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Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1997.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

Contents

PlantsEdit

AngiospermsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eucommia jeffersonensis[2]

Sp nov

valid

Call & Dilcher

Late Eocene

John Day Formation

  USA

Species of Eucommia.

Eucommia rolandii[2]

Sp nov

valid

Call & Dilcher

Middle Eocene

Talahatta Formation and "Coldwater Beds"

  USA
  Canada

Species of Eucommia.

FungiEdit

newly namedEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Archaeomarasmius[3]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Hibbett, Grimaldi, & Donoghue

Turonian (Cretaceous)

  USA

Protomycena[3]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Hibbett, Grimaldi, & Donoghue

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

  Dominican Republic

ArthropodaEdit

InsectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Baikuris casei[4]

Sp. nov

Valid

Grimaldi, Agosti, & Carpenter

Turonian

New Jersey amber

  USA

A sphecomyrmine ant.

Boyeria europaea[5]

Comb nov

valid

(Nel, Arillo, & Martínez-Delclòs)

Messinian

  France

An Aeshnid dragonfly.

Brownimecia clavata[4]

Gen et sp. nov

Valid

Grimaldi, Agosti, & Carpenter

Turonian

New Jersey amber

  USA

A stem group ant, type species B. clavata

Ctenobethylus goepperti

Comb nov

valid

(Mayr, 1868)

Middle Eocene

Baltic amber

  Europe

Fossil Dolichoderine ant,
moved from Liometopum goepperti
Senior synonym of Ctenobethylus succinalis

Makarkinia adamsi[6]

Gen et comb nov

jr synonym

Martins-Neto

Aptian

Crato Formation

  Brazil

A Kalligrammatid lacewing, new genus for Panfilovia adamsi

Makarkiniinae[6]

Subfam nov

jr synonym

Martins-Neto

Aptian

Crato Formation

  Brazil

lacewing subfamily, syn of Kalligrammatidae

PlesiosaursEdit

Newly Named PlesiosaursEdit

Currently Valid Plesiosaur Genera Named in 1997
Name Status Authors Location Images
Augustasaurus Valid taxon
  • Sander

Rieppel Bucher

Libonectes Valid taxon
Maresaurus Valid taxon
  • Gasparini

PterosaursEdit

Newly Named PterosaursEdit

Currently Valid Pterosaur Genera Named in 1997
Name Status Authors Location Images
Eosipterus Valid taxon
  • Ji
  • Ji
  China

ArchosauromorphsEdit

DinosaursEdit

  • Paleontologist Karen Chin received a coprolite that was excavated during 1995 from strata dating back to the Maastrichtian in Saskatchewan, Canada. The specimen was about 17 inches (44 cm) long and contained fragments of bone. Due to its size, contents and age, the coprolite was believed to have been the remains of Tyrannosaurus rex feces. This discovery was announced in a 1998 paper published in the journal Nature.
  • A Saharan expedition under the leadership of Paul Sereno yielded fruit when a team member stumbled on the bones and skull of Nigersaurus taqueti. During this and a subsequent 1999 expedition about 80% of the animal's skeleton were discovered. Later in the year of the second expedition, a formal description of the animal was published.
  • French paleontologist Philippe Taquet reported the finding of fossilized theropod embryos preserved in Portuguese dinosaur eggs. These eggs were from the Jurassic period dating to about 140 million years ago, nearly twice as old as any previously recovered dinosaur embryos, which had only been known from about 70 million years ago in Late Cretaceous strata.
  • Psittacosaurus gastroliths documented.[7]
  • Panoplosaurus gastroliths documented.[8]

Newly named dinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[9]

Name Status Authors Location Notes Images
Archaeoceratops[10] Valid taxon
  • Azuma
  China
Gojirasaurus[11] Valid taxon   USA(  New Mexico)
Hudiesaurus[12] Valid taxon   China
Protarchaeopteryx[13] Valid taxon
  • Ji Q.
  • Ji S.
  China
Rinchenia[14] Valid taxon
Siluosaurus[15] Nomen dubium.   China
Unenlagia[16] Valid taxon
  • Novas
  • Puerta
  Argentina

BirdsEdit

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aramus paludigrus [17]

Sp. nov.

