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Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1993.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996

ArthropodsEdit

Newly named insectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Lixus (Eulixus) balazuci[2]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Voisin & Nel

Turolian

  France

A Curculionid weevil

Mesoepiophlebia veronicae[3]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Nel & Henrotay

Toarcian

Bascharage

  Luxembourg

A sphenophlebiid dragonfly. Type species M. veronicae

Miofibla[4]

Gen et sp nov

jr synonym

Nel

Late Miocene

  Spain

An inocellid snakefly,
moved to Fibla (Reisserella) cerdanica in 2002

Ohmella coffini[4]

Sp nov

Valid

Nel

Turolian

Montagne d'Andance

  France

A snakefly

Paraplagiophlebia[3]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Nel & Henrotay

Toarcian

Bascharage

  Luxembourg

A Myopophlebiid dragonfly, type species P. marcusi

Paraoligolestes[5]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Nel & Escuillé

Turolian

  France

A Sieblosiid damselfly, type species P. miocenicus

Paraplagiophlebia[3]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Nel & Henrotay

Toarcian

Bascharage

  Luxembourg

A Myopophlebiid dragonfly, type species P. loneuxi

ArchosauromorphsEdit

Newly named pseudosuchiansEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Shuvosaurus[6]

Valid taxon

Chatterjee

Late Triassic (mid Norian)

Cooper Canyon Formation

  United States (  Texas)

A shuvosaurid.

Newly named dinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[7]

Name Status Authors Location Notes Images
Anasazisaurus[8] Valid taxon
  • Hunt
  • S. G. Lucas
Argentinosaurus[9] Valid taxon A sauropod of 75 to 100 tons and 35 meters in length.
"Elvisaurus" nomen nudum later named Cryolophosaurus
  • Holmes
Eoraptor[10] Valid taxon
  • Rogers
  • Monetta
A primitive saurischian.
Iuticosaurus[11] Valid taxon
  • Le Loeuff
Klamelisaurus[12] Valid taxon
  • Zhao X.
Malawisaurus[13] Valid taxon
  • Jacobs
  • Winkler
  • W. R. Downs
  • Gomani,
A Sauropod dinosaur from Malawi.
"Mononychus"[14] Preoccupied name, later respelled Mononykus
Mononykus Valid taxon A small Mongolian alvaresaur.
 
Mononykus was originally spelled "Mononychus."
Naashoibitosaurus[8] Valid taxon
  • Hunt
  • S. G. Lucas,
Pararhabdodon[15] Valid taxon
  • Casanovas-Cladellas
  • Santafé-Llopis
  • Isidro-Llorens
A Spanish Tsintaosaurin Hadrosaur.
Tianchisaurus[16] Valid taxon
Tsagantegia[17] Valid taxon
  • Tumanova
Utahraptor[18] Valid taxon
  • Gaston
A bear-size Dromaeosaur, the largest of known raptor.
 
Utahraptor with a human to scale.

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Archaeopteryx bavarica[19]

Valid ?

Sp. nov.

Peter Wellnhofer

Late Jura

Portlandian,

Solnhofer Plattenkalk

An Archaopterygidae, the 7th Archaeopteryx specimen (Solnhofer Aktien-Verein specimen). Often seen as synonymous with Archaeopteryx lithographica von Meyer, 1861.

Chaoyangia beishanensis[20]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Zhang Jiangyong

Early Cretaceous

Valanginian,

Jiufotang Formation

An Ornithurae, Chaoyangiiformes Hou, 1997, Chaoyangiidae Hou, 1997.[21]

Corvus fangshannus[22]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Pleistocene

Cave deposits

A Corvidae.

Coturnix gomerae[23]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Damià Jaume

Miguel McMinn

Josep A. Alcover

Late Pleistocene

Cave deposits

A Phasianidae.

Coua berthae[24]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Steven M. Goodman

Florent Ravoavy

Holocene

Cave deposits

A Cuculidae.

Enantiornis martini[25]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Lev A. Nessov

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Late Cretaceous

Coniacian,

Bissekty Formation

An Enantiornithidae, transferred to the New genus Incolornis Panteleyev, 1998 by Panteleyev, 1998[26]

Enantiornis walkeri[25]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Lev A. Nessov

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Late Cretaceous

Coniacian,

Bissekty Formation

An Enantiornithidae, transferred to the New genus Explorornis Panteleyev, 1998 by Panteleyev[26]

Gallus moldovicus[27]

1993, In press.

Sp. nov.

Nikolay I. Burchak-Abramovich

I. M. Ganea

K. I. Shushpanov

Late Pliocene

Tchichmiknoia

Phasianidae, I have not seen the paper, but it is mentioned in the Sape Newsletter, 1993[28] and in Mlíkovský, 2002. .

Hesperornis rossicus[29]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Lev A. Nessov

A. A. Yarkov

Late Cretaceous

Late Campanian

A Hesperornithiformes Fürbringer, 1888, Hesperornithidae Marsh, 1872.

