Olympiastadion (German pronunciation: [ʔoˈlʏmpi̯aːˌʃtaːdi̯ɔn]) is a stadium located in Munich, Germany. Situated at the heart of the Olympiapark München in northern Munich, the stadium was built as the main venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics.
The Munich Olympiastadion
|Owner||Free State of Bavaria|
|Operator||Olympiapark Munich GmbH|
|Surface||Asphalt concrete and artificial grass|
|Opened||26 May 1972|
With an original capacity of 80,000, the stadium also hosted many major football matches including the 1974 FIFA World Cup Final and the UEFA Euro 1988 Final. It hosted the European Cup Finals in 1979, 1993 and 1997. Its current capacity is 69,250.
Designed by the German architect Günther Behnisch and the engineer Frei Otto, with the assistance of John Argyris, the lightweight tent construction of the Olympiastadion was considered revolutionary for its time. This included large sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized by steel cables that were used for the first time on a large scale. The idea was to imitate the Alps and to set a counterpart to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, held during the Nazi regime. The sweeping and transparent canopy was to symbolize the new, democratic and optimistic Germany. This is reflected in the official motto: "The cheerful Games" ("Die Heiteren Spiele").
Already after the World War I, there were first considerations to build a large stadium in Munich, as football gained popularity. A stadium construction on Oberwiesenfeld failed in 1919 due to an objection by the Bavarian state. 1921 there was the Teutonia Square, which was until the expansion of the stadium on Grünwalder Straße in 1926, the most modern sports field in Munich. It was opened by the club FC Teutonia and offered 12,000 spectators place. In the month after the opening about 20,000 guests came to a game, which was almost twice the officially allowed capacity was reached. The FC Bayern used from 1923 to 1925 the Teutonia Square for his home games. Since 1911, the TSV 1860 has been playing the club's own club on Grünwalder Straße in Giesing, which since its expansion to a capacity of 40,000 spectators has been the largest stadium in Munich.
Although the capacity was sufficient for the championship operation, but the stadium encountered in international matches to its limits: the game Germany against Switzerland in 1926 showed that in major events was a much higher interest than cards were allowed to be sold. The 1928 opened fight course on the Dantestraße did not meet the expectations of a large stadium. For this reason, in the Weimar Republic, the construction of a large stadium on the outskirts of Munich, for example on Oberwiesenfeld, discussed, but without any particular results.
At the beginning of National Socialism, local politicians of the NSDAP planned the construction of a 60,000 to 80,000-capacity stadium west of Munich-Riem Airport. This should correspond to the Reichssportfeld in Berlin. However, the airport administration resisted the construction and also the Generalbaurat of Munich sat down a large stadium not as a target. With the outbreak of the World War II, the plans were finally rejected.
After the end of the war, the crowds flocked back to the stadiums to talk to football at weekends, including in Munich. 1948 visited in a game of TSV 1860 against the 1st FC Nuremberg around 58,200 spectators, the 45,000 visitors aligned stadium on the Grünwalder road. A year later came to Munich in the semi-final match of the German Championship between 1. FC Kaiserslautern and Borussia Dortmund 57,000 spectators. The postwar period is today considered the "golden age" of football; Only since the 1990s have so many visitors come to the German stadiums.
The Grünwalder Stadion, which was destroyed in the war, offered space for 50,000 spectators after the renovation, making it the largest stadium in Munich. However, the Municipal Sports Committee considered the capacity to be too low and sought to expand it to a capacity of 75,000 spectators. The Sports Committee received headwinds from local media. Thus, the Münchner Merkur spoke in early 1951 for the construction of a new stadium on the Oberwiesenfeld, after the extended grandstand of the Grünwalder Stadium would have made the construction of the planned Mittlerer Ring as the main access road to the Federal Highway 8 difficult. The major stadium project came to an end for the time being with the adoption of the so-called ten-year program on March 10, 1955, which promoted the construction of district sports facilities.
