2022 Serbian general election

General elections were held in Serbia on 3 April 2022 to elect both the president and members of the National Assembly. Initially, parliamentary elections were scheduled to be held in 2024; however, in October 2020 president Aleksandar Vučić stated that snap parliamentary elections would be held in or before April 2022. In addition to the general elections, local elections were held simultaneously in 12 municipalities and 2 cities, including Belgrade.

2022 Serbian general election

3 April 2022
Opinion polls
Presidential election
← 2017
Next →
Turnout58.63% (Increase4.29 pp)
  Aleksandar Vučić 2019 (cropped).jpg Zdravko Ponoš, kandidat za predsednika Srbije (cropped).jpg
Candidate Aleksandar Vučić Zdravko Ponoš
Party SNS Narodna
Alliance Together We Can Do Everything United for the Victory of Serbia
Popular vote 2,224,914 698,538
Percentage 60.01% 18.84%

President before election

Aleksandar Vučić
SNS

Elected President

Aleksandar Vučić
SNS

Parliamentary election
← 2020
Next →

All 250 seats in the National Assembly
126 seats needed for a majority
Turnout
58.60% (Increase9.72 pp)
Party Leader % Seats +/–
SNS coalition Aleksandar Vučić 44.27 120 -68
UZPS Marinika Tepić 14.09 38 New
SPS coalition Ivica Dačić 11.79 31 -1
NADA Miloš Jovanović 5.54 15 +15
Moramo Nebojša Zelenović 4.84 13 New
DveriPOKS Boško Obradović 3.92 10 New
Zavetnici Milica Đurđević 3.82 10 +10
Minority lists
VMSZ István Pásztor 1.63 5 -4
SPP Usame Zukorlić 0.97 3 -1
DSHV–ZZV Tomislav Žigmanov 0.65 2 +2
SDA S Sulejman Ugljanin 0.56 2 -1
KSLP Shaip Kamberi 0.28 1 -2
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
2022 Serbian presidential election map (2nd round).svg
2022 Serbian parliamentary election map.svg
Prime Minister before Prime Minister after
Ana Brnabić
SNS
TBD
TBD

The Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) came to power in 2012 after forming a government with the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS). They managed to win a supermajority of seats following the 2020 parliamentary election, which was boycotted by the majority of parties; they had stated that the conditions weren't free and fair. Vučić, who was elected president in 2017, faced mass protests during his first term, most notably during 2018–2020 and in July 2020. Vučić also oversaw the inter-party dialogues regarding electoral conditions which took place in 2021, while the agreement regarding the conditions between government and opposition parties was reached in October 2021. Over the course of 2021 and early 2022, environmental protests were also held, with its climax being reached in November and December 2021. The government also held a referendum regarding the implementation of changes to the constitution in January 2022 which was approved by 60% of the voters, although the turnout was reported to only be at 30%.

The campaign period was met with polarization. Some organizations had noted that the ruling party dominated the media, although, news channels had also organized debates and political program presentations during the period. Opposition parties had also solidified their presence in the elections, such as the United for the Victory of Serbia coalition that received the greatest support amongst opposition parties in opinion polls. The Republic Electoral Commission (RIK) confirmed that 19 parliamentary lists and eight presidential candidates participated in the general elections.

Vučić managed to win 60% of the votes in the first round of the presidential election, while the opposition candidate Zdravko Ponoš placed second. The coalition around SNS lost its majority in the National Assembly following the parliamentary elections, while 12 ballot lists had entered the National Assembly. Multiple non-governmental organizations noted the occurrence of election irregularities during the election day. The PACE monitoring mission evaluated that fundamental freedoms were largely respected, and voters were presented with diverse political options, but a number of shortcomings resulted in an uneven playing field, favoring the incumbents.

BackgroundEdit

A populist coalition led by the Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) came to power after the 2012 parliamentary election, along with the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS).[1] Aleksandar Vučić, who was appointed as deputy prime minister in 2012, was elected prime minister after the 2014 election, and finally elected as president in 2017, winning 55% of the popular vote.[2] Since he came to power, observers have assessed that Serbia has suffered from democratic backsliding into authoritarianism, followed by a decline in media freedom and civil liberties.[3][4] Mass protests began after his election in 2017 due to the dominant control of Serbia's media by Vučić.[5][6] Subsequently, he appointed Ana Brnabić as the new head of government,[7] who initially served as an independent but later joined SNS in 2019.[8]

Numerous government affairs triggered the start in late November 2018 of long-lasting anti-government protests,[9][10][11][12] which ended in early 2020 due to the COVID-19 lockdowns.[13] These protests helped to strengthen the unity of opposition forces, of which the Alliance for Serbia (SzS) was the biggest and most prominent,[14][15] while demonstrators demanded the resignation of Vučić and other senior officials.[16][17] Parallel to this, Vučić launched the "Future of Serbia" campaign in 2019.[18] SzS declared that they would boycott the 2020 parliamentary election, citing that the conditions weren't free and fair; this decision was also adopted by other major opposition parties.[19][20]

The SNS-led ballot list, named "For Our Children", managed to win a majority of votes and seats in the June 2020 parliamentary election,[21] while the government was formed in late October 2020.[22] Following the election, Vučić stated that snap parliamentary elections will be held before April 2022.[23] Shortly after the election ended, protests erupted in Belgrade.[24] These anti-government protests were marked with police brutality and violence orchestrated by the government,[25][26][27] while the protesters were divided between taking peaceful and violent approaches.[24][28][29] The protests lasted until early August, while some sporadic protests continued to be organized until late 2020.[30][31] SzS was challenged with inter-coalition conflicts that remained active until its dissolution in August 2020.[32] The United Opposition of Serbia (UOPS) was formed as a direct successor to the SzS shortly after.[32] The coalition was also faced with inter-coalition conflicts, and due to their ideological differences, the coalition ended up being dissolved between December 2020 and January 2021.[32][33][34] It was split into two blocs, which were headed by the Party of Freedom and Justice (SSP) and People's Party (Narodna).[35][36]

Inter-party dialogues on electoral conditionsEdit

The dialogues between opposition and government parties to improve election conditions began on 28 April 2021.[37][38] Some parties decided to not participate in talks with delegators from the European Parliament.[39][40] Parties that declined to take part in talks with delegators from the European Parliament were a part of work board dialogues, which began on 18 May 2021.[41] Initially, the talks with delegators from the European Parliament were supposed to begin in early June,[42] although the talks began on 9 July.[43]

Members of the European Parliament Tanja Fajon, Vladimír Bilčík and Knut Fleckenstein met with Vučić in Belgrade on 9 July.[44] Soon after, the discussion began with Vladimir Orlić, Sandra Božić, and Marijan Rističević representing SNS.[45] After the meeting, delegators filed a proposal to improve electoral conditions.[46] The draft document was released to the parties on 1 September.[47] SSP, Narodna, Movement for Reversal (PZP), Movement of Free Citizens (PSG), New Party (Nova), and the Together for Serbia (ZZS) opposition political parties criticized the draft document, while Vučić stated that "he isn't thrilled" with the document.[48][49][50] Vučić and Dačić met again with the delegators on 17 September;[51] Vučić and Đorđe Milićević, the head of the SPS parliamentary group, confirmed that they would accept the suggestions in the new draft document.[52][53] Opposition political parties rejected the draft and abandoned the dialogues.[54][55] Dačić announced that the government accepted the suggestions of forming a media monitoring body and the change in the composition of the Republic Electoral Commission (RIK).[55] On 20 September, Dačić stated that the inter-party dialogue with the participation of delegators from the European Parliament had ended.[56]

