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Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1987.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990

Contents

PlantsEdit

Newly described angiospermsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acer alaskense[2]

Sect and sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Latest Paleocene

Chickaloon Formation

  USA

Oldest Acer sp in Alaska; Only species of the section Alaskana

Acer ashwilli[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

early Oligocene

John Day Formation

  USA

extinct member of section Ginnala

Acer browni[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

early - Middle Miocene

Collawash flora and several other floras

  USA   Canada

extinct member of section Parviflora

Acer castorrivularis[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Late Eocene

Beaver Creek Flora, Montana

  USA

extinct member of section Macrantha

Acer clarnoense[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Late Eocene

John Day Formation

  USA

extinct member of section Macrantha

Acer dettermani[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Late Eocene - early Oligocene

Meshik Volcanics

  USA

extinct member of section Macrantha

Acer douglasense[2]

sect and sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

early Eocene

West Foreland Formation

  USA

Only species of the section Douglasa

Acer eonegundo[2]

Sp. nov.

valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Middle-Late Eocene

"Bull Run" Flora

  USA

extinct species of Acer sect. Negundo

Acer ferrignoi[2]

sp nov

valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Late Miocene

Lolo pass flora, Oregon

  USA

Member of Acer Section Rubra

Acer hillsi[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Ypresian

Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

one of two species in the extinct section Stewarta

Acer ivanofense[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Latest Eocene - Early Oligocene

Meshik Volcanics

  USA

extinct member of section Glabra

Acer kenaicum[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Oligocene

Tsadaka Formation & Tyonek Formation

  USA

extinct member of section Rubra

Acer latahense[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

early - Late Miocene

Latah, Mascall, and Succor Creek Formations

  USA

extinct member of Acer section Macrantha

Acer lincolnense

Sp. nov.

valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Late Eocene

Beaver Creek Flora

  USA

A possible member of Acer sect. Cissifolia

Acer republicense[2]

Sect and sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Ypresian

Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

type and only species in the extinct section Republica

Acer rousei[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Ypresian

Allenby formation & McAbee Site

  Canada

only species in the extinct section Rousea

Acer smileyi[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Late Oligocene - Middle Miocene

Clarkia and other formations

  USA

extinct member of section Parviflora

Acer stewarti[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Ypresian

Allenby formation

  Canada

one of two species in the extinct section Stewarta

Acer stonebergae[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Ypresian

Allenby and Klondike Mountain Formations

  Canada   USA

one of three species in the extinct section Torada

Acer taggarti[2]

sp nov

valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Middle Miocene

Mascall Formation

  USA

Member of Acer Section Rubra

Acer taurocursum[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Late Eocene

Bull Run Flora, Nevada

  USA

extinct member of section Rubra

Acer toradense[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Ypresian

Allenby and Klondike Mountain Formations

  Canada   USA

one of three species in the extinct section Torada

Acer traini[2]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Early to middle Miocene

Trout Creek flora and others

  USA  Canada

extinct member of section Glabra

Acer washingtonense[2]

Sect and sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Tanai

Ypresian

Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

type species in the extinct section Torada

Acer whitebirdense[2]

Comb nov

Valid

(Ashlee) Wolfe & Tanai

Middle Miocene

White Bird Flora

  USA

member of Acer section Rubra

Barghoornia[3]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Monotypic with the species Barghoornia oblongifolia

Betula leopoldae[3]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Bohlenia[3]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Carya washingtonensis[4]

sp nov

Valid

Manchester

Langhian

Badger Pocket-Squaw Creek, Wanapum Basalts

  USA

described from one of the oldest rodent nut caches known

Langeria[3]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Monotypic with the species Langeria magnifica

Macginitiea[3]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Photinia pageae[3]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Republica[3]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

An incertae sedis angiosperm
possibly of Hamamelididae affiliations
Type species R. hickeyi, also includes R. kummerensis & R. litseafolia

Rhus malloryi[3]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

A sumac relative

Schoepfia republicensis[3]

Comb nov

Valid

(LaMotte) Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

A Schoepfia relative,
moved from Cornus republicensis Lamotte 1944

Tilia johnsoni[3]

sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Tsukada[3]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Wolfe & Wehr

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

  USA

Monotypic with the species Tsukada davidiifolia

MolluscsEdit

Newly described bivalvesEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Tuarangia gravgaerdensis[5]

sp nov

valid

Berg-Madsen

Middle Cambrian

Bornholm

  Denmark

second Tuarangia species named

ArthropodsEdit

Newly described arachnidsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Attercopus[6]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Shear et al.