Another reason for this decision was the decreased attractiveness of football in Munich, as the formerly successful city clubs such as TSV 1860, FC Wacker and Bayern fell with their services in the mean. Because of the small capacity of the Grünwalder Stadium, games of the German national team have not been held in Munich since 1940. For the big city clubs, the capacity of the Grünwalder stadium with the exception of the Lokalderbys, to which partly more spectators came when the stadium officially offered space, was more than enough.
In 1958, the Bavarian party revived again the theme of a large stadium. Both FC Bayern and the TSV 1860 resisted the project, fearing that the capacity would not be exhausted and the project could ruin it. In 1963, in the last season before the introduction of the Bundesliga, the TSV 1860 won the league championship and secured so before the local rivals FC Bayern the starting place for the first league in the following season. In the first Bundesliga season, the TSV 1860 had an average of just under 32,000 spectators per game, which far exceeded the average of the previous years of about 20,000. The league rivals, who could attract more spectators in their stadiums, but offered a higher capacity than the Grünwalder Stadium. In 1964, the TSV 1860 qualified by winning the DFB Cup in the preseason for the European Cup Winners' Cup 1964/65, came to the finals and had in the competition at home always more than 30,000 spectators. In the same year, the FC Bayern champion of the Regionalliga Süd and qualified for the promotion round to the Bundesliga. The capacity of the Grünwalder Stadium once again proved to be too low. In the following season won the TSV 1860 the championship and FC Bayern the national cup competition. Although the average number of spectators was far lower than the maximum capacity of the Grünwalder Stadium, there were already numerous games in the mid-1960s, where the ticket demand was higher than the capacity of the stadium.
Munich was the only German city with two Bundesliga clubs, which played in this time always for the top table positions and were temporarily represented in international competitions. Therefore, the largest stadium in the city was now again 45,000 seats, of which only 3,800 seats were seated, found too small. In order to maintain the high level of the Munich football clubs, a larger stadium was considered necessary, because the audience at that time still the main source of income of the clubs represented.
At that time, Georg Brauchle, then Second Mayor, tried to bring the 1972 Summer Olympic Games to Munich. In October 1965, Lord Mayor Hans-Jochen Vogel and Willi Daume, President of the West Germany National Olympic Committee, decided to test the city for suitability for the Games. After further talks, among others with Federal Chancellor Ludwig Erhard and Bavaria's Prime Minister Alfons Goppel, they came to the conclusion that an application for the 1972 Summer Olympics, could be worthwhile. For this, however, a new and modern stadium had to be planned for the city.
The three square kilometer and largely undeveloped Oberwiesenfeld was intended as the centerpiece of the Olympic Games. Because of the disagreement on how it should be built, the area was largely free and so were before the decision to host only the Olympic Tower and another projects. Due to the proximity to the city center, Munich was able to promote the games with the slogan "Olympia at the short ways", which contributed to the decision-making process for the award to the state capital. Since the Oberwiesenfeld served in former times as a parade ground of the Bavarian cavalry regiment and later mainly military purposes, it was - except armaments works - free of buildings. From 1931 to 1939 Munich Airport was located on the Oberwiesenfeld. After the World War II, the debris rubble from the bombing of the city was piled up, from which the Olympic Mountain emerged. This was intentionally created oval, so that it could be used as a tribune foundation for a stadium to the already existing ideas were.
In 1964, Munich wrote an architectural competition for the planning of a large stadium, which was won the offices Henschker from Brunswick and Deiss from Munich. Their stadium design was integrated into an overall concept. After the planning of 1965, the stadium should hold around 100,000 spectators, later the capacity was reduced in terms of reuse. The plans were integrated into an overall concept, with the addition of a multi-purpose and a swimming pool on a large, concrete surface planned. Under the concrete slabs, supply systems and parking lots were to be built. On April 26, 1966, the IOC announced that Munich had prevailed against the another candidates Detroit, Madrid and Montreal. Thus the stadium construction was decided. The original plans of the Olympic Park and the stadium came because of lack of urban planning unity in the criticism. In addition, the Association of German Architects suggested to avoid any monumentality at the sports facilities because of the Nazi past. The plans were finally rejected.