On 27 August, Dačić announced that the electoral threshold would remain at 3 percent.[57] In early September, political parties that took part in work board dialogues had received the draft document regarding the improvement of electoral conditions.[58] Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), Dveri, and POKS gave mixed responses to the document.[59][60][61] The signatory meeting was initially supposed to be held on 11 September, although it was later delayed to late October.[62][63] Representatives of DSS, Dveri, POKS, Enough is Enough (DJB), Healthy Serbia (ZS), and Serbian Radical Party (SRS) took part in the signatory meeting which was held on 29 October.[64] In the final document, it was agreed that the minimum number of collected signatories for minority ballot lists would be set to 5,000; more funding would be given to participants in elections; the obligation to post a financial guarantee for the participants would be abolished; the right of free use of all halls of local communities for pre-election activities for opposition parties would be given; electoral campaigns would be prohibited ten days before the election date; fees would be increased for members of polling stations; and the Regulatory Body of Electronic Media (REM) and Election Commission would receive composition changes.[65][66] SNS declined to separate the election dates for the 2022 general election and to change rules regarding the ballot representatives, although it had offered to not open any "roads and factories" a week before the election date.[58][67]

Constitutional referendumEdit

Shortly after the 2020 parliamentary election, the government had submitted a proposal to change the constitution to the National Assembly.[68] The National Assembly adopted the proposal in December 2020, while the document received further amendments up to June 2021.[69][70] In order for the proposed changes to be adopted, a referendum needed to take place;[71] it was initially announced that it would be held in fall of 2021, although the date was later settled for 16 January 2022.[72][73] In November 2021, changes to the law on referendum and people's initiative were adopted by the National Assembly;[74] the changes would abolish the 50% turnout that was needed for referendums to be considered valid.[75] Vučić signed the law on 25 November, although the law was also amended in December 2021.[76][77]

SNS and SPS voiced their support for the constitutional changes,[78][79] while the opposition remained divisive. A majority of opposition parties stated their opposition to the changes and called for citizens to vote against the proposed changes,[80][81][82] while SSP, Democratic Party (DS), and Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak (SDA S) called to boycott the referendum.[83][84] Nevertheless, analysts had concluded that the campaign would be restrained due to the April 2022 general election and that a possibility of abuse of the referendum would be possible.[85][86] In the end, majority of voters voted in favor of changes, although the turnout was reported to be only at 30%.[87][88] A majority of voters in Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš voted against the proposed changes.[89][90][91] Irregularities were reported at voting stations, while some non-governmental organizations, such as CRTA, and opposition parties, such as DJB, claimed voter fraud.[92][93]

Environmental protestsEdit

 
Protests in Belgrade on 11 December 2021

Rio Tinto, an Anglo-Australian mining corporation, had operated in Serbia since 2004 and it explored mines near the Jadar Valley.[94][95] The government of Serbia signed an agreement in 2017 to implement Project Jadar, which would give Rio Tinto permission to exploit the jadarite mineral.[94][96] Environmental protests in Serbia were held as early as in January 2021,[97] although the protests that began in September 2021 garnered national attention.[98] Environmental organizations and groups demanded the government to withdraw the referendum and expropriation laws, as well as to cancel Project Jadar.[99][100][101] The protests resumed in November, and it reached its peak in late November and early December.[102][103] A series of roadblocks protests were held during that period and they ended up turning violent.[104][105] Following the protests in early December, the government withdrew the expropriation law and abolished the spatial plan for Project Jadar.[106][107] Protests were organized up to 15 February 2022.[108][109] Protests in support were also organized internationally.[110] The government criticized the protests and its organizers.[111][112]

Electoral systemEdit

The president of Serbia is elected using the two-round system and has a term of five years, although it is limited to two terms in any order of service.[113][114] If no candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round, a second is held.[114] A person willing to become an official candidate needs to collect 10,000 signatures.[115] In addition, to become a candidate, a person needs to be at least 18 years old and to possess Serbian citizenship, while it is not necessary to have been born in Serbia.[115]

The 250 members of the National Assembly are elected by closed-list proportional representation from a single nationwide constituency. Seats are allocated using the d'Hondt method with an electoral threshold of 3% of all votes cast,[116] although the threshold is waived for ethnic minority parties.[115] Minority ballots need at least 5,000 signatories in order to qualify on ballot while non-minority ballots need 10,000.[66] As of 2020, 40% of the candidates on the electoral lists must be female.[117]

The National Assembly adopted the proposal for its dissolution on 14 February.[118] A day later, Dačić called local elections, while Vučić then dissolved the National Assembly and called parliamentary elections to be held on 3 April 2022.[119][120] Presidential elections were called on 2 March.[121] The Serbian diaspora was able to vote in 34 countries, although, elections in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States were held on 2 April due to time zone differences.[122][123] Albin Kurti, the prime minister of Kosovo,[a] stated that his government would try to find a solution for the elections with ambassadors of European Union, and he also expressed his support that Kosovar Serbs who possess Serbian citizenship should have the right to vote in the general election.[124][125] The Republic Electoral Commission (RIK) had announced that Kosovar Serbs would have the right to vote in four municipalities in Serbia.[126]

Political partiesEdit

The table below lists political parties represented in the National Assembly after the 2020 parliamentary election.

Name Ideology Political position Leader 2020 result
Votes (%) Seats
SNS–led coalition Populism Big tent Aleksandar Vučić 60.65%
188 / 250
SPS–led coalition Populism Big tent Ivica Dačić 10.38%
32 / 250
Serbian Patriotic Alliance National conservatism Right-wing Aleksandar Šapić 3.83%
11 / 250
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians Minority politics István Pásztor 2.23%
9 / 250
SPPDPM Muamer Zukorlić 1%
4 / 250
Party for Democratic Action Shaip Kamberi 0.82%
3 / 250
SDA Sandžak Sulejman Ugljanin 0.77%
3 / 250

Pre-election compositionEdit

Party Seats
For Our Children 180
SPSZS 24
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia 9
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians 9
United Serbia 8
Social Democratic Party of Serbia 8
PDDSDA S 6
SPPUSS 5
Independent 1

Electoral listsEdit

The following were the official electoral lists published by the Republic Electoral Commission (RIK).[127] Four additional electoral lists were rejected by RIK.[128][129]