Givetian

Gilboa, New York

  USA

one of the oldest spiders

Newly described crustaceansEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Homarus morrisi[7]

Sp nov

Valid

Quayle

YpresianBartonian

  England

Newly described insectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Baikuris[8]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Dlussky

Santonian

Taimyr amber

  Russia

A sphecomyrmine ant.
Two species B. mandibularis and B. mirabilis

Sapho armissani

Sp nov.

Valid

Nel

Stampian

Narbonne Basin

  France

A Calopterygid damselfly.

VertebratesEdit

Newly described dinosaursEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aeolosaurus[10]

gen et sp nov

Valid taxon

Powell

Late Cretaceous

Angostura Colorada Formation

  Argentina

A titanosaurian

Aragosaurus[11]

Gen et sp nov

Valid taxon

Sanz, Buscalioni, Casanovas-Cladellas, & Santafé

Hauterivian-Barremian

  Spain

Borogovia[12]

gen et sp nov

Valid taxon

Osmólska

Late Cretaceous

  Mongolia

"Clevelanotyrannus"[13]

gen et sp nov

Nomen nudum

Bakker, Williams & Currie vide: Currie

Late Cretaceous

Lance Formation

  USA

determined to be a junior synonym of Nanotyrannus

"Jiangjunmiaosaurus"

nomen nudum

Anonymous

Middle Jurassic

Shishugou Formation

  China

Junior synonym of Monolophosaurus

 
Monolophosaurus

Maleevus[14]

gen et sp nov

Valid taxon

Tumanova

Late Cretaceous

  Mongolia

Pseudolagosuchus[15]

Gen et sp nov

Valid taxon

Arcucci

Ladinian (Middle Triassic)

Chañares Formation

  Argentina

possibly a jr synonym of Lewisuchus

Ugrosaurus[16]

gen et sp nov

Junior synonym

Cobabe & David Fastovsky

Late Cretaceous

Hell Creek Formation

  USA

Junior synonym of Triceratops

"Unicerosaurus"

Nomen nudum

Baugh vide: Armstrong

Glen Rose, Texas?

  USA

Possibly a Fish neural spine, never formally described

Walkeria[17]

gen et sp nov

name preoccupied

Chatterjee

Late Triassic

Maleri Formation

  India

Name preoccupied by a bryozoan. Renamed Alwalkeria in 1994.

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aenigmavis sapea [18]

jr synonym

Gen et sp. nov.

Peters

Middle Eocene

Messel pit

  Germany

An Ameghinornithidae, jr synonym of Strigogyps sapea.[19] it is the type species of the genus Aenigmavis Peters, 1987.

Aythya chauvirae [20]

Valid

Sp nov.

Cheneval

Middle Miocene

  France

An Anatidae.

Calcardea junnei [21]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Gingerich

Early Eocene

Wilwood Formation

  USA

Monotypic with C. junnei. Originally classified as a member of Ardeidae; this interpretation was rejected by Mayr, Gingerich & Smith (2019), who considered this bird to be a member of Telluraves, and claimed that it resembled parrot-like taxon Vastanavis.[22]

Carduelis triasi [23]

Valid

Sp nov.

Alcover & Florit

Late Pleistocene-Holocene

La Palma

  Canary Islands

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Dromaius gidju [24]

jr synonym

Sp nov.

Patterson & Vickers Rich

Middle Miocene

Wipajiri Formation

  Australia

A Dromaiidae, jr synonym of Emuarius gidju.[25]

Ducula david [26]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Balouet & Olson

Holocene

Uvea

  Wallis and Futuna

A Columbidae.

Eoglaucidium pallas [27]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Fischer

Middle Eocene

Messel pit & Geiseltal

  Germany

A Sandcoleid, monotypic with E. pallas.

