The Campanian is the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous Epoch on the geologic timescale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In chronostratigraphy, it is the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous Series. Campanian spans the time from 83.6 (± 0.2) to 72.1 (± 0.2) million years ago. It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.[6]

83.6 ± 0.2 – 72.1 ± 0.2 Ma
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionBase of Chron C33r[2]
Lower boundary GSSPBottaccione, Gubbio, Italy[2]
43°21′46″N 12°34′58″E / 43.3627°N 12.5828°E / 43.3627; 12.5828[3]
Lower GSSP ratifiedOctober 2022[4]
Upper boundary definitionMean of 12 biostratigraphic criteria
Upper boundary GSSPGrande Carrière quarry, Landes, France
43°40′46″N 1°06′48″W / 43.6795°N 1.1133°W / 43.6795; -1.1133
Upper GSSP ratifiedFebruary 2001[5]

The Campanian was an age when a worldwide sea level rise covered many coastal areas. The morphology of some of these areas has been preserved: it is an unconformity beneath a cover of marine sedimentary rocks.[7][8]

Etymology edit

The Campanian was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the department of Charente-Maritime. The original type locality was a series of outcrops near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne in the same region.[9]

Definition edit

The base of the Campanian Stage is defined as a place in the stratigraphic column where the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites testudinarius is located. A GSSP was ratified for the base of the Campanian in October 2022, having been placed in Bottaccione, Gubbio, Italy.[2] The top of the Campanian stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus first appears.[5]

Subdivisions edit

The Campanian can be subdivided into Lower, Middle and Upper Subages. In the western interior of the United States, the base of the Middle Campanian is defined as the first occurrence of the ammonite Baculites obtusus (80.97 Ma) and the base of the Upper Campanian defined as the first occurrence of the ammonite Didymoceras nebrascense (76.27 Ma).[10] In the Tethys domain, the Campanian encompasses six ammonite biozones. They are, from young to old:[11]

Paleontology edit

During the Campanian age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from four at the base of the Campanian to forty-eight in the upper part. This development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The generally warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian probably favoured the dinosaurs. In the following Maastrichtian stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian.[12]

References edit

  1. ^ International Commission on Stratigraphy. "ICS - Chart/Time Scale".
  2. ^ a b c Jarvis, Ian; et al. (2023). "Carbon isotopes, palynology and stratigraphy of the Santonian–Campanian boundary: The GSSP auxiliary sections, Seaford Head (England) and Bocieniec (Poland), and correlation between the Boreal and Tethyan realms". Cretaceous Research. 143: 105415. Bibcode:2023CrRes.14305415J. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2022.105415. hdl:10871/133015. S2CID 253436620. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  3. ^ Gale, Andy; Batenburg, Sietske; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Dubicka, Zofia; Erba, Elisabetta; Falzoni, Francesca; Haggart, Jim; Hasegawa, Takishi; Ifrim, Christina; Jarvis, Ian; Jenkyns, Hugh; Jurowska, Agata; Kennedy, Jim; Maron, Matteo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Pearce, Martin; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Premoli-Silva, Isabella; Thibault, Nicolas; Voigt, Silke; Wagreich, Michael; Walaszczyk, Irek (1 February 2023). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Campanian Stage at Bottaccione (Gubbio, Italy) and its Auxiliary Sections: Seaford Head (UK), Bocieniec (Poland), Postalm (Austria), Smoky Hill, Kansas (U.S.A), Tepayac (Mexico)". Episodes: 6. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2022/022048. hdl:2434/968946. S2CID 256539746. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  4. ^ "Campanian GSSP Ratified by IUGS". Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy. International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  5. ^ a b Odin, Gilles S.; Michèle A. Lamaurelle (2001). "The global Campanian-Maastrichtian stage boundary". Episodes. 24 (4): 229–238. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2001/v24i4/002.
  6. ^ Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Smith, A.G., eds. (2004). A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78142-8.
  7. ^ Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Japsen, Peter (2013). "Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis and geomorphological paradigms: Scandinavia as an example of Phanerozoic uplift and subsidence". Global and Planetary Change. 100: 153–171. Bibcode:2013GPC...100..153L. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.10.015.
  8. ^ Surlyk, Finn; Sørensen, Anne Mehlin (2010). "An early Campanian rocky shore at Ivö Klack, southern Sweden". Cretaceous Research. 31 (6): 567–576. Bibcode:2010CrRes..31..567S. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.07.006.
  9. ^ Hancock, J.M.; Gale, A.S. (1996). "The Campanian Stage" (PDF). Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre. 66: 103–109. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  10. ^ Ogg, J. G.; Hinnov, L. A.; Huang, C. (2012-01-01), Gradstein, Felix M.; Ogg, James G.; Schmitz, Mark D.; Ogg, Gabi M. (eds.), "Chapter 27 - Cretaceous", The Geologic Time Scale, Boston: Elsevier, pp. 793–853, doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-59425-9.00027-5, ISBN 978-0-444-59425-9
  11. ^ Hancock, Jake M. (June 1991). "Ammonite scales for the Cretaceous system". Cretaceous Research. 12 (3): 259–291. Bibcode:1991CrRes..12..259H. doi:10.1016/0195-6671(91)90037-D.
  12. ^ See Weishampel et al. (2004)

Further reading edit

  • Varricchio, D. J. 2001. Late Cretaceous oviraptorosaur (Theropoda) dinosaurs from Montana. pp. 42–57 in D. H. Tanke and K. Carpenter (eds.), Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Indiana University Press, Indianapolis, Indiana.
  • Weishampel, D.B.; Barrett, P.M.; Coria, R.A.; Le Loueff, J.; Xu, X.; Zhao, X.; Sahni, A.; Gomani, E.M.P. & Noto, C.N.; 2004: Dinosaur distribution, in: Weishampel, D.B.; Dodson, P. & Osmólska, H. (eds.): The Dinosauria, University of California Press, Berkeley (2nd ed.), ISBN 0-520-24209-2, pp 517–606.

External links edit