# Ballot name Ballot carrier Main ideology Political position Signatures Note
1
Danica Grujičić Populism Big tent 57,007
2
Ivica Dačić Populism Big tent 22,714
3
Bálint Pásztor Minority politics Centre-right 8,743
M
4
Vojislav Šešelj Ultranationalism Far-right 11,239
5
Marinika Tepić Anti-corruption Big tent 13,007
6
Božidar Delić National conservatism Right-wing 11,222
7
  • Milica Đurđević Stamenkovski — Serbian Party Oathkeepers[138][139]
  • SSZ
Milica Đurđević Ultranationalism Far-right 10,968
8
  • Mufti's Legacy — Justice and Reconciliation Party — Usame Zukorlić[138][139]
  • SPP
Usame Zukorlić Minority politics 5,056
M
9
  • We Must — Action — Ecological Uprising — Ćuta — Do not let Belgrade drown — Nebojša Zelenović[140]
  • NDB, ZZS, EU, IZNO, Solidarity, FRS
Nebojša Zelenović Green politics Centre-left to
left-wing
12,236
10
Saša Radulović Right-wing populism Right-wing 10,104
11
Miloš Parandilović Serbian nationalism Right-wing 10,469
12
  • Together for Vojvodina — Vojvodinians (Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina, Together for Vojvodina)[144][145]
  • DSHV, ZZV
Tomislav Žigmanov Minority politics 5,237
M
13
Enis Imamović Minority politics Centre-right to
right-wing
≈7,000
M
14
  • Boris Tadić — Come on People — Social Democratic Party — New Party — 1 of 5 million — Tolerance of Serbia — United Green Movement of Serbia — Bosniak Civic Party — Party of Montenegrins[147][148]
  • SDS, Nova, #1od5m, TS, UPZS, BGS, SC
Goran Radosavljević Social liberalism Centre to
centre-left
10,537
15
Shqiprim Arifi Minority politics 5,176
M
16
Shaip Kamberi Minority politics Centre-right 5,804
M
17
  • Stolen Babies — Ana Pejić[151]
  • OBAP
Ana Pejić Anti-baby trafficking 10,120
18
Saćip Saćipović Minority politics 5,024
M
19
  • Russian Minority Alliance — Milena Pavlović, Pavle Bihali Gavrin (Serbo-Russian Movement, Serbo-Russian Party Wolves, Movement of Greeks Srbiza)[152]
  • SRP,[c] SRPV, PGS
Dušan Marković Neo-fascism Far-right ≈5,100
M

MNational minority list

Presidential candidatesEdit

Declared candidatesEdit

The following were the official presidential candidates published by the Republic Electoral Commission (RIK).[153] Random draw was held on 18 March.[154]

# Candidate Affiliation Background Signatures
1   Miša Vacić Serbian Right Leader of the Serbian Right (2018–present) 10,151[155][156]
2   Biljana Stojković We Must[d] Professor at the Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade 10,585[157]
3   Branka Stamenković Sovereignists Member of the National Assembly (2016–2020)
President of the Enough is Enough (2018–2019)
10,046[155][156]
4   Zdravko Ponoš United for the Victory of Serbia Vice President of the People's Party (2017–2021)
Chief of Cabinet of the President of the UN General Assembly (2012–2013)
Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs (2010–2012)
Chief of the General Staff of Serbian Armed Forces (2006–2008)
11,786[158][159]
5   Milica Đurđević
Stamenkovski
Serbian Party Oathkeepers Spokesperson of the Serbian Party Oathkeepers 11,102[160][161]
6   Aleksandar Vučić Serbian Progressive Party[e] President of Serbia (2017–present)
Prime Minister of Serbia (2014–2017)
Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia (2012–2014)
148,846[162][163]
7   Miloš Jovanović NADA President of the Democratic Party of Serbia (2016–present)
Member of the National Assembly (2012–2013)
11,232[158][159]
8   Boško Obradović DveriPOKS President of the Serbian Movement Dveri (2015–present)
Member of the National Assembly (2016–2020)
11,020[157]

Withdrawn candidaciesEdit

The following people confirmed their candidacies, although they had either withdrawn due to obstructions or they failed to collect enough signatures.

Declined to be candidatesEdit

The following individuals were the subject of speculation about their possible candidacy, but had publicly denied interest in running.

CampaignEdit

Non-governmental organizations assessed that polarization was present during the electoral campaign period.[198][199][200][201] The Bureau of Social Research (BIRODI) claimed that the pro-government media dominated during the period, while Transparency Serbia claimed that the ruling party had a significant domination in the media.[202][203] According to multiple researches that were conducted by BIRODI, the media "turned into means of propaganda", which is contrary to the actual role of the media in the electoral process.[204][205] CRTA stated that the electoral campaign period was allegedly in worse conditions than the one from the 2020 parliamentary election.[206] The pre-election delegation of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) had stated that the atmosphere during the campaign remained calm and that all political contestants were able to campaign freely. It had also expressed concern over possible pressure on voters and fear of irregularities on election day.[207][208] The Temporary Supervisory Body, which is operated by the Regulatory Body for Electronic Media (REM), claimed that BIRODI and CRTA published claims which were not substantiated.[209][210]

In order to boost the electoral turnout, CRTA cooperated with the Nova S television channel by creating the Zato, glasaj! [sr] show.[211] The Radio Television of Serbia (RTS), among other news channels, organized debates and program presentations during the campaign.[212][213] Multiple non-governmental organizations also announced their participation in monitoring the elections, such as ENEMO, CRTA, CeSID, OSCE, and delegates from PACE.[214][215][216][217] Opposition parties also hired election controllers in order to lower the potential of electoral fraud; CRTA announced that it had hired 3,000 election observers for the election.[218][219][220] During the last campaign week, organizations noted the appearance of "phantom voters", signaling potential electoral fraud.[221][222][223] The election silence began on 1 April, and it lasted until the closure of polling stations on 3 April.[224] Transparency Serbia noted that the campaign period was the most expensive one since 2004.[225]

Participating parties and coalitionsEdit

 
The parliamentary election ballot which contains all 19 ballot lists.

SNS and its coalition partners secured a supermajority in the parliament after the 2020 parliamentary election, with no official opposition represented in the parliament itself.[226] In early May 2021, Vučić sent a proposal to Aleksandar Šapić, the leader of the Serbian Patriotic Alliance (SPAS), about the merger of two parties.[227][228] Šapić announced his willingness to merge his party into SNS, and the merge occurred on 26 May.[229][230] He was subsequently promoted to vice-president of SNS,[231] while its MPs joined the SNS-led parliamentary group in early June.[232] SNS had also affirmed its position to continue their cooperation with the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), with whom they have been in government since 2012.[233] After a meeting in January 2022, it was announced to the public that they would participate with a joint presidential candidate while participating on separate ballot lists for the parliamentary election.[234] In February, Dačić was chosen as the SPS ballot representative,[235] while Vučić was chosen as SNS ballot representative.[236]

The Alliance for Serbia (SzS), a major opposition alliance that boycotted the 2020 parliamentary election,[237][238] was transformed into the United Opposition of Serbia (UOPS) in August 2020.[239] It remained divisive, and it was later dissolved between December 2020 and January 2021.[240][241] The parties re-continued their cooperation in mid-2021,[242][243] and in October 2021, the Party of Freedom and Justice (SSP) announced that it would be forming a joint opposition coalition.[244][245] Talks about the formation were held until 23 November,[246][247] after which it was announced to the public that SSP would lead the coalition alongside the Democratic Party (DS), People's Party (NS), Movement of Free Citizens (PSG) and other minor parties and movements.[248][249][250] Marinika Tepić was chosen as their parliamentary representative.[251] It was officially formalized in February 2022, under the name of United for the Victory of Serbia (UZPS).[252]

