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Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1991.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

Contents

ArthropodsEdit

Newly named insectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anochetus brevidentatus[2]

Sp nov

Valid

MacKay

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

A ponerin ant

Stenolestes hispanicus[3]

Sp nov

Valid

Nel

Vallesian

Bellver de Cerdanya

  Spain

A sieblosiid damselfly

MolluscaEdit

Newly named bivalvesEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Similodonta wahli[4]

Sp nov

Valid

Isakar

Late Ordovician

Arina Formation

ArchosauromorphsEdit

  • Sankar Chatterjee's discovery of a possible Triassic bird, Protoavis, if genuine, would push avian origins back almost 70 million years. The find ignites controversy over the connection between dinosaurs and birds.

Newly named dinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[5]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Alvarezsaurus[6]

Valid taxon

Jose Bonaparte

Late Cretaceous (Santonian)

Bajo de la Carpa Formation

An alvarezsaurid. with Useless hands.

Amargasaurus[7]

Valid taxon

Salgado and Jose Bonaparte

Early Cretaceous (Barremian)

La Amarga Formation

A dicraeosaurid. with Spines on its Neck

Amurosaurus[8]

Valid taxon

Bolotsky & Kurzanov

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Udurchukan Formation

A lambeosaurine hadrosaurid.

Andesaurus[9]

Valid taxon

Calvo and Bonaparte

Late Cretaceous (Santonian)

Bajo de la Carpa Formation

An alvarezsaurid.

Becklespinax[10]

Junior synonym

George Olshevsky.

Early Cretaceous (Valanginian)

Wadhurst Clay Formation

A junior objective synonym of Altispinax; new genus for "Acrocanthosaurus" altispinax Paul (1988).

Euronychodon[11]

Valid taxon

Telles-Antunes & Sigogneau-Russell

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

A troodontid.

Janenschia[12]

Valid taxon

Wild

Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian)

Tendaguru Formation

A non-titanosauriform macronarian; new genus for "Gigantosaurus" robustus E. Fraas (1908).

Protognathosaurus[10]

Valid taxon

George Olshevsky

Middle Jurassic (Bajocian)

Xiashaximiao Formation

A sauropod of uncertain affinities.

"Rioarribasaurus"[13]

Junior synonym

Hunt & S.G. Lucas

Late Triassic (late Norian-Rhaetian)

A junior synonym of Coelophysis.

"Seismosaurus"[14]

Junior synonym

Gillette

Tarascosaurus[15]

Valid taxon

Le Loeuff and Buffetaut

Taveirosaurus[11]

Valid taxon

Telles-Antunes & Sigogneau-Russell

Late Cretaceous

An ornithischian of unknown affinities.

Tochisaurus[16]

Valid taxon

Kurzanov and Osmolska

Cretaceous

"Ultrasauros"[10]

Junior synonym

George Olshevsky

Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)

Morrison Formation

Junior synonym of Supersaurus; replacement name for Ultrasaurus Jensen 1985 (preoccupied).

Valdoraptor[10]

Valid taxon

George Olshevsky

Early Cretaceous (late Valanginian)

Tunbridge Wells Formation

An ornithomimosaur; new genus for "Megalosaurus" oweni Lydekker (1889).

Velocisaurus[6]

Valid taxon

Jose Bonaparte

A Noasaur.

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aidemedia chascax [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Aidemedia lutetiae [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Molokai

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Aidemedia zanclops [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Apteribis brevis [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

A Threskiornithidae.

Asiahesperornis bazhanovi [19]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Lev A. Nessov

B. V. Prizemlin

Late Cretaceous

Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian,

Eginsai Formation

A Hesperornithiformes Fürbringer, 1888, Hesperornithidae Marsh, 1872.

Branta hylobadistes [18]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

An Anatidae.

Chelychelynechen quassus [18]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Kauai

An Anatidae, a moa-nalo, this is the type species of the genus.

Chloridops regiskongi [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Chloridops wahi [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Circus dossenus [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Molokai

An Accipitridae.

Ciridops tenax [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Kauai

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Corvus impluviatus [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

A Corvidae.

Corvus viriosus [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

A Corvidae.

Dendroscansor decurvirostris [20]

Valid

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Philip R. Millener

Trevor H. Worthy

Late Pleistocene

Otira Glacial Age

An Acanthisittidae.

