The Campanian is the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous Epoch on the geologic timescale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In chronostratigraphy, it is the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous Series. Campanian spans the time from 83.6 (± 0.2) to 72.1 (± 0.2) million years ago. It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.
|Regional usage||Global (ICS)|
|Time scale(s) used||ICS Time Scale|
|Time span formality||Formal|
|Lower boundary definition||Not formally defined|
|Lower boundary definition candidates||LAD of the Crinoid Marsupites testudinarius|
|Lower boundary GSSP candidate section(s)|
|Upper boundary definition||Mean of 12 biostratigraphic criteria|
|Upper boundary GSSP||Grande Carrière quarry, Landes, France|
|GSSP ratified||February 2001|
The Campanian was an age when a worldwide sea level rise covered many coastal areas. The morphology of some of these areas has been preserved: it is an unconformity beneath a cover of marine sedimentary rocks.
The Campanian was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the department of Charente-Maritime. The original type locality was a series of outcrop near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne in the same region.
The base of the Campanian Stage is defined as a place in the stratigraphic column where the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites testudinarius is located. (A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point or GSSP had not yet been ratified as of 2009: one possible candidate is a section near a dam at Waxahachie, Texas.) The top of the Campanian stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus first appears.
The Campanian can be subdivided into Lower, Middle and Upper Subages. In the western interior of the United States, the base of the Middle Campanian is defined as the first occurrence of the ammonite Baculites obtusus (80.97 Ma) and the base of the Upper Campanian defined as the first occurrence of the ammonite Didymoceras nebrascense. (76.27 Ma) In the Tethys domain, the Campanian encompasses six ammonite biozones. They are, from young to old:
During the Campanian age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from 4 at the base of the Campanian to 48 in the upper part. This development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The generally warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian probably favoured the dinosaurs. In the following Maastrichtian stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian.
- International Commission on Stratigraphy. "ICS - Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org.
- Odin, Gilles S.; Michèle A. Lamaurelle (2001). "The global Campanian-Maastrichtian stage boundary". Episodes. 24 (4): 229–238. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2001/v24i4/002.
- Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Smith, A.G., eds. (2004). A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78142-8.
- Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Japsen, Peter (2013). "Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis and geomorphological paradigms: Scandinavia as an example of Phanerozoic uplift and subsidence". Global and Planetary Change. 100: 153–171. Bibcode:2013GPC...100..153L. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.10.015.
- Surlyk, Finn; Sørensen, Anne Mehlin (2010). "An early Campanian rocky shore at Ivö Klack, southern Sweden". Cretaceous Research. 31 (6): 567–576. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.07.006.
- Hancock, J.M.; Gale, A.S. (1996). "The Campanian Stage" (PDF). Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre. 66: 103–109. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
- Wolfgring, Erik; Wagreich, Michael; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Gier, Susanne; Böhm, Katharina; Sames, Benjamin; Spötl, Christoph; Popp, Friedrich (May 2018). "The Santonian–Campanian boundary and the end of the Long Cretaceous Normal Polarity-Chron: Isotope and plankton stratigraphy of a pelagic reference section in the NW Tethys (Austria)". Newsletters on Stratigraphy. 51 (4): 445–476. doi:10.1127/nos/2018/0392. S2CID 135187932. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
- Ogg, J. G.; Hinnov, L. A.; Huang, C. (2012-01-01), Gradstein, Felix M.; Ogg, James G.; Schmitz, Mark D.; Ogg, Gabi M. (eds.), "Chapter 27 - Cretaceous", The Geologic Time Scale, Boston: Elsevier, pp. 793–853, doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-59425-9.00027-5, ISBN 978-0-444-59425-9
- Hancock, Jake M. (June 1991). "Ammonite scales for the Cretaceous system". Cretaceous Research. 12 (3): 259–291. doi:10.1016/0195-6671(91)90037-D.
- See Weishampel et al. (2004)
- Varricchio, D. J. 2001. Late Cretaceous oviraptorosaur (Theropoda) dinosaurs from Montana. pp. 42–57 in D. H. Tanke and K. Carpenter (eds.), Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Indiana University Press, Indianapolis, Indiana.
- Weishampel, D.B.; Barrett, P.M.; Coria, R.A.; Le Loueff, J.; Xu, X.; Zhao, X.; Sahni, A.; Gomani, E.M.P. & Noto, C.N.; 2004: Dinosaur distribution, in: Weishampel, D.B.; Dodson, P. & Osmólska, H. (eds.): The Dinosauria, University of California Press, Berkeley (2nd ed.), ISBN 0-520-24209-2, pp 517–606.
- GeoWhen Database – Campanian
- Late Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS
- Stratigraphic chart of the Late Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
- Campanian Microfossils: 75+ images of Foraminifera