Janipes nymphaeobates [28]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Rasmussen, Olson, & Simons

Early Oligocene

Jebel Qatrani Formation

  Egypt

A Jacanidae, monotypic with J. nymphaeobates

Juncitarsus merkeli [29]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Dieter S. Peters

Middle Eocene

Messel pit

  Germany

A Juncitarsid

Necrobyas medius [30]

jr synonym

Sp. nov.

Mourer-Chauviré

Eocene or Oligocene

Phosphorites du Quercy

  France

A Tytonid, transferred to Prosybris medius in 1998.[31]

Nupharanassa [28]

Valid

Gen et sp. nov.

Rasmussen, Olson, & Simons

Early Oligocene

Jebel Qatrani Formation

  Egypt

A Jacanidae,
two species N. bulotorum and N. tolutaria.

Otis khosatzkii [32]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Bocheński & Kurochkin

Late Pliocene

  Moldova

An Otidid

Otis paratetrax [32]

Valid

Sp nov.

Bocheński & Kurochkin

Late Pliocene

  Moldova
  Ukraine

An Otididae.

Palaeoalectoris [33]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Hou

Argonian

Xiacaowan Formation

  China

A Threskiornithid, monotypic with P. songlinensis.

Palaeobyas [30]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Mourer-Chauviré

Eocene or Oligocene

Phosphorites du Quercy

  France

A Sophiornithid, monotypic with P. cracrafti.

Palaeoglaux [30]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Mourer-Chauviré

Late Eocene

  France

A Palaeoglaucid, monotypic with P. perrierensis.

Palaeotyto cadurcensis [30]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Mourer-Chauviré

Eocene or Oligocene

Phosphorites du Quercy,

  France

A Sophiornithid,[34] monotypic with P. cadurcensis.

Petralca austriaca [35]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Mlíkovský

Late Oligocene & Early Miocene

  Austria

Monotypic with P. austriaca. Originally though to be an auk; Göhlich & Mayr (2018) reinterpreted it as a member of Gaviiformes.[36]

Platalea tiangangensis [33]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Hou

Argonian

Xiacaowan Formation

  China

A Phasianid.

Prefica [37]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Olson

Early Eocene

Green River Formation

  USA

A Steatornithidae, Preficinae, monotypic with P. nivea

Sophiornis[30]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Mourer-Chauviré

Eocene or Oligocene

Phosphorites du Quercy

  France

A Sophiornithid, monotypic with S. quercynus

Vini sinotoi [38]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Steadman & Zarriello

Holocene

Ua Huka;
Hiva Oa;
Tahuata

  French Polynesia

A Psittacidae, Loriinae.

Vini vidivici [38]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Steadman & Zarriello

Holocene

Tahuata

  French Polynesia

A Psittacidae, Loriinae.

Tytthostonyx glauconiticus [39]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Olson & Parris,

Maastrichtian

Hornerstown Formation

  USA

A Tytthostonychid, monotypic with T. glauconiticus

Xenerodiopus [28]

Valid

Gen et sp nov.

Rasmussen, Olson, & Simons

Early Oligocene

Jebel Qatrani Formation

  Egypt

A Xenerodiopid, monotypic with X. mycter

PterosaursEdit

New taxaEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes

Arambourgiania

Gen nov

Valid

Nesov, Kanznyshkina, & Cherepanov

Maastrichtian

  Jordan

New generic name for "Titanopteryx philadelphiae"

Tropeognathus

Gen et sp nov

jr synonym?