Lectavis bretincola[30]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Luis M. Chiappe

Late Cretaceous

Maastrichtian,

Lecho Formation

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, this is the type species of the new genus.

Murunkus subitus[31]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Andrei V. Panteleyev

Lev A. Nessov

Middle Eocene

Central Kizylkum Desert

A Diomedeidae

Orthonyx kaldowinyeri[32]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Walter E. Boles

Middle-Late Miocene

Riversleigh

An Orthonychidae.

Orthonyx wakefieldi[33]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Robert F. Baird

Late Pleistocene

Cave deposits

An Orthonychidae.

Pengana robertbolesi[34]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Walter E. Boles

Late Oligocene-Early Miocene

Sticky Beak Local Fauna

An Accipitridae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Proornis coreae[35]

Nomen Nudum

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Lin ?

Early Cretaceous

?Barremian

A possible Confuciusornithidae, the famous "Archaopteryx of Korea", there is not a valid description of this specimen, so the name is a Nomen Nudum.

Pycnoptilus fordi[33]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Robert F. Baird

Late Pleistocene

Cave deposits

An Acanthizidae.

Soroavisaurus australis[30]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Luis M. Chiappe

Late Cretaceous

Maastrichtian,

Lecho Formation

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Avisauridae Brett-Surman et Paul, 1985,[36] this is the type species of the new genus.

Tyto jinniushanensis[37]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Hou LianHai

Pleistocene

Cave deposits

A Tytonidae.

Yungavolucris brevipedalis[30]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Luis M. Chiappe

Late Cretaceous

Maastrichtian,

Lecho Formation

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, this is the type species of the new genus.

Newly described PlesiosaursEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Attenborosaurus[38]

Valid

Bakker

Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Sinemurian)