Valid

D. Tab Rasmussen

Miocene

Honda Group

  Colombia

An Aramidae.

Athene angelis [18]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Michelle Salotti

Elizabeth Pereira

Yves Quinif

Jean-Yves Courtois

Jean-Noël Dubois

Jean-Claude La Milza

Middle Pleistocene

Corsica

  France:

  Corsica

A Strigidae.

Cathayornis caudatus[19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Valanginian,

Jiufotang Formation

  China

A member of Enantiornithes Walker, 1981. Originally described as a species of Cathayornis;[19] subsequently made the type species of a separate genus Houornis.[20]

Chauvireria balcanica [21]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

MN 17

  Bulgaria

A Phasianidae.

Confuciusornis chuonzhous [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Lower Yixian Formation

  China

A Confuciusornithidae Hou, Zhou, Gu et Zhang, 1995, possibly a synonym of Confuciusornis sanctus L. H. Hou, Zhou, Gu et Zhang, 1995.

Confuciusornis suniae [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Lower Yixian Formation

  China

A Confuciusornithidae Hou, Zhou, Gu et Zhang, 1995, possibly a synonym of Confuciusornis sanctus L. H. Hou, Zhou, Gu et Zhang, 1995.

Cuspirostrisornis houi [19]

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Valanginian,

Jiufotang Formation

  China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Cuspirostrisornithidae Hou, 1997, this is the type species of the new genus.

Eutreptodactylus itaboraiensis [22]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Robert F. Baird

Patricia Vickers Rich

Late Paleocene

Sao Jose de Itaborai

  Brazil

Described in the Cuculidae, transferred to the Gracilitarsidae Mayr, 2001 by Mayr.

Galbula hylochoreutes [17]

Sp. nov.

Valid

D. Tab Rasmussen

Miocene

La Victoria Formation

  Colombia

A Galbulidae.

Heliadornis paratethydicus [23]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jirí Mlíkovský

Late Pliocene

MN 15-16

  Slovakia

A Phaethontidae.

Largirostrornis sexdentoris [19]

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Valanginian, Jiufotang Formation

  China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Cuspirostrisornithidae Hou, 1997, this is the type species of the new genus.

Liaoningornis longidigitris [24]

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

  China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Liaoningornithiformes L. H. Hou, 1997, Liaoningornithidae Hou, 1997, this is the type species of the new genus.

Longchengornis sanyanensis [19]

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Valanginian,

Jiufotang Formation

  China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Cuspirostrisornithidae Hou, 1997, this is the type species of the new genus.

Pasquiaornis hardiei [25]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Tim T. Tokaryk

Stephen L. Cumbaa

John E. Storer

Early Cretaceous

Cenomanian,

Ashville Formation

  Canada:

  Saskatchewan

An Hesperornithiformes Fürbringer, 1888, Baptornithidae American Ornithologists’ Union, 1910, this is the type of the new genus.

Pasquiaornis tankei [25]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Tim T. Tokaryk

Stephen L. Cumbaa

John E. Storer

Early Cretaceous

Cenomanian,

Ashville Formation

  Canada:

  Saskatchewan

An Hesperornithiformes Fürbringer, 1888, Baptornithidae American Ornithologists’ Union, 1910.

Pleistorallus flemingi [26]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Trevor H. Worthy

Pleistocene

Wanganui Subdivision

  New Zealand

A Rallidae.

Rhynchopsitta phillipsi [27]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Amadeo M. Rea

Late Pleistocene

Cave Deposits

  Mexico

A Psittacidae.

Rupelrallus saxoniensis [28]

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Valid

Karlheinz Fischer

Middle Oligocene

MP 23-24

  Germany:

  Saxony

A Gruiformes, Parvigruidae G. Mayr, 2005.

Songlingornis linghensis [19]

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Valanginian,

Jiufotang Formation

  China

An Ornithuromorphae Chiappe, Ji, Ji et Norell, 1999, Songlingornithidae Hou, 1997, this is the type species of the new genus.

Vanellus madagascariensis [29]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven M. Goodman

Holocene

Madagascar

  Madagascar

A Charadriidae.

Urmiornis brodkorbi [30]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Aleksandr A. Karkhu

Early Miocene

Lower Tarkhanian-Burdigalian?