Wellnhofer

Cenomanian

Santana Formation

  Brazil

possibly a jr synonym of Ornithocheirus

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Wolfe, J.A.; Tanai, T. (1987). "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Distribution of Acer (maples) in the Cenozoic of Western North America". Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and Mineralogy. 22 (1): 1–246.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wolfe, J.A.; Wehr, W.C. (1987). "Middle Eocene Dicotyledonous Plants from Republic, Northeastern Washington". United States Geological Survey Bulletin. 1597: 1–25.
  4. ^ Manchester, S. R. (1987). "The fossil history of the Juglandaceae". Monographs in Systematic Botany. 21: 1–137. ISSN 0161-1542.
  5. ^ Elicki, O.; Gürsu, S. (2009). "First record of Pojetaia runnegari Jell, 1980 and Fordilla Barrande, 1881 from the Middle East (Taurus Mountains, Turkey) and critical review of Cambrian bivalves" (PDF). Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (2): 267–291. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0021-9.
  6. ^ P. A. Selden, W. A. Shear & M. D. Sutton (2008). "Fossil evidence for the origin of spider spinnerets, and a proposed arachnid order" (PDF proofs). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (52): 20781–20785. doi:10.1073/pnas.0809174106. PMC 2634869. PMID 19104044.
  7. ^ W. J Quayle (1987). "English Eocene Crustacea (lobsters and stomatopod)" (PDF). Palaeontology. 30 (3): 581–612. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-09.
  8. ^ Perrichot, V. (2015). "A new species of Baikuris (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Sphecomyrminae) in mid-Cretaceous amber from France" (PDF). Cretaceous Research. 52 (part B): 585–590. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.03.005.
  9. ^ Sanders, F.; Manley, K.; & Carpenter, K. 2001. Gastroliths from the Lower Cretaceous sauropod *Cedarosaurus weiskopfae*. pp. 166-180. In: Tanke, Darren; Carpenter, Ken, eds. (2001). Mesozoic Vertebrate Life: New Research Inspired by the Paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33907-2.
  10. ^ Powell, J.E. 1987. The Late Cretaceous Fauna of Los Alamitos, Patagonia, Argentina. Part VI - the Titanosaurids: Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales <<Bernardion Rivadavia>>, Instituto National de Investigacion de las Ciencias Naturales, Paleontologia, tomo III, n. 3, pp. 147-153.
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  12. ^ Osmolska H (1987). "Borogovia gracilicrus gen. et sp. n., a new troodontid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 32 (1–2): 133–150.
  13. ^ Bakker, Williams & Currie, 1987 (Weishampel et al. 1990 cite Bakker, R.T., M. Williams, and P. Currie. 1988. Nanotyrannus, a new genus of pygmy tyrannosaur, from the latest Cretaceous of Montana. Hunteria 1: pp. 1-30.) vide Currie, P.J. 1987. Theropods of the Judith River Formation of Dinosaur Frovincial Park, Alberta. in: Currie, P.J. E.H. Koster (eds.), 4th Symp. Mesozoic Terr. Ecosyst. Short Paper, Tyrrell Mus. Palaeontol., Drumheller, Alberta [Clevelanotyrannus citation in bibliography]: pp. 52-60.
  14. ^ Tumanova, T.A. 1987. The armored dinosaurs of Mongolia. Joint Soviet-Mongolian Paleontol. Expedition Trans. 32: pp. 1-80.
  15. ^ Arcucci, A. 1987. Un nuevo Lagosuchidae (Thecodontia-Pseudosuchia) de la fauna de Los Chanares (Edad Reptile Chanarense, Triasic Medio), La Rioja, Argentina. Ameghiniana 24 (1- 2): pp. 89-94.
  16. ^ Cobabe E.A., Fastovsky D.E. (1987). "Urgosaurus olsoni, a new ceratopsian (Reptilia: Ornithischia) from the Hell Creek Formation of Eastern Montana". Journal of Paleontology. 61 (1): 148–154. doi:10.1017/s0022336000028298.
  17. ^ Chatterjee, S. 1987. A new theropod dinosaur from India with remarks on the Gondwana-Laurasia connection in the Late Triassic. In: Gondwana Six: Stratigraphy Sedimentology and Paleontology (G.D. McKenzie, Ed.). Geophysical Monogr. No. 41: pp. 183-189.
  18. ^ Dieter S. Peters (1987). "Ein "Phorusrhacide" aus dem Mittel-Eozän von Messel (Aves, Gruiformes: Cariamae)". Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie, Lyon. 99: 71–87.