Dveri, who was a part of the SzS coalition, declined to join their list,[253] and instead it formed the "Patriotic Bloc" with minor right-wing parties in December 2021.[254][255] The Enough is Enough (DJB) party had also announced their participation in the election,[256] and in late November, they began cooperating with Healthy Serbia (ZS) and the anti-vax "I live for Serbia" movement in order to form a "Sovereignist Bloc".[257][258]

In June 2021, Nebojša Zelenović, the leader of the Together for Serbia (ZZS) party formed a coalition named "Action" in which 28 minor environmentalist civic groups and political movements joined due to their support for the "Green Agreement for Serbia".[259][260] Activist Aleksandar Jovanović Ćuta announced in mid-November that the "Ecological Uprising" movement would participate in the elections,[261][262] and on 14 November, he signed an agreement with Zelenović to participate on a joint list.[263][264] The Do not let Belgrade drown (NDB) movement had also agreed to join their coalition, which was formalized in January 2022, under the name We Must.[265][266]

A right-wing coalition was supposed to be formed in which POKS, National Network (NM) led by Vladan Glišić, Serbian Party Oathkeepers (SSZ) and Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS) would take part, although this idea was dismissed, and a coalition and party protocol were formed and signed shortly after.[267] In January 2021, DSS and POKS signed an agreement,[268] and in May, with 19 other movements and civic groups, they formed the National Democratic Alternative (NADA),[269] while far-right parties NM and SSZ signed a protocol between two parties in February 2021.[270] At the time of the general election, the POKS leadership remained disputed, although the faction around Žika Gojković legally claimed the leadership of the party.[271][272]

In May 2021, the Social Democratic Party (SDS), led by Boris Tadić, signed a protocol with the centrist coalition "Toleration".[273] In November, it was announced that Democrats of Serbia, a splinter from DS which was formed in February 2021,[274] would merge into SDS; the merge was formalized in February 2022.[275][276] In late May, the New Party (Nova) formed a coalition with a minor movement led by Marko Bastać,[277] but the coalition was later dissolved in September.[278] Later during 2021, SDS formed a coalition with Nova and the Civic Democratic Forum (GDF).[279] Tadić presented his coalition in late February 2022, which included Nova and five minor movements.[280]

SlogansEdit

Party/coalition Original slogan English translation Refs
DveriPOKS Srcem za Srbiju With a heart for Serbia [281]
Justice and Reconciliation Party Muftijin amanet Mufti's legacy [282]
National Democratic Alternative Da živimo normalno To live normally [283]
Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak Sloboda–demokratija–autonomija Freedom–democracy–autonomy [284]
SDSNova Boris Tadić – Ajmo ljudi Boris Tadić – Come on people [285]
SNS coalition Zajedno možemo sve
Dela govore
Mir. Stabilnost. Vučić.
Jedina granica su naši snovi
Together we can do everything
Achievements speak for themselves
Peace. Stability. Vučić.
The only limit are our dreams
[286][287]
Serbian Party Oathkeepers Svoji na svome On our own [288]
Serbian Radical Party Pod zastavom Srbije
Šešelj za premijera
Under the Flag of Serbia
Šešelj for Prime Minister
[289]
SPS coalition Ivica Dačić – Premijer Srbije Ivica Dačić – Prime Minister of Serbia [290]
Sovereignists Srbija nije na prodaju
Branka Stamenković – Žena iz naroda, glas naroda
Serbia is not for sale
Branka Stamenković – A woman of the people, the voice of the people
[291][292]
United Serbia Ujedinjeni za pobedu Srbije
Promena iz korena
Naš Ponoš – Predsednik
United for the Victory of Serbia
A change from the root
Our Ponoš – President
[293][294]
We Must Moramo, zajedno i drugačije
Moramo, snagu ulice u institucije
Biljana Stojković – Moram, za zemlju, vazduh, vodu i slobodu
We must, together and differently
We must, power of street into institutions
Biljana Stojković – I must, for land, air, water and freedom
[295][296]