  Kazakhstan

An Eogruidae Wetmore, 1934, perhaps should be transferred to the genus Amphipelargus Lydekker, 1891.

SynapsidsEdit

HumansEdit

  • Genetecist Michael Hammer reported findings that demonstrate that after the initial "out of Africa" radiation of modern humans at about 100,000 years ago, some humans eventually returned to Africa between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago.

ExopaleontologyEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ a b Call, V.B.; Dilcher, D.L. (1997). "The fossil record of Eucommia (Eucommiaceae) in North America" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 84 (6): 798–814. doi:10.2307/2445816. JSTOR 2445816. PMID 21708632.
  3. ^ a b hibbet, D.S.; Grimaldi, D.S.; Donoghue, M.J. (1997). "Fossil mushrooms from Miocene and Cretaceous ambers and the evolution of Homobasidiomycetes". American Journal of Botany. 84 (8): 981–991. doi:10.2307/2446289. JSTOR 2446289.
  4. ^ a b Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. (1997). "New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3208: 1–43.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ Nel, A.; Arillo, A.; Martínez-Delclòs, X. (1996). "New fossil Odonata (Insecta) from the upper Miocene of France and Spain (Anisoptera and Zygoptera)". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 199: 167–219.
  6. ^ a b Bechly, G.; Makarkin, V. N. (2016). "A new gigantic lacewing species (Insecta: Neuroptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil confirms the occurrence of Kalligrammatidae in the Americas". Cretaceous Research. in press: 135–140. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.10.014.
  7. ^ Xu (1997). Sanders, Manley, and Carpenter (2001), "Table 12.1" page 167.
  8. ^ Carpenter (1997). Sanders, Manley, and Carpenter (2001), "Table 12.1" page 167.
  9. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  10. ^ Dong, Z.M. and Y. Azuma. 1997. On a primitive neoceratopsian from the Early Cretaceous. In: Sino-Japanese Slik Road Dinosaur Expedition (Z.M. Dong, ed.). China Ocean Press, Beijing: pp. 68-89.
  11. ^ Carpenter, K. 1997. A giant coelophysoid (Ceratosauria) theropod from the Upper Triassic of New Mexico, USA. Neües Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlungen, 205 (2): pp. 189-208.
  12. ^ Dong, Z.-M. 1997. A Gigantic Sauropod (Hudiesaurus sinojapanorum gen. et. sp. nov.) from the Turpan Basin, China. In: Sino-Japanese Silk Road Dinosaur Expedition (Z.-M. Dong, ed.). China Ocean Press: pp. 102-110.
  13. ^ Ji, Q. and S. Ji. 1997. A Chinese archaeopterygian, Protarchaeopteryx gen. nov. Geological Science and Technology (Di Zhi Ke Ji) 238 (1997): pp. 38-41.
  14. ^ Barsbold, 1997 vide Osmolska, H., P.J. Currie, and B. Barsbold. 2004. Oviraptorosauria, Chapter Eight: Holtz, T. R., Jr (2004) Tyrannosauroidea; Chapter Five. In: The Dinosauria (2nd edition, D.B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmolska, eds.). California University Press: pp. 165-183.
  15. ^ Dong, Z.-M. 1997. A small ornithopod from Mazongshan area, Gansu Province, China. In: Sino-Japanese Silk Road Dinosaur Expedition (Z.-M. Dong, ed.). China Ocean Press, Beijing: pp. 24–26.
  16. ^ Novas F.E.; Puerta P.F. (1997). "New evidence concerning avian origins from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia". Nature. 387 (6631): 390–392. doi:10.1038/387390a0.
  17. ^ a b D. Tab Rasmussen (1997). "Birds". In: Kay, R.F.; Madden, R.H.; Cifelli, R.L. & Flynn, J.J., Eds. Vertebrate Paleontology in the Neotropics: The Miocene Fauna of la Venta, Colombia Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.: 171–183.
