The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous Epoch or Upper Cretaceous Series. It spans the time between 86.3 ± 0.7 mya (million years ago) and 83.6 ± 0.7 mya. The Santonian is preceded by the Coniacian and is followed by the Campanian.
|Regional usage||Global (ICS)|
|Time scale(s) used||ICS Time Scale|
|Time span formality||Formal|
|Lower boundary definition||FAD of the Inoceramid Bivalve Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus|
|Lower boundary GSSP||Olazagutia, Spain|
|Lower GSSP ratified||January 2013|
|Upper boundary definition||Base of Chron C33r|
|Upper boundary GSSP||Bottaccione, Gubbio, Italy|
|Upper GSSP ratified||October 2022|
Stratigraphic definition edit
The base of the Santonian Stage is defined by the appearance of the inoceramid bivalve Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus. The GSSP (official reference profile) for the base of the Santonian Stage is located near Olazagutia, Spain; it was ratified by the Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy in 2012. The Santonian's top (the base of the Campanian Stage) is informally marked by the extinction of the crinoid Marsupites testudinarius. A GSSP for the top of the Santonian was ratified in October 2022 in Bottaccione, Gubbio, Italy.
The Santonian is sometimes subdivided into Lower, Middle and Upper Substages. In the Tethys domain the Santonian is coeval with a single ammonite biozone: that of Placenticeras polyopsis. Biostratigraphy based on inoceramids, nanoplankton or forams is more detailed.
- International Commission on Stratigraphy. "ICS - Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org.
- Lamolda, M.; Paul, C.; Peryt, D.; Pons, J. (March 2014). "The Global Boundary Stratotype and Section Point (GSSP) for the base of the Santonian Stage, "Cantera de Margas", Olazagutia, northern Spain". Episodes. 37 (1): 2–13. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2014/v37i1/001. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- Jarvis, Ian; et al. (2023). "Carbon isotopes, palynology and stratigraphy of the Santonian–Campanian boundary: The GSSP auxiliary sections, Seaford Head (England) and Bocieniec (Poland), and correlation between the Boreal and Tethyan realms". Cretaceous Research. 143: 105415. Bibcode:2023CrRes.14305415J. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2022.105415. S2CID 253436620. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
- Gale, Andy; Batenburg, Sietske; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Dubicka, Zofia; Erba, Elisabetta; Falzoni, Francesca; Haggart, Jim; Hasegawa, Takishi; Ifrim, Christina; Jarvis, Ian; Jenkyns, Hugh; Jurowska, Agata; Kennedy, Jim; Maron, Matteo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Pearce, Martin; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Premoli-Silva, Isabella; Thibault, Nicolas; Voigt, Silke; Wagreich, Michael; Walaszczyk, Irek (1 February 2023). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Campanian Stage at Bottaccione (Gubbio, Italy) and its Auxiliary Sections: Seaford Head (UK), Bocieniec (Poland), Postalm (Austria), Smoky Hill, Kansas (U.S.A), Tepayac (Mexico)". Episodes: 6. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2022/022048. hdl:2434/968946. S2CID 256539746. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
- "Campanian GSSP Ratified by IUGS". Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy. International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
- Gradstein et al. (2004)
- Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Schmitz, M.D.; Ogg, G.M., eds. (2020). Geologic Time Scale 2020. Elsevier. p. 1038. ISBN 978-0-12-824360-2.
- Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Schmitz, M.D.; Ogg, G.M., eds. (2020). Geologic Time Scale 2020. Elsevier. p. 1040. ISBN 978-0-12-824360-2.
- Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.