Loriinae is a subfamily of psittacine birds, one of the five subfamilies that make up the family Psittaculidae. It consists of three tribes, the lories and lorikeets (Loriini), the budgerigar (Melopsittacini) and the fig parrots (Cyclopsittini), which are small birds, mostly of bright colors and inhabitants of Oceania and the islands of Southeast Asia.

Rainbow lorikeet.jpg
Rainbow lorikeet (T. moluccanus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittaculidae
Subfamily: Loriinae
Selby, 1836


Traditionally it was considered that the lories were the only members of the subfamily Loriinae, or were integrated into their own family, Loriidae,[1] but currently they are classified as a tribe, Loriini, within a larger subfamily Loriinae. The genetic studies showed that the lories are closely related to the budgerigar and the fig parrots of the genera Cyclopsitta and Psittaculirostris,[2][3][4][5][6] that form the other two tribes that make up the subfamily, Melopsittacini and Cyclopsittini, respectively. Loriinae is integrated as one of the five subfamilies of the family Psittaculidae, together with Psittaculinae, Platycercinae, Psittacellinae, Agapornithinae; and in turn Psittaculidae forms together with two families more the superfamily Psittacoidea.


The following most recent classification, based on the most relevant research in the field.[7][2][4][8][9][10]

Tribe Cyclopsittini:

Tribe Loriini:

Tribe Melopsittacini:

  • Genus Melopsittacus
    • Budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (also called common parakeet or shell parakeet, they kind of look like rosellas)


  1. ^ Forshaw, Joseph M.; Cooper, William T. (1981) [1973, 1978]. Parrots of the World (corrected second ed.). David & Charles, Newton Abbot, London. ISBN 0-7153-7698-5.
  2. ^ a b Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger E. E.; Matsumoto T.; Eberhard J. R.; Graves G. R.; Sanchez J. J.; Capelli S.; Muller H.; Scharpegge J.; Chambers G. K.; Fleischer R. C. (2008). A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 25. Mol Biol Evol. pp. 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385. PMID 18653733.
  3. ^ Astuti, Dwi; Azuma, Noriko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Higashi, Seigo (2006). "Phylogenetic relationships within parrots (Psittacidae) inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene sequences". Zoological Science. 23 (2): 191–98. doi:10.2108/zsj.23.191. hdl:2115/54809. PMID 16603811. S2CID 35879495.
  4. ^ a b de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 706–721. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013. PMID 16099384.
  5. ^ Tokita, Masayoshi; Kiyoshi, Takuya; Armstrong, Kyle N. (30 October 2007). "Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony". Evolution & Development. 9 (6): 590–601. doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00199.x. PMID 17976055. S2CID 46659963.
  6. ^ Christidis, L; Schodde, R; Shaw, D. D; Maynes, S. F (1991). "Relationships among the Australo-Papuan Parrots, Lorikeets, and Cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes): Protein Evidence". Condor. 93 (2): 302–17. doi:10.2307/1368946. JSTOR 1368946.
  7. ^ Joseph, L.; Toon, A.; Schritzinger, E. E.; Wright, T. F.; Schodde, R (2012). "A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3205: 26–40. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3205.1.2.
  8. ^ Schweizer, Manuel; Seehausen, Ole; Hertwig, Stefan T. (2011). "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography. 38 (11): 2176–2194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x.
  9. ^ Joseph, Leo; Toon, Alicia; Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Wright, Timothy F. (2011). "Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera Psittacella and Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 675–684. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.017. PMID 21453777.
  10. ^ Schweizer, Manuel; Seehausen, Ole; Güntert, Marcel; Hertwig, Stefan T. (March 2010). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54 (3): 984–994. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021. PMID 19699808.
  11. ^ "UNEP-WCMC Species Database Lorius amabilis". Unep-wcmc.org. Retrieved 2013-02-09.
  12. ^ "UNEP-WCMC Species Database Lorius tibialis". Unep-wcmc.org. Retrieved 2013-02-09.