 989-551-040-3.

External linksEdit