Grallistrix auceps [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Kauai

A Strigidae.

Grallistrix erdmani [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

A Strigidae.

Grallistrix geleches [18]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Molokai

A Strigidae, the type species of the new genus.

Grallistrix orion [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

A Strigidae.

Hemignathus upupirostris [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Kauai

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, transferred to the genus Akialoa Olson et James, 1995 by Olson et James, 1995.[21]

Horusornis vianeyliaudae [22]

Valid

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Late Eocene

Phosphorites du Quercy

MP 17

An Accipitriformes, Horusornithidae Mourer-Chauviré, 1991, this is the type species of the new genus.

Orthiospiza howarthi [17]

Valid

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Maui

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Palaeocryptonyx hungaricus [23]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Dénes Jánossy

Late Miocene

MN 13

A Phasianidae, transferred to the genus Plioperdix Kretzoi, 1955 as Plioperdix hungarica Comb. nov. by Nikita V. Zelenkov & Andrey V. Panteleyev.[24]

Pavo aesculapi phasianoides [23]

Valid

Subsp. nov.

Dénes Jánossy

Late Miocene

A member of the family Phasianidae. Originally described as a subspecies of Pavo aesculapi; Zelenkov (2016) transferred it to the genus Syrmaticus and raised it to the rank of a separate species Syrmaticus phasianoides.[25]

Phalacrocorax kuehneanus [26]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Thomas Schlüter

Late Pliocene

Minjingu

A Phalacrocoracidae.

Phoeniconaias siamensis [27]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Jacques Cheneval

Léonard Ginsburg

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Benjavun Ratanasthien

Late Early Miocene

Li Mae

A Phoenicopteridae.

Porzana estramosi veterior [23]

Valid

Subsp. nov.

Dénes Jánossy

Late Miocene

A member of the family Rallidae. Originally described as a subspecies of Porzana estramosi; Zelenkov (2017) transferred it to the genus Zapornia and raised it to the rank of a separate species Zapornia veterior.[28]

Porzana keplerorum [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

A Rallidae.

Porzana menehune [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Molokai

A Rallidae.

Porzana ralphorum [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

A Rallidae.

Porzana severnsi [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

A Rallidae.

Porzana ziegleri [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

A Rallidae.

Protoavis texensis [29]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Sankar Chatterjee

Late Trias

Late Carnian-Early Norian

A Protoaviformes Chatterjee, 1991, Protoaviformes Chatterjee, 1991, the type and only species of the genus, no longer considered a bird.

Pseudodontornis tshulensis [30]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Aleksandr O. Averianov

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Olga R. Potapova

Lev A. Nessov

Late Paleocene

Landenian

A Pseudodontornithidae Lambrecht, 1933.

Pseudoseisuropsis nehuen [31]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Jorge I. Noriega

Early Pleistocene

Miramar Formation

A Furnariidae, Philydorinae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Ptaiochen pau [18]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Maui

An Anatidae, a moa-nalo, this is the type species of the genus.

Pterodroma jugabilis [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

A Procellariidae.

Rallicrex polgardiensis [23]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Dénes Jánossy

Late Miocene

MN 13

A member of the family Rallidae. Originally described as a species of Rallicrex; Zelenkov (2017) transferred this species to the genus Rallus.[28]

Telespiza persecutrix [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu, Kauai

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Telespiza ypsilon [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Molokai, Maui

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Thambetochen xanion [18]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Oahu

An Anatidae, a moa-nalo.

Tyto campiterrae [23]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Dénes Jánossy

Late Miocene

MN 13

A Tytonidae.

Vangulifer mirandus [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Maui

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Vangulifer neophasis [17]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Maui

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Xestospiza conica [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Kauai

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae.

Xestospiza fastigialis [17]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu, Molokai, Maui

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, the type species of the new genus.

Genera no longer considered to be birdsEdit

  • Protoavis. The avian status of Protoavis has since been almost universally rejected by paleontologists.