In February 1967, an architectural competition was again advertised, in which by the deadline of July 3, 1967, a total of 104 drafts were submitted, one of which came from the architectural firm Behnisch & Partner. The architect Günter Behnisch and his employee Fritz Auer planned to build the stadium, the Olympic Hall and the swimming pool closely adjacent to each other west of the Olympic Tower, from which the base already existed. wurde erneut ein Architektenwettbewerb ausgeschrieben, When a model was built on a scale of 1: 1000, the employee Cordel Wehrse came up with the idea of laying a tent roof construction over the three buildings. He had become aware of Frei Otto's tent roof construction at the World Fair in Montreal through a newspaper article. another architects competition was announced,  Together with Carlo Weber and Heinz Isler the model was supplemented with wooden sticks and parts of a women's stocking. another architects competition was announced,  The architects thought of the Olympic roof as a circus tent.
Finally, the model was submitted on the deadline. It was already eliminated after the first round by the jury, as it was considered too daring. However, the juror Egon Eiermann intervened and campaigned, among others, Lord Mayor Hans-Jochen Vogel and NOK President Willi Daume for the model. Ultimately, the reviewers voted for the plan of Behnisch & Partner, which emerged as the winner of the competition. The decision was announced on October 13, 1967. In addition to the designed for 90,000 spectators stadium, which was then reduced to about 80,000, the model convinced with its surrounding landscape architecture and the tent roof construction. Thus, it fulfilled the leitmotif of the games: human scale, lightness, bold elegance and unity of the landscape with nature. In addition, the possibility of reuse was given. another architects competition was announced,  Even with regard to short distances, the model convinced the jury.
To make room for the arena, previously the terminal building of the old airport had to be blown up. On June 9, 1969, work began on the stadium, multi-purpose Olympic hall and swimming pool. However, it was only on 14 July 1969 with the laying of the cornerstone in a symbolic ceremony officially begun with the work. In addition to the three buildings emerged on the Oberwiesenfeld at the same time the Werner von Linde Hall, a volleyball hall, the Olympic Radstadion, the Olympic Village and various other buildings such as stations for U-Bahn and S-Bahn. During the construction work there was a spirit of optimism in Munich. The inner city received a pedestrian zone between Marienplatz and the Stachus and the metro visions were implemented. Alone on the Oberwiesenfeld there were 60 construction sites. From a total of 1.35 billion German marks in Olympic editions flowed 137 million in the construction of the Olympic Stadium and 170.6 million in the tent roof. About 5,000 construction workers worked at the construction site and worked together for more than one million hours. Contrary to the custom of German reconstruction, the Olympic Stadium was built largely without prefabricated parts.
According to Behnisch, the stadium should be a "democratic sports venue" according to the ideas of the Mayor of Munich Hans-Jochen Vogel and the specifications of the Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt. At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin during the period of National Socialism, the hitherto single summer Olympics in Germany, should create a contrast. Since the time of National Socialism, Munich has had the reputation of being the "capital of the movement". The Olympics should help to improve Munich's reputation. The foundation's deed stated that the planned games should "bear witness to the spirit of our people in the last third of the 20th century".
Behnisch wanted as partner architect Frei Otto, whose tent roof construction at the EXPO 1967 in Montreal was a model for the stadium tent roof. Otto had already been involved in numerous construction projects with suspended and membrane structures and for the Olympiastadion tent roof construction was the development consultant. In addition to Behnisch and Otto, an architect team was also formed to realize the roof construction, including Fritz Leonhardt and Wolf Andrä. The planning management was done by Fritz Auer. Otto developed parts of the roof by means of the trial-and-error principle by making ever larger models of the roof construction, while Andrä and Leonhardt developed the roof through the CAD program elsewhere. Under the direction of civil engineer Jörg Schlaich, the roof over the stadium was completed on April 21, 1972.