DebatesEdit

2022 Serbian general election debates
Date Time Organizers     P  Present    N  Non-invitee   S  Surrogate  
SNS SPS UZPS Moramo NADA DJB Dveri SSZ SDSNova SRS VMSZ/SVM SPP Independent Refs
11 Jan 9:05PM RTS P
Đorđe Dabić
P
Đorđe Milićević
P
Vladimir Gajić
N N N N P
Milica Đurđević
N N N N N [297]
14 Jan 6:20PM Nova S N N N N N N P
Boško Obradović
N N N N N P
Srđan Škoro
[298]
19 Jan 7:20PM Kurir TV P
Goran Vesić
N N N N N N N P
Boris Tadić
N N N N [299]
21 Jan 9:00PM Insajder P
Vladimir Orlić
P
Đorđe Milićević
N N P
Miloš Jovanović
N N N P
Konstantin Samofalov
N N N N [300]
28 Jan 9:00PM Euronews N P
Ivica Dačić
N N N N N N P
Boris Tadić
N N N N [301]
1 Feb 9:00PM RTS P
Đorđe Todorović
P
Nikola Nikodijević
N P
Radomir Lazović
N N P
Radmila Vasić
N N N N N N [302]
8 Feb 9:05PM RTS P
Vladimir Đukanović
P
Snežana Paunović
N N N N N P
Dušan Proroković
P
Goran Bogdanović
N N N N [303]
18 Feb 5:05PM RTS P
Đorđe Dabić
P
Snežana Paunović
N N P
Miloš Jovanović
N N N P
Konstantin Samofalov
N N N N [304]
19 Feb 7:20PM Kurir TV N N N N P
Miloš Jovanović
N P
Boško Obradović
N N N N N N [305]
21 Feb 9:00PM Euronews N N N P
Aleksandar Jovanović Ćuta
N N N P
Milica Đurđević
N N N N N [306]
22 Feb 9:05PM RTS P
Siniša Mali
P
Dušan Bajatović
P
Dušan Nikezić
N N N N N N P
Aleksandar Šešelj
N N N [307]
24 Feb 9:00PM Insajder P
Đorđe Komlenski
N P
Nebojša Novaković
P
Biljana Đorđević
N N P
Andrej Mitić
N N N N N N [308]
1 Mar 9:00PM RTS P
Vladimir Đukanović
P
Snežana Paunović
P
Zoran Lutovac
N P
Miloš Jovanović
P
Saša Radulović
N P
Milica Đurđević
N N N N N [309]
2 Mar 8:15PM Tanjug N P
Dušan Bajatović
N N N N N P
Milica Đurđević
N N N N P
Srđan Škoro
[310]
2 Mar 9:00PM RTV P
Vladimir Đukanović
N P
Stefan Jovanović
N P
Branislav Ristivojević
N N N N N P
Elvira Kovács
N N [311]
3 Mar 9:00PM Insajder P
Dragan Šormaz
N P
Borko Stefanović
P
Nebojša Zelenović
P
Miloš Jovanović
N N N N N N N N [312]
4 Mar 10:00PM Prva N N S
Zdravko Ponoš
N N N P
Boško Obradović
N P
Boris Tadić
N N N P
Srđan Škoro
[313]
8 Mar 12:30PM RTS P
Vladimir Đukanović
N N N N N N N P
Goran Radosavljević
N N N N [314]
8 Mar 9:05PM RTS P
Darija Kisić Tepavčević
P
Slavica Đukić Dejanović
N P
Biljana Đorđević
N P
Jovana Stojković
P
Boško Obradović
N N N P
Elvira Kovács
N N [315]
9 Mar 9:00PM RTV P
Đorđe Todorović
P
Dijana Radović
P
Pavle Grbović
N N N N P
Milica Đurđević
N N N N N [316]
10 Mar 10:40AM RTS N N N P
Radomir Lazović
N P
Vojin Biljić
N N N N N N N [317]
15 Mar 9:10PM RTS P
Danica Grujičić
P
Vladimir Đukić
P
Dragana Rakić
N N N N N P
Aris Movsesijan
P
Miljko Ristić
N P
Edin Numanović
N [318]
17 Mar 9:00PM Insajder N P
Branko Ružić
P
Goran Radojev
P
Đorđe Pavićević
N N N N N N N N N [319]
22 Mar 10:15AM RTS N P
Đorđe Milićević
N N P
Miloš Jovanović
N N N N N N N N [320]
22 Mar 9:00PM RTS P
Vladimir Orlić
P
Dušan Bajatović
P
Miroslav Aleksić
P
Đorđe Miketić
N P
Milan Stamatović
P
Boško Obradović
N N N N N N [321]
24 Mar 12:00PM RTS N N N P
Biljana Đorđević
N P
Vojin Biljić
N N N N N N N [322]
24 Mar 9:00PM RTS P
Igor Simić
P
Veljko Odalović
P
Slaviša Ristić
N P
Miloš Jovanović
N N P
Milica Đurđević
N P
Aleksandar Šešelj
N N N [323]
24 Mar 9:00PM Insajder N P
Đorđe Milićević
P
Željko Veselinović
P
Vladimir Simović
N N N N P
Goran Radosavljević
N N N N [324]
27 Mar 12:20PM N1 N N P
Pavle Grbović
P
Radomir Lazović
N N N N N N N N N [325]
28 Mar 9:00PM Euronews N N P
Miroslav Aleksić
N N N N N P
Goran Radosavljević
N N N N [326]
29 Mar 11:00AM RTS N P
Snežana Paunović[f]
P
Pavle Grbović
N N N N N N N N N N [327]
29 Mar 9:00PM Euronews N N N P
Biljana Đorđević
N N P
Miloš Parandilović
N N N N N N [328]
29 Mar 9:20PM RTS P
Vladimir Orlić
P
Dušan Bajatović
P
Dragan Đilas
N N P
Saša Radulović
P
Boško Obradović
N P
Boris Tadić
N N N N [329]
30 Mar 9:00PM Euronews N P
Nikola Nikodijević
N N P
Predrag Marsenić
N N N N N N N N [330]
31 Mar 11:30AM RTS P
Vladimir Orlić
N N N N N N N P
Boris Tadić
N N N N [331]
31 Mar 8:15PM N1 N N P
Miroslav Aleksić
P
Biljana Đorđević
P
Predrag Marsenić
P
Hana Adrović
P
Miloš Parandilović
N P
Goran Radosavljević
N N N N [332]
31 Mar 9:00PM RTS P
Goran Vesić
P
Đorđe Milićević
P
Marinika Tepić
P
Nebojša Zelenović
P
Miloš Jovanović
N N P
Milica Đurđević
N N N N N [333]
31 Mar 10:15PM N1 N N N P
Biljana Stojković
P
Miloš Jovanović
N P
Boško Obradović
P
Milica Đurđević
N N N N N [334]

IssuesEdit

The campaign period began shortly after the dissolution of the National Assembly.[119] Parties that took part in the environmental protests stated their opposition to Rio Tinto during the electoral campaign, while some parties, such as the Serbian Radical Party (SRS), stated its support.[335][336] Although according to CeSID, following the beginning of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on 24 February, environmental issues had almost disappeared from the public.[337] CeSID had also stated that campaign issues were also concentrated on fight against corruption and rule of law.[337] On the other hand, BIRODI has stated that issues around national interests, economy, and infrastructure were talked about the most.[205] The organization had also commented that issues regarding European Union integrations had received the smallest amount of coverage.[205]

Party campaignsEdit

Serbian Progressive PartyEdit

 
SNS billboard featuring Danica Grujičić.

The Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) began campaigning shortly after the dissolution of the National Assembly on 15 February.[338] It managed to collect around 60,000 signatures that were later submitted to RIK on 16 February, and its ballot list was confirmed a day later.[339] Its first campaign rally was held in Merošina.[340][341] After its first rally, SNS continued its campaign in other regions of Serbia.[342][343] SNS announced Vučić as its presidential candidate on 6 March.[344][345] During the campaign, Vučić had spent about 6 million euros.[346]

Socialist Party of SerbiaEdit

Ivica Dačić, the leader of the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS), stated on 16 February that the party had collect more than 20,000 signatures for the parliamentary list.[347] Its list was confirmed by RIK a day later.[348] SPS has stated its support for Vučić as their joint presidential candidate.[349][350] During the campaign, Dačić stated its opposition to NATO and he expressed support for greater cooperation with China and Russia.[351][352] SPS had also described itself as a "patriotic party", and during a campaign rally Dačić stated that "SPS equals stability, continuity, and tradition".[353][354] Toma Fila, who was the ballot carrier for the Belgrade City Assembly election, stated his support for pensioners' interests.[355] The SPS-led coalition also received support from organizations such as Biogen, Environmental Movement of Beočin, and Democratic Union of Romas.[356][357][358] In the first two weeks of the electoral campaign, SPS received US$500,000 in donations for their campaign.[359]

Alliance of Vojvodina HungariansEdit

The Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (VMSZ/SVM) managed to collect around 9,000 signatures, while its ballot list was confirmed on 18 February.[360][361] Its ballot representative Bálint Pásztor stated that the position of national minorities should be at a higher level. He had stated their support for Fidesz, the ruling party of Hungary.[362] Pásztor had also stated that his party is ready to cooperate with the government in order to finish multiple projects in Subotica.[363] VMSZ had stated its support for Vučić for the presidential election.[364]

Serbian Radical PartyEdit

Over 11,000 signatures were collected by the Serbian Radical Party (SRS), and their ballot list was confirmed on 18 February.[365] Vojislav Šešelj was chosen as the ballot representative; he stated his support for Vučić regarding the presidential election.[366][367] During the campaign, Šešelj stated that the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic should be recognized by Serbia.[368] The party also stated its opposition to military neutrality, and that instead stated Serbia should cooperate with Russia and BRICS countries.[369][370] It also stated that "anti-Serbian non-governmental organizations" should be banned from being financed.[371] SRS had also noted that state aid should be provided for domestic economy and agriculture, and that the excise tax on fuel for domestic farmers should be abolished.[372][373] It had also stated its support for the reform of the Labor Law and its commitment to expanding basic healthcare.[374][375]

United for the Victory of SerbiaEdit

National Democratic AlternativeEdit

Serbian Party OathkeepersEdit

The Serbian Party Oathkeepers (SSZ) had their parliamentary list confirmed by RIK on 20 February, with Milica Đurđević Stamenkovski as its ballot representative.[376] SSZ also nominated Đurđević Stamenkovski as its presidential candidate in early February 2022, while RIK confirmed her candidacy on 8 March, shortly after the proclamation of presidential electoral campaign.[377][378] Representatives of the party orchestrated a protest on 4 March following the ban of Russian government-owned RT channel in Europe.[379] Đurđević Stamenkovski had also stated that Serbia should establish closer ties with Russia.[380][381]

Justice and Reconciliation PartyEdit

 
Logo of the Justice and Reconciliation Party's electoral campaign.