  19. ^ Gerald Mayr (2005). ""Old World phorusrhacids" (Aves, Phorusrhacidae): a new look at Strigogyps ("Aenigmavis") sapea (Peters 1987)". PaleoBios. 25 (1): 11–16.
  20. ^ Jacques Cheneval (1987). "Les Anatidae (Aves: Anseriformes) du Miocène de France: Révision Systématique et Évolution". Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie, Lyon. 99: 137–157.
  21. ^ Philip D. Gingerich (1987). "Early Eocene Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) and Other Vertebrates in Freshwater Limestones of the Willwood Formation, Clark's Fork Basin, Wyoming" (PDF). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan. 27 (11): 275–320.
  22. ^ Gerald Mayr; Philip D. Gingerich; Thierry Smith (2019). "Calcardea junnei Gingerich, 1987 from the late Paleocene of North America is not a heron, but resembles the early Eocene Indian taxon Vastanavis Mayr et al., 2007". Journal of Paleontology. 93 (2): 359–367. doi:10.1017/jpa.2018.85.
  23. ^ Josep A. Alcover & F. Florit (1987). "Una Nueva Especie de Carduelis (Fringillidae) de La Palma". Vieraea. 17: 75–86.
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  25. ^ Walter E. Boles (1992). "Revision of Dromaius gidju Patterson and Rich 1987 from Riverleigh, Northwestern Queensland, Australia, With a Reassessment of Its Generic Position" (PDF). In Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring Pierce Brodkorb. Ed: Jonathan J. Becker, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series. 36: 195–208.
  26. ^ Jean Ch. Balouet & Storrs L. Olson (1987). "A New Extinct Species of Giant Pigeon (Columbidae: Ducula) from Archaeological Deposits on Wallis (Uvea) Island, South Pacific" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 100 (4): 769–775.
  27. ^ Karlheinz Fischer (1987). "Eulenreste (Eoglaucidium pallas) N. Gen., N. Sp. (Strigiformes, Aves) aus de Mitteleozänen Braunkohle des Geiseltals bei Halle (DDR)" (PDF). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Berlin 63, Supplement: Annalen für Ornithologie. 11: 137–142.
  28. ^ a b c D. Tab Rasmussen, Storrs L. Olson & Elwyn L. Simons (1987). "Fossil Birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation, Fayum Province, Egypt" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 62 (62): 1–20. doi:10.5479/si.00810266.62.1.
  29. ^ Dieter S. Peters (1987). "Juncitarsus merkeli, n. sp. Stützt die Ableitung der Flamingos von Regenpfeifervögeln (Aves: Charadriiformes: Phoenicopteridae)". Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. 97: 141–155.
  30. ^ a b c d e Cécile Mourer-Chauviré (1987). "Les Strigiformes (Aves) des Phosphorites du Quercy (France): Systématique, Biostratigraphie et Paléobiogéographie" (PDF). Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie, Lyon. 99: 89–135.
  31. ^ Jiří Mlíkovský (1998). "A New Barn Owl (Aves: Strigidae) from the Early Miocene of Germany, with Comments on the Fossil History of the Tytoninae" (PDF). Journal für Ornithologie. 139 (3): 247–261. doi:10.1007/bf01653335.
  32. ^ a b Zygmunt Bocheński & Evgeny N. Kurochkin (1987). "Pliocene Bustards (Aves: Otididae and Gryzajidae) of Moldavia and S. Ukraine". Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie, Lyon. 99: 173–187.
  33. ^ a b Hou Lianhai (1987). "The Aragonian Vertebrate Fauna of Xiacaowan, Jiang - 6. Aves" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 25 (1): 57–68.
  34. ^ Jiří Mlíkovský (2002). "Cenozoic Birds of the World Part 1 Europe" (PDF). Cenozoic Birds of the World. 1: 1–417. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-07. Retrieved 2014-08-26.
  35. ^ Jiří Mlíkovský (1987). "Eine Neue Alkenart (Aves: Alcidae) aus dem Ober-Oligozän Österreichs" (PDF). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Ser. A. 88: 131–147.
  36. ^ Ursula B. Göhlich; Gerald Mayr (2018). "The alleged early Miocene Auk Petralca austriaca is a Loon (Aves, Gaviiformes): restudy of a controversial fossil bird". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 30 (8): 1076–1083. doi:10.1080/08912963.2017.1333610.
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