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System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0 72.1
Campanian 72.1 83.6
Santonian 83.6 86.3
Coniacian 86.3 89.8
Turonian 89.8 93.9
Cenomanian 93.9 100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5 ~113.0
Aptian ~113.0 ~125.0
Barremian ~125.0 ~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4 ~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9 ~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8 ~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest or uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous epoch/series. Its approximate time range is 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma (million years ago). The Albian is preceded by the Aptian and followed by the Cenomanian.[2]

Contents

Stratigraphic definitionsEdit

The Albian stage was first proposed in 1842 by Alcide d'Orbigny. It was named after Alba, the latin name for River Aube in France,

A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), ratified by the IUGS in 2016, defines the base of the Albian as the first occurrence of the planktonic foraminiferan Microhedbergella renilaevis at the Col de Pré-Guittard section, Arnayon, Drôme, France.[3]

The top of the Albian stage (the base of the Cenomanian stage and Upper Cretaceous series) is defined as the place where the foram species Rotalipora globotruncanoides first appears in the stratigraphic column.[4]

The Albian is sometimes subdivided in Early/Lower, Middle and Late/Upper subages or substages. In western Europe, especially in the UK, a subdivision in two substages (Vraconian and Gaultian) is more often used.

LithofaciesEdit

The following representatives of the Albian stage are worthy of notice: the phosphorite beds of the Argonne and Bray areas in France; the Flammenmergel of northern Germany; the lignites of Utrillas in Spain; the Upper sandstones of Nubia, and the Fredericksburg beds of North America.[5]

PaleontologyEdit

AnkylosaursEdit

Ankylosaurs of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA
Aptian to ?Albian Ulansuhai Formation, Inner Mongolia, China
Aptian to Albian Cloverly Formation, Wyoming, Montana, Utah, USA A medium-sized nodosaurid, measuring about 5 meters (16.5 ft) long, Sauropelta had a distinctively long tail which made up about half of its body length. Its neck and back were protected by an extensive bony body armor including characteristically large spines
Mongolia
Dakota Formation, Kansas, USA A nodosaurid estimated to have been approximately four meters in length (13 ft). Besides the usual rounded and polygonal osteoderms, Silvisaurus may have also sported bony spines on its shoulders and tail
Late Albian to early Cenomanian Frontier Formation, Wyoming, USA A poorly known genus of nodosaurid
Paw Paw Formation, Texas, USA Poorly known, probably a nodosaurid

Birds (avian theropods)Edit

Birds of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Bony fishEdit

Bony fish of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Alabama, Georgia and Kansas, USA; Czech Republic; Canada; Australia

Cartilaginous fishEdit

Cartilaginous fish of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Western Interior Seaway, North America
Europe, Russia, North America and New Zealand

†CeratopsiaEdit

Ceratopsia of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Gobi Desert, Mongolia Had an intermediate phylogenetic position between Liaoceratops and Archaeoceratops within Neoceratopia

CrocodylomorphsEdit

Crocodylomorphs of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Africa

†IchthyosaursEdit

Ichthyosaurs of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

MammaliaEdit

Mammals of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
several species from Hauterivian to Albian Spain, Mongolia
Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia
Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia

†OrnithopodsEdit

Ornithopods of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Khukhtek Formation, Dornogovi Province, Mongolia An advanced iguanodontian, just basal to the family Hadrosauridae
Aptian/Albian Dinosaur Cove, Victoria, Australia 2–3 meters long hypsilophodont
Albian-Cenomanian Utah, USA An iguanodont
China
Mongolia
China An early hadrosauroid iguanodont, about 17 – 20 feet (5 – 6 metres) in length. It had a narrow snout, an elongated lower jaw and double rows of flattened cheek teeth. It was a possible ancestor of the duck-billed dinosaurs.
Barremian to Albian
Aptian to Albian Purgatoire Formation, Colorado, USA An iguanodont described as intermediate in derivation between Camptosaurus and Iguanodon
Aptian to Albian Cloverly Formation, Montana, USA Hypsilophodont

PlesiosaursEdit

Plesiosauria of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Aptian to Albian Hughenden district, Queensland, Australia Among the largest pliosaurs, body-length estimates put the total length of Kronosaurus at 9–10 meters

†PterosauriaEdit

Pterosaurs of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Berriasian-Albian Cambridge Greensand, United Kingdom
Toolebuc Formation, Queensland, Australia
Morocco; Santana Formation, Brazil; Paw Paw Formation, Texas, USA
Albian-Turonian Chalk Formation and Cambridge Greensand, England
Lianmuxin Formation, Xinjiang, China
Toolebuc Formation, Queensland, Australia
Cambridge Greensand, England
Valanginian to Albian Lagarcito Formation, Argentina
Aptian or Albian Santana Formation, Brazil
Aptian to early Albian Santan do Cariri, Brazil; St Gallen, Switzerland
Albian or Cenomanian Santana Formation, Brazil
? Zhejiang, China

†SauropodsEdit

Sauropods of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Mid to Late Albian Utah, USA
Egypt The only known bones of this sauropod were destroyed in World War II.
Early Cretaceous Brazil
Swampoodle, Arundel Formation, Prince George's County, Maryland; Antlers Formation, Oklahoma
Algeria The bones referred to "B." nougaredi probably belong to more than one different species.
Atian-Albian Utah
South America
Aptian or Albian Montana
Aptian-early Albian Oklahoma This sauropod weighed up to 60 tonnes, making it one of the largest known dinosaurs.
early Albian Tunisia Tataouinea had highly pneumatic pelvic bones, suggesting that sauropods had abdominal air sacs.
Aptian-Albian Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah
Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

†Theropods (non-avian)Edit

Theropods of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
North America
Asia
Northern Africa
Niger
North America
France
Japan
France
South America
Africa
Africa
Australia
North America The largest known dromaeosaurid

AmmonitesEdit

AmmonitidaEdit

  • Moffitites
Originating in Lower Albian strataEdit

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in lower Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

 
Puzosia
Originating in Middle Albian strataEdit

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in middle Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

 
Mortoniceras from South Africa
Originating in Upper Albian strataEdit

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in upper Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

 
Scaphites

†BelemnitesEdit

Belemnites of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
 
Belemnites

NautiloidsEdit

Nautiloids of the Albian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
 
An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

PhylloceratidaEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Super User. "ICS - Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org.
  2. ^ For a detailed geologic timescale, see Gradstein et al. (2004)
  3. ^ Kennedy, J.W.; Gale, A.S.; Huber, B.T.; Petrizzo, M.R.; Bown, P.; Jenkyns, H.C. (2017). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Albian Stage, of the Cretaceous, the Col de Pré-Guittard section, Arnayon, Drôme, France". Episodes. 40 (3): 177–188. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2017/v40i3/017021.
  4. ^ See Kennedy et al. (2004) for a description of the GSSP for the Cenomanian
  5. ^   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHowe, John Allen (1911). "Albian" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 505.
  6. ^ Mortimer, Mickey. "List of Dromaeosaurids". Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.

LiteratureEdit

  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Kennedy, W.J.; Gale, A.S.; Lees, J.A. & Caron, M.; 2004: The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Cenomanian Stage, Mont Risou, Hautes-Alpes, France, Episodes 27, pp. 21–32.
  • d'Orbigny, A.C.V.M.; 1842: Paléontologie française: Terrains crétacés, vol. ii. ‹See Tfd›(in French)

External linksEdit