PterosaursEdit

New taxaEdit

Name Status Authors Location Images

Bennettazhia

Valid

Nesov

SynapsidsEdit

Non-mammalianEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Apsisaurus[32]

Valid

  • Laurin

Lower Permian

Archer City Formation

Formerly assigned as an eosuchian diapsid, was restudied an classified as a varanopid synapsid.[33]

Ctenorhachis[34]

Valid

  • Hook
  • Hotton

Upper Permian

A sphenacodontid synapsid.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ MacKay, W. P. (1991). "Anochetus brevidentatus, new species, a second fossil Odontomachiti ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Journal of the New York Entomological Society. 99: 138–140.
  3. ^ Nel, Nel (1991). "Description de quelques Sieblosiidae fossiles nouveaux (Odonata, Zygoptera, Lestoidea). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie (N.S.)". 8: 367–375.
  4. ^ Hints, L.; Oraspõld, A.; Kaljo, D. (2000). "Stratotype of the Porkuni Stage with comments on the Röa Member (Uppermost Ordovician, Estonia)". Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology. 49 (3): 177–199.
  5. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  6. ^ a b Bonaparte, J.F. 1991. Los vertebrados fosiles de la Formacion Rio Colorado de Neuquen y cercanias, Cretacico Superior, Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Revidadia" Paleontologia 4 (3): pp. 17-23.
  7. ^ Salgado, L. and J.F. Bonaparte. 1991. Un Nuevo sauropodo Dicraeosauridae, Amargasaurus gen. et sp. nov., de la Formacion La Amarga, Neocomiano de la Provincia del Nuequen, Argentina. Ameghiniana 28: pp. 333-346.
  8. ^ Bolotsky, Yu. L. and S.K. Kurzanov. 1991. The hadrosaurs of the Amur region. In: Geology of the Pacific Border: pp.94-103.
  9. ^ Calvo, J.O. and J.F. Bonaparte, J.F. 1991. Andesaurus delgadoi gen. et sp. nov. (Saurischia-Sauropoda), dinosaurio Titanosauridae de la Formación Río Limay (Albiano-Cenomaniano), Neuquén, Argentina. Ameghiniana 28: pp. 303-310.
  10. ^ a b c d Olshevsky, G. 1991. A Revision of the Parainfraclass Archosauria Cope, 1869, Excluding the Advanced Crocodylia. Mesozoic Meanderings 2 (1st printing): iv + 196 pages.
  11. ^ a b Telles-Antunes, M. and D. Sigogneau-Russell, 1991. Nouvelles donnees sur les Dinosaures du Cretae superieur du Portugal. Compte rendu hebdomadaire des séances de l’Académie des Sciences Paris, tomo 313, seire 2: pp. 113-119.
  12. ^ Wild, R. 1991. Janenschia n. g. robusta (E.Frass 1908) pro Tornieria robusta (E. Fraas 1908) (Reptilia, Saurischia, Sauropodomorpha). Stuttgarteer Beitrage zur Naturkude Serie B (Geologie und Paleontologie) 173: pp. 1-4.
  13. ^ Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas. 1991. Rioarribasaurus, a new name for a Late Triassic dinosaur from New Mexico (USA). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 6 (3/4): pp. 191-198.
  14. ^ Gillette. D.D. 1991. Seismosaurus halli, gen. et sp. nov., a new sauropod dinosaur from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) of New Mexico, USA. J. Vert. Paleontol. 11 (4): pp. 417-433.
  15. ^ Le Loeuff, J. and E. Buffetaut. 1991. Tarascosaurus salluvicus, new genus new species, a theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of southern France. Geobios 24 (5): pp. 585-594.
  16. ^ Kurzanov, S.M. and H. Osmolska. 1991. Tochisaurus nemegtensis gen. et sp. n., a new troodontid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Mongolia. Acta Palaeont. Polonica. 36 (1): pp. 69-76.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Helen F. James; Storrs L. Olson (1991). "Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds From the Hawaiian Islands: Part II. Passeriformes" (PDF). Ornithological Monographs. 46 (46): 1–88. doi:10.2307/40166713. JSTOR 40166713.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Storrs L. Olson; Helen F. James (1991). "Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds From the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes" (PDF). Ornithological Monographs. 45 (45): 1–88. doi:10.2307/40166794. JSTOR 40166794.