  18. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré; Michelle Salotti; Elizabeth Pereira; Yves Quinif; Jean-Yves Courtois; Jean-Noël Dubois; Jean-Claude La Milza (1997). "Athene angelis n. sp. (Aves, Strigiformes) Nouvelle Espèce Endémique Inlaire Éreinte du Pléistocène Moyen et Supérieur de Corse (France)" (PDF). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris. 324: 677–684.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Hou Lianhai (1997). "Mesozoic Birds of China" (PDF). Natou, Taiwan: Taiwan Feng Huang Gu Bird Garden, English Translation: 1–153.
  20. ^ Min Wang; Di Liu (2015). "Taxonomical reappraisal of Cathayornithidae (Aves: Enantiornithes)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. in press: 1–19. doi:10.1080/14772019.2014.994087.
  21. ^ Zlatozar N. Boev (1997). "Chauvireria balcanica Gen. N., Sp. N. (Perdicinae - Galliformes) from the Middle Villafranchian of Western Bulgaria". Geologica Balcanica. 27 (3–4): 69–78.
  22. ^ Robert F. Baird; Patricia Vickers Rich (1997). "Eutreptodactylus itaboraiensis Gen. et Sp. Nov., an Early Cuckoo (Aves: Cuculidae) from the Late Paleocene of Brazil". Alcheringa. 21 (2): 123–127. doi:10.1080/03115519708619179.
  23. ^ Jirí Mlíkovský (1997). "A New Tropicbird (Aves: Phaethontidae) from the Late Miocene of Austria" (PDF). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Ser. A. 98: 151–154. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-22. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
  24. ^ Hou Lianhai (1997). "A Carinate Bird from the Upper Jurassic of Western Liaoning, China". Chinese Science Bulletin. 42 (5): 413–417. doi:10.1007/bf02884235.[dead link]
  25. ^ a b Tim T. Tokaryk; Stephen L. Cumbaa; John E. Storer (1997). "Early Cretaceous Birds from Saskatchewan, Canada, the Oldest Avifauna Known from North-America". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17 (1): 172–176. doi:10.1080/02724634.1997.10010961.
  26. ^ Trevor H. Worthy (1997). "A Mid-Pleistocene Rail from New Zealand". Alcheringa. 21 (1): 71–78. doi:10.1080/03115519708619186.
  27. ^ Amadeo M. Rea (1997). "The Indeterminate Parrot of Nuevo León". in: A. R. Phillips & R. W. Dickerman (comp.): The Era of Allan R. Phillips; A Festschrift Alberquerque, New Mexico, Horizon Communications, Robert Dickerman: 167–176.
  28. ^ Karlheinz Fischer (1997). "Neue Vogelfunde aus dem Mittleren Oligozän des Weißelsterbeckens bei Leipzig (Sachsen)". Mauritiana. 16: 271–288.
  29. ^ Steven M. Goodman (1997). "Description of a New Species of Subfossil Lapwing (Aves: Charadriiformes, Charadriidae, Vanellus) from Madagascar". Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Série 4, Section C. 18 (1): 607–614.
  30. ^ Aleksandr A. Karkhu (1997). "A New Species of Urmiornis (Gruiformes: Ergilornithidae) from the Early Miocene of Western Kazakhstan". Paleontological Journal. 31: 102–107.
  31. ^ a b c Johnson, Steven C. & Madden, Richard H. 1997. Uruguaytheriinae Astrapotheres of Tropical South America. Chapter 22 in Vertebrate Paleontology in the Neotropics. The Miocene Fauna of La Venta, Colombia. Edited by Richard F. Kay, Richard H. Madden, Richard L. Cifelli, and John J. Flynn. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington and London.
  • Carpenter, K. (1997) Ankylosaurs. In J.O. farlow and M.K. Brett-Surman (eds.), The complete dinosaur, pp. 307–316. Bloomington Indiana University Press.
  • Xu, X. (1997) A new psittacosaur (Psittacosaurus mazongshanensis sp. nov.) from Mazongshan area, Gansu province, China. In. Z.-M. Dong (ed.), Sino-Japanese Silk Road Dinosaur Expedition, pp. 48–67. Institute of Paleontology and Paleoanthropology Academia Sinica. Beijing: China Ocean Press.
  • Sanders F, Manley K, Carpenter K. Gastroliths from the Lower Cretaceous sauropod Cedarosaurus weiskopfae. In: Tanke D.H, Carpenter K, editors. Mesozoic vertebrate life: new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press; Bloomington, IN: 2001. pp. 166–180.