The Justice and Reconciliation Party (SPP), led by Usame Zukorlić, submitted its ballot list on 19 February, while RIK confirmed the ballot a day later, with 5,056 valid signatures.[382] On 7 March, Zukorlić stated that he would expect the cooperation between SPP and SNS to continue after the election.[383] During the electoral campaign, the party stated its support to have as many women as possible in management positions, as well as the affirmation of women's entrepreneurship.[384] The party had also stated its support for reconciliation, education reforms and anti-discrimination politics.[385][386][387] In late March, the party endorsed Vučić.[388]

We MustEdit

SovereignistsEdit

The Sovereignists coalition, which was mainly led by the Enough is Enough (DJB) party, had chosen Saša Radulović as the ballot representative.[389] The coalition announced Branka Stamenković as its presidential candidate on 28 February.[390]

One of the representatives of the coalition, Milan Stamatović, stated that "Serbia should not impose sanctions on Russia", while Radulović stated that "it is unfortunate that Serbia sided with NATO" during the Russian invasion of Ukraine.[391][392] During the campaign, Radulović had also stated the coalitions support for "souverainist policies" and its opposition to mandatory vaccination.[393][394] The Sovereignists had also stated their support for implementing blockchain technology and free textbooks for kindergartens and primary schools.[395][396] During an interview, Stamenković stated her support for the introduction of mandatory conscription into the army.[397]

Dveri–POKSEdit

Dveri announced its participation in the upcoming elections under the "Patriotic Bloc", which was formed in December 2021.[255] It opposed the legalization of civil unions,[398] and the coalition has expressed their support towards monarchism, antiglobalism, and abolition of vaccine passports.[399] Its leader, Boško Obradović, was chosen as their presidential candidate in January 2022.[400] Obradović had also participated in talks regarding the formation of a united "Patriotic bloc" that would also include other right-leaning parties, although the talks had stalled shortly after.[401][402] Dveri leadership announced their support for a joint "patriotic ballot list" on 13 February.[403] Obradović announced on 16 February that Dveri reached an agreement with Žika Gojković-led POKS faction to participate in a joint list.[404] Soon after, Slobodan Samardžić and Duško Kuzović left the coalition.[405][406] Obradović stated that his campaign would be mainly focused on the restoration of the monarchy.[407][408] The coalition had received support from Branimir Nestorović.[409]

Its parliamentary list was confirmed by RIK on 23 February.[410] During the campaign, Obradović stated that one of the coalition's priorities is to enforce economic patriotism and to raise conditions for villagers and agriculturers.[411][412] Miloš Parandilović, the ballot representative, said that the Dveri–POKS coalition is supportive of breaking up monopolies and to fight against crime and corruption.[413] It had also stated its opposition to NATO.[414]

VojvodiniansEdit

The Vojvodinians coalition, which is led by the Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina (DSHV) and Together for Vojvodina, a branch of the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina (LSV),[415] submitted its ballot on 1 March.[416] The ballot list was confirmed by RIK a day later.[415] LSV had also publicly stated its support for the coalition.[417]

The coalition had primarily campaigned on "bringing Vojvodina back to the National Assembly".[418][419] It had also stated its support for progressive policies and fiscal decentralization,[419][420] and its opposition to "cutting Vojvodina's forests" and "dirty technologies".[421] Tomislav Žigmanov, the coalition representative, had also stated their support for Serbia to join the European Union and NATO.[422][423] The coalition began campaigning on 10 March, and during their first rally in Subotica, the coalition had also expressed their support towards multiculturalism.[424][425]

SDS–NovaEdit

The coalition led by the Social Democratic Party (SDS) and New Party (Nova) ballot list was confirmed by RIK on 8 March.[426] SDS announced Dragoslav Šumarac as its presidential candidate on 12 March, although Šumarac withdrew his candidature a day later after not receiving support from his coalition partners.[427][428] During the campaign, the coalition stated its support for adopting a long-term strategy regarding agricultural development.[429] It had also expressed its support towards the accession of Serbia to the European Union, although it also stated its opposition to sanction Russia.[430]

OthersEdit

 
A billboard featuring Miša Vacić.

The Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak (SDA S) ballot list was confirmed on 2 March, with around 7,000 valid signatures.[431] Its first campaign rally was held in Novi Pazar on 9 March.[432] The civic group "Stolen Babies", which is led by Ana Pejić, stated their opposition to baby trafficking during an interview on 16 March.[433] Srđan Šajn, the leader of the Roma Party, stated his support for labor rights and his opposition to "unfair privatization".[434][435] Presidential candidate Miša Vacić expressed his support for introducing mandatory conscription and increasing the rights for war veterans in Serbia.[436][437] The Russian Minority Alliance, which is primarily led by the Leviathan Movement, was initially rejected by RIK, although after the case got overturned by the Constitutional Court, RIK confirmed their ballot.[438][439] CeSID has claimed that the ballot list does not represent minority rights but far-right politics, while CRTA claimed that they had falsified the signatures.[438][440]