  19. ^ Lev A. Nessov; B. V. Prizemlin (1991). "Krupnyye evolyutsionno prodvinutyye neletayushchiye morskiye ptitsy odryada gesperornisoobraznykh pozdnego senona Turgayskogo proliva: pervyye nakhodki gruppy v SSSR [Large, Evolutionarily Advanced, Flightless Marine Birds of the Order Hesperornithiformes from the Late Senonian of the Turgai Strait: The first Finds of this Group in the USSR.] [in Russian, with English summary]". Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR. 239: 85–107.
  20. ^ Philip R. Millener; Trevor H. Worthy (1991). "Contribution to New Zealand's Late Quaternary Avifauna. II: Dendroscansor decurvirostris, a New Genus and Species of Wren (Aves: Acantisittidae)". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 21 (2): 179–200. doi:10.1080/03036758.1991.10431406.
  21. ^ Storrs L. Olson; Helen R. James (1995). "Nomenclature of the Hawaiian Akialoas and Nukupuus (Aves: Drepanidini)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 108 (3): 373–387.
  22. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré (1991). "Les Horusornithidae Nov. Fam., Accipitriformes (Aves) A Articulation Intertarsienne Hyperflexible de l'Éocène du Quercy". Géobios, Mémoire Spécial. 24 (supplement 1): 183–192. doi:10.1016/s0016-6995(66)80023-2.
  23. ^ a b c d e Dénes Jánossy (1991). "Late Miocene Bird Remains from Polgárdi (W-Hungary)". Aquila. 98: 13–35.
  24. ^ Nikita V. Zelenkov; Andrey V. Panteleyev (2014). "Three bird taxa (Aves: Anatidae, Phasianidae, Scolopacidae) from the Late Miocene of the Sea of Azov (Southwestern Russia)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. in press (3): 515–527. doi:10.1007/s12542-014-0238-0.
  25. ^ Nikita V. Zelenkov (2016). "Revision of non-passeriform birds from Polgárdi (Hungary, Late Miocene): 2. Galliformes". Paleontological Journal. 50 (6): 623–634. doi:10.1134/S0031030116060162.
  26. ^ Thomas Schlüter (1991). "Systematik, Palökologie und Biostratonomie von Phalacrocorax kuehneanus nov. spec., einem Fossilen Kormoran (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) aus Mutmasslich Oberpliozänen Phosporiten N-Tansanias". Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe A: Geologie und Paläontologie. 134: 279–309.
  27. ^ Jacques Cheneval; Léonard Ginsburg; Cécile Mourer-Chauviré; Benjavun Ratanasthien (1991). "The Miocene Avifauna of the Li Mae Long Locality, Thailand: Systematics and Palaeoecology". Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences. 6 (2): 117–126. doi:10.1016/0743-9547(91)90103-5.
  28. ^ a b N. V. Zelenkov (2017). "Revision of non-passeriform birds from Polgárdi (Hungary, Upper Miocene): 3. Neoaves". Paleontological Journal. 51 (2): 203–213. doi:10.1134/S0031030117020162.
  29. ^ Sankar Chatterjee (1991). "Cranial Anatomy and Relationships of A New Triassic Bird from Texas". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 332 (1265): 277–342. doi:10.1098/rstb.1991.0056.
  30. ^ Aleksandr O. Averianov; Andrei V. Panteleyev; Olga R. Potapova; Lev A. Nessov (1991). "Lozhnozubyye ptitsy (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Odontopterygia) pozdnego paleotsena i eotsena zapadnoy okrainy drevney Azii. [Bony-toothed Birds (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Odontopterygia) of the Late Paleocene and Eocene of the Western Margin of Ancient Asia.] [in Russian, with English summ.]". Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR. 239: 3–12.
  31. ^ Jorge I. Noriega (1991). "Un Nuevo Género de Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) del Pleistoceno Inferior-Medio de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina". Ameghiniana. 28: 317–323.
  32. ^ Laurin, M. (1991). "The osteology of a Lower permian eosuchian from Texas and a review of diapsid phylogeny". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 101: 59–95. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1991.tb00886.x.
  33. ^ Reisz, R.R.; Laurin, M.; Marjanovic, D. (2010). "Apsisaurus witteri from the Lower Permian of Texas: yet another small varanopid synapsis, not a diapsid". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 30 (5): 1628–1631. doi:10.1080/02724634.2010.501441.
  34. ^ Hook, R.W.; Hotton, N. (1991). "A New Sphenacodontid Pelycosaur (Synapsida) from the Wichita Group, Lower Permian of North-Central Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 11 (1): 37–44. doi:10.1080/02724634.1991.10011374.