The construction of the stadium had forgotten to schedule cabins for football teams in the stadium interior. For this reason, from May 24, 1972 to the official opening of the stadium on May 26, 1972, two medical rooms were provisionally converted into changing rooms. It was also enough room to set up a room for paramedics and referees. Later, the cabins were further equipped and remained. Already in the summer of 1970 stood the shell buildings and on July 23, 1970, the topping-out ceremony was celebrated. At the turn of the year 1971/1972 the main works were finished and at the end of June 1972 the finished buildings were handed over to the organizing committee. The planning, construction and financing of the buildings were controlled by the 1967 founded Olympia-Baugesellschaft mbH Munich, which was founded by the Federal Republic of Germany, the Free State of Bavaria and the City of Munich. The stadium is property of the Olympiapark München GmbH, a society wholly owned by the City of Munich, Referat für Arbeit und Wirtschaft.
Post Olympic legacyEdit
Following the Olympics, the stadium became the home of FC Bayern Munich. In 1979 the ground played host to the 1979 European Cup Final in which Nottingham Forest won the first of their consecutive European Cups under Brian Clough.
On 6 to 11 August 2002 the 18th European Athletics Championships where held at the Olympiastadion.
Since 2005, it is the host of the yearly air and style snowboard event.
On 31 December 2006, the stadium made history as being the first venue to host the Tour de Ski cross-country skiing competition. The individual sprint events, held at 1100 m, were won by Norway's Marit Bjørgen (women) and Switzerland's Christoph Eigenmann (men). The snow was made in the stadium by combining the hot air with the cold refrigerated water that causes the snow to act like the icy type one would see in the Alps.
It went unused in the 2006 FIFA World Cup due to the Allianz Arena being the host stadium in Munich.
On 23 to 24 June 2007, the stadium played host to the Spar European Cup 2007, a yearly athletics event featuring the top 8 countries from around Europe.
The DTM touring car series held its first stadium event there in 2011: a Race of Champions-style event which took part over a two-day period, although it was not a championship scoring round. Edoardo Mortara won the first day, and Bruno Spengler the second. The event was repeated in 2012, but the stadium withdrew in 2013 because it proved impossible to turn it into a points-scoring event.
On 17 May 2012, the ground played host to the 2012 UEFA Women's Champions League Final in which Olympique Lyonnais won their second consecutive trophy. The attendance of that game was a record for a UEFA Women's Champions League Final. On 19 May 2012 it hosted the "Public Viewing" of the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final which took place at Allianz Arena in Munich.
1974 FIFA World CupEdit
The stadium was one of the venues for the 1974 FIFA World Cup.
The following games were played at the stadium during the World Cup of 1974:
|Date||Time (CEST)||Team #1||Res.||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|15 June 1974||18.00||Italy||3–1||Haiti||Group 4||51,100|
|19 June 1974||19.30||Haiti||0–7||Poland||Group 4||23,400|
|23 June 1974||16.00||Argentina||4–1||Haiti||Group 4||24,000|
|6 July 1974||16.00||Brazil||0–1||Poland||Third place match||74,100|
|7 July 1974||16.00||Netherlands||1–2||West Germany||Final||74,100|
UEFA Euro 1988Edit
The stadium was one of the venues for the UEFA Euro 1988.