Opinion pollsEdit

Parliamentary electionEdit

Polling organization Date of publishment SNS—led
coalition
SPAS SPS–JS United for the Victory of Serbia Moramo NADA DJB–ZS Dveri SSZ SRS SDSNova Others Lead
SSP NS DS PSG
Results 44.2 11.7 14.0 4.8 5.5 2.3 3.9 3.8 2.2 1.7 5.9 30.2
Ipsos 31 Mar 2022 51.4 8.5 13.8 4.5 4.2 2.6 2.4 3.4 1.7 1.2 6.3 37.6
Faktor plus 29 Mar 2022 53.6 10.2 13.7 4.7 3.8 3.1 2.2 3.7 2.0 2.3 0.7 39.9
NSPM 29 Mar 2022 45.4 8.2 18.0 8.0 3.7 2.5 2.2 3.5 2.0 2.9 3.6 27.4
ŠSM 28 Mar 2022 44.7 5.7 20.1 5.8 3.3 3.1 2.8 3.0 1.2 2.7 7.6 24.6
Nova S 14 Mar 2022 53.6 6.9 13.2 8.1 3.4 1.7 2.6 3.2 1.3 3.1 2.9[g] 34.4
Faktor plus 7 Mar 2022 53.4 10.1 14.0 5.0 3.9 3.0 2.1 3.6 1.8 1.5 1.9 39.4
NSPM 17 Feb 2022 41.4 7.4 16.6 12.1 3.1 2.4 2.1 3.4 2.1 2.3 7.1 24.8
Elections called, beginning of official campaigning
Sprint insight 9 Feb 2022 55.0 13.5 7.5 2.0 2.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 8.0 41.5
NSPM 4 Feb 2022 43.4 9.3 14.8 13.1 3.2 3.7 2.7 2.5 1.5 6.9 28.6
Faktor plus 30 Jan 2022 55.6 10.2 13.3 7.5 4.0 3.0 1.7 3.6 1.1 0.0 42.3
Faktor plus 20 Dec 2021 57.0 10.3 12.0 7.0 4.3 3.6 1.4 3.0 1.4 0.0 45.0
ŠSM 10 Dec 2021 50.1 7.8 17.9 8.8 2.9 2.2 1.1 2.7 0.7 0.9 5.9 31.6
Demostat 2 Dec 2021 55.0 16.0 9.0 7.0 5.0 8.0 39.0
United for the Victory of Serbia coalition formed, escalation of the environmental protests
Faktor plus 31 Oct 2021 58.3 10.4 5.4 2.7 1.9 1.5 4.3 3.4 1.5 2.9 1.4 7.3 48.7
Faktor plus 29 Sep 2021 58.0 9.3 5.1 2.9 1.4 1.3 4.3 3.6 1.7 2.7 1.2 8.5 48.7
Faktor plus 3 Aug 2021 58.2 9.0 4.5 2.5 1.2 1.4 2.7[h] 4.0 3.8 2.0 2.0 1.5 7.2 52.0
ŠSM 31 July 2021 53.8 7.0 6.4 4.9 1.9 1.2 9.4 3.9 2.9 1.6 1.4 1.4 4.2 46.8
Ipsos 27 June 2021 59.8 8.9 4.2 1.2 1.2 0.5 5.1 3.0 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.0 8.6 52.0
The Serbian Patriotic Alliance merges into the Serbian Progressive Party
Faktor plus 10 May 2021 60.0 3.4 8.1 3.3 2.2 0.4 1.5 3.9 3.9 1.6 2.0 1.8 7.9 51.9
Ipsos 5 April 2021 58.0 3.6 7.2 3.8 2.5 1.6 4.3 4.4 1.4 2.0 2.2 9.0 50.8
Faktor Plus 18 Feb 2021 60.3 4.2 8.3 3.2 2.4 1.5 3.7 3.8 1.5 2.2 1.4 7.5 52.0
Ipsos 1 Jan 2021 60.5 3.6 9.0 1.6 0.3 1.1 0.8 4.3 3.7 1.1 1.4 2.6 0.9 7.7 51.8
DW 19 Dec 2020 46.8 6.4 11.5 2.2 1.1 0.4 2.1 6.6 5.3 2.3 3.6 11.7 35.3
Faktor Plus 4 Sep 2020 59.1 5.1 9.0 3.1 2.3 2.0 19.4 50.1
2020 election 21 June 2020 60.6 3.8 10.4 Boycott 1.6 Boycott [i] 2.3 Boycott 1.4 2.0 [j] 12.8 50.2

Presidential electionEdit

Polling organization Date of publishment Aleksandar Vučić Zdravko Ponoš Biljana Stojković Miloš Jovanović Branka Stamenković Boško Obradović Milica Đurđević Miša Vacić Others Lead
Results 60.0 18.8 3.3 6.1 2.0 4.4 4.3 0.8 0.3 41.2
Ipsos 31 Mar 2022 60.1 16.4 5.0 5.5 2.2 2.8 4.9 0.3 2.8 43.7
ŠSM 28 Mar 2022 55.1 27.0 3.1 4.4 2.2 3.0 3.0 0.2 2.0 28.1
Sprint insight 9 Feb 2022 45.7 10.8 5.3 8.5 16.1 13.6 29.6
ŠSM 10 Dec 2021 46.9 11.6 5.6 4.0 6.1 25.8 35.3

ResultsEdit

Voting stations were opened from 07:00 (UTC+01:00) to 20:00, and there were 6,502,307 citizens in total that had the right to vote in the general elections.[441][442] According to preliminary results that were published by CRTA and Ipsos/CeSID, Aleksandar Vučić had won in the first round of the presidential elections, although the Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) had also lost its majority status in the National Assembly according to the parliamentary election results.[443][444][445] In diaspora, Vučić had won more votes than Ponoš.[446][447] SNS had managed to strengthen its presence in suburban and rural areas, although it had underperformed in major cities such as Belgrade, Novi Sad, Niš, and Valjevo.[448][449][450]

RIK had announced that voting will be repeated at some stations, effectively postponing the announcement of final results.[451] Voting was repeated five times; on 16 and 28 April, on 27 May, and on 23 and 30 June, and after which, official results were published online by the Republic Electoral Commission (RIK).[452][453][454] The Albanian Coalition of Preševo Valley (KSLP) initially gained a seat following the 28 April repeat election, although following the repeat election on 27 May, it lost its seat to the Socialist Party of Serbia; the coalition only needed 12 more votes in order to retain its seat in the National Assembly.[455] The Administrative Court rejected the results of repeated elections that were held on 27 May, and the fourth repeated election in Veliki Trnovac was set to be held on 23 June.[456][457] On the day of the election, the voting station in Veliki Trnovac did not open on time and members of the polling station committee did not agree on the division of roles. Additionally, a bomb threat was reported at the voting station, and because of it the election was postponed. RIK announced that the election would be repeated again on 30 June.[458][459][460] In the fifth repeat election, KSLP had won enough votes to retain its seat.[461][462]

Many crowds formed in polling stations across Serbia, mostly due to the simultaneous holding of elections at several levels, which slowed down the process, but also because of increased voter turnout.[463] In the end, the turnout was reported to be at around 59%, making it the largest turnout since the 2008 elections.[464] The elections also represented the biggest seat loss in the National Assembly since the 1992 elections, with the SNS-led coalition losing 68 seats.

PresidentEdit

CandidatePartyVotes%
Aleksandar VučićSerbian Progressive Party2,224,91460.01
Zdravko PonošUnited for the Victory of Serbia698,53818.84
Miloš JovanovićNational Democratic Alternative226,1376.10
Boško ObradovićDveriPOKS165,1814.46
Milica Đurđević StamenkovskiSerbian Party Oathkeepers160,5534.33
Biljana StojkovićWe Must122,3783.30
Branka StamenkovićSovereignists77,0312.08
Miša VacićSerbian Right32,9470.89
Total3,707,679100.00
Valid votes3,707,67997.63
Invalid/blank votes89,9332.37
Total votes3,797,612100.00
Registered voters/turnout6,502,30758.62
Source: Republic Electoral Commission[465]

ParliamentaryEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
Together We Can Do Everything1,635,10144.27–16.38120–68
United for the Victory of Serbia520,46914.09New38New
Ivica Dačić — Prime Minister of Serbia435,27411.79+1.4131–1
National Democratic Alternative204,4445.54+3.3015+15
We Must178,7334.84New13New
DveriPOKS144,7623.92New10New
Serbian Party Oathkeepers141,2273.82+2.3910+10
Sovereignists86,3622.34+0.0400
Serbian Radical Party82,0662.22+0.1700
SDSNova63,5601.72New0New
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians60,3131.63–0.605–4
Justice and Reconciliation Party35,8500.97–0.033–1
Stolen Babies31,1960.84New0New
DSHV–ZZV24,0240.65–0.302+2
Party of Democratic Action of Sandžak20,5530.56–0.212–1
Albanian Coalition of Preševo Valley10,1650.28–0.451–2
Russian Minority Alliance9,5690.26–0.4400
Roma Party6,3930.17New0New
Alternative for Changes3,2670.09New0New
Total3,693,328100.002500
Valid votes3,693,32897.04
Invalid/blank votes112,7222.96
Total votes3,806,050100.00
Registered voters/turnout6,502,30758.60
Source: Republic Electoral Commission[466]

AftermathEdit

 
A protest in front of the building of the Republic Electoral Commission (RIK), a day after the elections.