Blue Lias

  United Kingdom

A plesiosaurid.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Voisin, J. F.; Nel, A. (1993). "Un Lixus fossile du Miocène français (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)". Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 98: 19–21.
  3. ^ a b c Nel, A.; Henrotay, M. (1993). "Taxonomy; Les "Anisozygoptera" fossiles Phylogenie et classification (Odonata)". Martinia. 3: 1–311.
  4. ^ a b Nel, A. (1993). "Nouveaux Raphidioptères fossiles du Cénozoïque de France et d'Espagne". École Pratique des Hautes Études, Biologie et Évolution des Insectes. 6: 99–108.
  5. ^ Nel, A; Escuillé, F. (1993). "Découverte d'un nouveau genre de Sieblosiidae dans le Miocène supérieur de l'Ardèche (France) [Odonata, Zygoptera, Lestoidea, Sieblosiidae)". Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie (N.S.). 10: 233–242.
  6. ^ Chatterjee S (1993). "Shuvosaurus a new theropod". Nat Geogr. Res. Exploration. 9 (3): 274–285.
  7. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  8. ^ a b Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas. 1993. Cretaceous vertebrates of New Mexico. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico (A.P. Hunt and S.G. Lucas, eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 2: pp. 77-91.
  9. ^ Bonaparte J.F., Coria R.A. (1993). "Un nuevo y gigantesco sauropodo titanosaurio de la Formacion Rio Limay (Albiano- Cenomaniano) de la Provincia de Neuquen, Argentina". Ameghiniana. 30 (3): 271–282.
  10. ^ Sereno P.C.; Forster C.A.; Rogers R.R.; Monetta A.M. (1993). "Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of Dinosauria". Nature. 361: 64–66.
  11. ^ Le Loeuff, J. 1993. European titanosaurids. Revue de Paléobiologie, Mém. Sp. 7: pp. 105 - 117.
  12. ^ Zhao, X. 1993. A new Middle Jurassic sauropod subfamily (Klamelisaurinae subfam.nov.) from Xinjiang Autonomous Region. China Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Academia Sinica Vertebrata PalAsiatica 31 (2 – April 2, 1993): pp. 132-138.
  13. ^ Jacobs L. D. Winkler, Gomani E. (1993). "New material of an Early Cretaceous titanosaurid dinosaur from Malawi". Palaeontology. 36 (3): 523–534.
  14. ^ Perle A.; Norell M.A.; Chiappe L.M.; Clark J.M. (1993). "Flightless bird from the Cretaceous of Mongolia". Nature. 362 (6421): 623–626. doi:10.1038/362623a0.
  15. ^ Casanovas-Cladellas, M.L., J.V. Santafe-Llopis, and A. Isidro-Llorens. 1993. Pararhabdodon isonense n. gen. n. sp. (Dinosauria) Estudio morfologico, radio-tomografico y consideraciones biomecanicas. Paleontologia I Evolucio, tomo 26- 27: pp. 121-131.
  16. ^ Dong, Z. 1993. An ankylosaur (Ornithischian dinosaur) from the Middle Jurassic of the Juanggar Basin, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica [no volume number available]: pp. 257-266.
  17. ^ Tumanova, T.A. 1993. On a new armoured dinosaur from Southeastern Gobi. Paleontologischeskii Zhurnal (1993) 2: pp. 92-98 (Paleontological Journal 27 (2): pp. 119-125).
  18. ^ Kirkland J.I.; Burge D.; Gaston R. (1993). "A large dromaeosaur (Theropoda) from the Lower Cretcaeous of eastern Utah". Hunteria. 2 (10): 1–16.
  19. ^ Peter Wellnhofer (1993). "Das Siebte Exemplar von Archaeopteryx aus den Solnhofer Schichten". Archaeopteryx. 11: 1–48.
  20. ^ Lianhai Hou; Jiangyong Zhang (1993). "A New Fossil Bird from Lower Cretaceous of Liaoning" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 31 (3): 217–224.
  21. ^ Lianhai Hou (1997). "Mesozoic Birds of China" (PDF). Natou, Taiwan: Taiwan Feng Huang Gu Bird Garden, English Translation: 1–153.
  22. ^ Hou Lianhai (1993). "Avian Fossils of Pleistocene from Zhoukoudian". Memoirs of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology. Academia Sinica. Science Press, Beijing. 19: 165–297.
  23. ^ Damià Jaume; Miguel McMinn; Josep A. Alcover (1993). "The Fossil Birds from the Bujero del Silo, La Gomera (Canary Islands) with a Description of a New Species of Quail (Galliformes, Phasianidae)" (PDF). Boletim do Museo Municipal Funchal, Suplemento. 2: 147–165. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-19. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  24. ^ Steven M. Goodman; Florent Ravoavy (1993). "Identification of Bird Subfossils from Cave surface Deposits at Ahjohibe, Madagascar, With a Description of a New Giant Coua (Cuculidae: Couinae)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 106 (1): 24–33.
  25. ^ a b Lev A. Nessov; Andrei V. Panteleyev (1993). "About Similarities of the Late Cretaceous Ornithofauna of South America and Western Asia". Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR. 252: 84–94.
  26. ^ a b Andrei V. Panteleyev (1998). "New Species of Enantiornithines (Aves: Enantiornithes) from Upper Cretaceous of Central Kyzylkum". Russian Journal of Ornithology, Express-issue. 35: 3–15.
  27. ^ Nikolay I. Burchak-Abramovich, I. M. Ganea et K. I. Shushpanov (1993). "[New Gallus species from Upper Pliocene in Moldova.]". Buletinul Academiei de Şţiince a Republicii Moldova 265 (=Şţiince Biologice şi Chimice 4): 45–48, 77.
  28. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré (1993). "INFORMATION LETTER". Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution. 7.
  29. ^ Lev A. Nessov; A. A. Yarkov (1993). "Hesperornithiformes in Russia". Russian Journal of Ornithology. 2: 37–54.
  30. ^ a b c Luis M. Chiappe (1993). "Enantiotnithine (Aves) Tarsometatarsi from the Cretaceous Lecho Formation of Northwestern Argentina" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3083: 1–27.
  31. ^ Andrei V. Panteleyev; Lev A. Nessov (1993). "A Small Tubunare (Aves: Procellariiformes) from the Eoceen of Middle Asia". Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk SSSR. 252: 95–103.
  32. ^ Walter E. Boles (1993). "A Logrunner Orthonyx (Passeriformes: Orthonychidae) from the Miocene of Riversleigh, Northwestern Queensland" (PDF). Emu. 93 (1): 44–49. doi:10.1071/mu9930044.
  33. ^ a b Robert F. Baird (1993). "Pleistocene Avian Fossils from Pyramids Cave (M-89), Eastern Victoria, Australia". Alcheringa. 17 (4): 383–404. doi:10.1080/03115519308619600.
  34. ^ Walter E. Boles (1993). "Pengana robertbolesi, a Peculiar Bird of Prey from the Tertiary of Riversleigh, Northwestern Queensland, Australia". Alcheringa. 17 (1): 19–25. doi:10.1080/03115519308619485.
  35. ^ Sop & Lim Yong Nam (1996). "Section 5. Mesozoic Era". In: Paek Ryong Jun & Kang Hyong Gap, 1996: Geology of Korea Institute of Geology, State Academy of Sciences, DPR of Korea, Foreign Languages Books Publishing House: 155–188, 584–599.
  36. ^ Michael K. Brett-Surman; Gregory S. Paul (1985). "A New Family of Bird-Like Dinosaurs Linking Laurasia and Gondwanaland" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 5 (2): 133–138. doi:10.1080/02724634.1985.10011851.
  37. ^ LianHai Hou (1993). "Avian Fossils on the Jinniushan Paleolithic Site" (PDF). Memoirs of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Palaeoanthropology. 19: 39–40 + 153–159.
  38. ^ Bakker, R. T., 1993, Plesiosaur Extinction Cycles – events that mark the beginning, middle and end of the Cretaceous: In: Evolution of the Western Interior Basin: Geological Association of Canada, edited by Caldwell, W. G. E., and Kauffman, E. G., Special Paper 39, p. 641-664.