The following games were played at the stadium during the Euro 1988:
|Date||Time (CEST)||Team #1||Res.||Team #2||Round||Spectators|
|17 June 1988||20.15||West Germany||2–0||Spain||Group A||72,308|
|25 June 1988||15.30||Soviet Union||0–2||Netherlands||Final||72,308|
German and West German national football team matches held at the stadiumEdit
- 26 May 1972 West Germany – USSR 4–1 (Friendly, stadium opener)
- 9 May 1973 West Germany – Yugoslavia 0–1 (Friendly)
- 7 July 1974 West Germany – Netherlands 2–1 (1974 World Cup Final)
- 22 May 1976 West Germany – Spain 2–0 (Euro 1976 Qualifier)
- 22 February 1978 West Germany – England 2–1 (Friendly)
- 2 April 1980 West Germany – Austria 1–0 Friendly)
- 22 September 1982 West Germany – Belgium 0–0 (Friendly)
- 17 November 1985 West Germany – Czechoslovakia 2–2 (1986 World Cup qualifier)
- 17 June 1988 West Germany – Spain 2–0 (Euro 1988 Group match)
- 19 October 1988 West Germany – Netherlands 0–0 (1990 World Cup qualifier)
- 26 March 1996 Germany – Denmark 2–0 (Friendly)
- 9 October 1999 Germany – Turkey 0–0 (Euro 2000 qualifier)
- 1 September 2001 Germany – England 1–5 (2002 World Cup qualifier)
The stadium was used in a skit for Monty Python's Flying Circus in 1972, for The Philosophers' Football Match, in which Greek Philosophers played German Philosophers (plus Franz Beckenbauer) and the Greeks winning the game with a last-minute goal from Socrates.
Parts of the 1975 film Rollerball were shot on the (then) futuristic site surrounding the stadium.
The Olympic Stadium also hosted Motorcycle speedway when it held the 1989 World Final on 2 September 1989. Denmark's Hans Nielsen won his third World Championship with a 15-point maximum from his five rides. The late Simon Wigg of England finished in second place after defeating countryman Jeremy Doncaster in a run-off to decide the final podium places after both had finished with 12 points from their five rides. Three time champion Erik Gundersen of Denmark finished in fourth place with 11 points. Gundersen, the defending World Champion, missed finishing outright second when his bike's engine expired while he was leading Heat 9 of the World Final.
- olympiapark.de - Olympic Stadium Key Facts
- Olympiastadion: Abschied vom echten Grün http://www.merkur-online.de/lokales/muenchen/stadt-muenchen/olympiastadion-abschied-echten-gruen-2248996.html
- Uhrig, Klaus (20 March 2014). "Die gebaute Utopie: Das Münchner Olympiastadion". http://www.br.de/. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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- Digitized version of the Official Report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad Munich 1972 (Volume 2) (PDF). proSport GmbH & Co. KG. München Ed. Herbert Kunze. 1972. p. 22.
… the theme of the "cheerful Games"…
- "Ein Geschenk der Deutschen an sich selbst". DER SPIEGEL 35/1972. 21 August 1972.
… für die versprochene Heiterkeit der Spiele, die den Berliner Monumentalismus von 1936 vergessen machen und dem Image der Bundesrepublik in aller Welt aufhelfen sollen
- Armin Radtke: Olympiastadion München – Fußballgeschichte unter dem Zeltdach. Göttingen 2005, S. 10.
- Armin Radtke: Olympiastadion München – Fußballgeschichte unter dem Zeltdach. Göttingen 2005, S. 12.
- "Bilfinger: Industriedienstleister für die Prozessindustrie - Bilfinger SE". Retrieved 29 April 2017.
- 1972 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. Part 2. pp. 180–2.
- Armin Radtke: Olympiastadion München – Fußballgeschichte unter dem Zeltdach. Göttingen 2005, S. 18.
- Florian Kinast: Es begann mit einem Damenstrumpf – 40 Menschen – 40 Geschichten – Erzählungen aus dem Olympiapark. München 2012, S. 25.
- Cite error: The named reference
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- Freeman, Glenn (3 July 2010). "DTM to add stadium event in 2011". Autosport. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "Edoardo Mortara wins first day of DTM Show Event in Munich". Autosport. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- O'Leary, Jamie (17 July 2011). "Bruno Spengler takes victory on second day of DTM Show Event in Munich". Autosport. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Cataldo, Filippo (23 October 2012). "DTM: Moskau statt München" (in German). Abendzeitung. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Alle spiele der nationalmanshaft im Olympiastadion
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