CeSID had reported that electoral irregularities occurred in the early hours of the election.[467][468] Later that evening, CRTA stated that multiple Bulgarian trains occurred during the vote, and that ballot stations in Belgrade declined to cooperate with electoral observers.[469][470] OSE has also stated that irregularities took place in Novi Sad.[471] CRTA and political activists had also noted that the election day was marked by high tensions, verbal and in several places, such as Belgrade, physical violence.[472][473][474] Dveri and the Party of Freedom and Justice had also reported irregularities in Niš.[475][476] ENEMO had stated that intimidation and vote buying affected the results of the elections, and that the process of voter registration lacked transparency.[477] Former SNS MP Bratislav Jugović and the leader of the Movement of Free Citizens (PSG), Pavle Grbović, were physically attacked outside of voting stations.[478][479]

The PACE monitoring mission evaluated that the "fundamental freedoms were largely respected, and voters were presented diverse political options, but a number of shortcomings resulted in an uneven playing field, favouring the incumbents". It further reported that "the combined impact of unbalanced access to the media, undue pressure on public sector employees to support the incumbents, significant campaign finance disparities and misuse of state resources resulted in unequal conditions for contestants". It added that "while media covered all electoral contestants, most public and private broadcasters with national coverage favored the incumbent president and the ruling coalition, limiting the opportunity of voters to make a fully informed choice." It concluded that PACE "welcomed the recent legislative changes, adopted following extensive dialogue among the ruling parties and some of the opposition, included some welcome improvements, but key aspects of the electoral process require further reform and implementation". Kyriakos Hadjiyianni, special coordinator and leader of the OSCE short-term observers, said, "this was a competitive campaign and, importantly, included opposition candidates this time, but the pervasive influence of the ruling parties gave them undue advantage".[480][481]

The Republic Electoral Commission (RIK) declared Vučić as the winner of the presidential election after counting 2% of the popular vote.[482] Following the announcement, Aris Movsesijan, the leader of the New Party (Nova) criticized their approach to the announcement, including political analyst Duško Radosavljević.[483][484] It was later revealed that preliminary results would be visible on their website during the counting process.[482][485] Shortly after 23:00 (UTC+01:00), Vučić declared his victory.[486] He announced in a televised victory speech, that he had secured roughly 60% of the popular vote, adding, "I am pleased that a huge number of people voted and showed the democratic nature of Serbian society".[487] After the proclamation of the preliminary results, Vučić was congratulated by Emmanuel Macron, Vladimir Putin, Miloš Zeman, Zoran Milanović, and others.[488][489] Milorad Dodik had also congratulated him, after stating his support for him a few days prior to the election.[490][491] The Ecological Uprising and Assembly of Free Serbia, who are a part of the We Must coalition, had organized a protest in front of the RIK building on 4 April.[492]

Following the election, Zdravko Ponoš left the People's Party.[493] Further disagreements between the coalition partners in the United for the Victory of Serbia coalition broke out, with Vuk Jeremić and his People's Party opposing the meeting between Dragan Đilas and Vučić.[494] Tepić accused Jeremić of populism.[495] Pavle Grbović, the leader of the Movement of Free Citizens, stated that his party might leave the coalition in order to continue alone, while Zoran Lutovac, the leader of the Democratic Party, stated that "United for the Victory of Serbia was just a pre-election coalition and that its fate would depend on the official results for the Belgrade City Assembly election"; he had also stated that he would opt to create a wide alliance of moderate parties.[496][497] Regarding the parliamentary groups, Lutovac said that the parties would not form a joint parliamentary group that would be composed of parties inside the coalition.[498] In June, Aleksandar Jovanović Ćuta, Biljana Stojković, and Nebojša Zelenović held a founding assembly of their political party, which was named Together.[499][500] It was also speculated that the Democratic Party would join the We Must coalition.[501][502]

Government formationEdit

The 2022 election was the first one since 2014 in which the Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) did not win a majority of seats in the National Assembly, and because of it, SNS would have to form a coalition government.[503] Observers had stated that it is unclear whether SNS might form a coalition with the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) due to the their pro-Russian stance that was present during the campaign.[504] Vučić was sworn in again as president on 31 May; during his speech he had stated that the government would be formed by the end of July and that the government would potentially impose sanctions on Russia due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[505][506] Observers had stated that SPS would participate in the formation of the government, while Dačić had confirmed that he would be open to extend the cooperation between SPS and SNS.[507][508] The Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina (DSHV) and Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (VMSZ) had announced that they would be willing to join the government.[509][510]

In late April, Vučić stated that consultations for the formation of the government would begin in late May or early June.[511] He had also said that he would first meet with lawyers in order to discuss the law regarding the formation.[512] Initially, the consultations were set to begin in early July, although the consultations were dellayed following the fifth repeat election in Veliki Trnovac, which was held on 30 June.[457][513] Vučić had announced that consultations with all parliamentary lists would begin on 14 July.[514] The consultations lasted until 18 July.[515] The first constitutive session of the 2022–2026 convocation was held on 1 August,[516] while the government is set to be formed before November.[517][518] In late July, Vučić had announced that the government would be formed in mid-August.[519] Prime Minister Ana Brnabić received the mandate to form a new government on 27 August.[520]

Notes and referencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 100 UN member states (with another 13 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 93 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.
  2. ^ a b Due to a dispute between Vojislav Mihailović and Žika Gojković, Mihailović had to register under the "For Kingdom of Serbia" organization because, at the time of the election, Gojković still legally represented the leadership of POKS.
  3. ^ The Serbo-Russian Movement is made up of the Leviathan Movement, two political parties and ten organizations.
  4. ^ Also endorsed by the Civic Democratic Forum.
  5. ^ Also nominated by the Socialist Party of Serbia and Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians. The candidate had also received support from the Serbian Radical Party and Justice and Reconciliation Party.
  6. ^ Initially, Ivica Dačić was supposed to appear at the debate, although he did not end up coming, and instead, Snežana Paunović appeared as his replacement.
  7. ^ Excluding 8.8% that were undecided and 6.1% that refused to answer.
  8. ^ As "Environmental movements".
  9. ^ POKS won 2.7% of the popular vote, while DSS won 2.24%.
  10. ^ SDS boycotted the election, while Nova won 0.24% of the popular vote.

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