Open main menu

The Klondike Mountain Formation is an early Eocene[1][2] geological formation located in the northeast central area of Washington State. The formation, named for the type location designated in 1962, Klondike Mountain north of Republic, Washington,[3] is composed of volcanic rocks in the upper unit and volcanics plus lacustrine (lakebed) sedimentation in which a lagerstätte with exceptionally well-preserved[4] plant and insect fossils has been found, along with fossil epithermal hot springs.[5]

Klondike Mountain Formation
Stratigraphic range: Ypresian, 53.5–48.5 Ma
Klondike Mountain Formation outcrop - Site A0307.JPG
Klondike Mountain Formation outcrop at site A0307
TypeGeological formation
Unit ofOkanagan highlands
Sub-unitsTom Thumb Tuff, Lower Member, Upper Member
UnderliesGlacial deposits
OverliesSanpoil Volcanics & others
Thicknessup to 3,200 ft (980 m)
Lithology
Primaryvaried
Othersee text
Location
RegionOkanagan highlands
CountryUnited States
Type section
Named forKlondike Mountain
Named byMuessig
Year defined1962

The formation is the youngest in a group of formations which belong to the Challis Sequence rocks. The formation unconformably overlies rocks of the Eocene Sanpoil Volcanics and much older Triassic and Permian formations. The formation is bounded on its edges by a series of high-angle strike slip faults, which have contained the Klondike Mountain Formation in a series of graben structures, such as the Republic Graben.[6]

Contents

LocationEdit

The formation is located in northern Ferry County, Washington, with the majority of the sedimentation in the Republic and Curlew Basins on the east and in the Toroda Creek area to the north west. The town of Republic, Washington is situated at the southern end of the formation, with outcrops within the city itself. The Curlew basin is situated north of Republic, with the northern edge along the Kettle River and the community of Curlew, Washington near the northeastern edge.[7]

The formation is the southernmost of a string of preserved Eocene highland lakebeds in Washington state and British Columbia.[8] The lake system, within the Okanagan highlands, extends from the Klondike Mountain Formation north approximately 1,000 kilometres (1,000,000 m) in to southern central British Columbia.[1]

AgeEdit

Early dating of the formation was based primarily on identification and correlation of the fossils found in the Tom Thumb Tuff, with Joseph Umpleby in 1910 reporting a putative age of early Miocene. This date was based in examination of fossils by C. R. Eastman, who thought them to be similar to those found in the Florissant Formation of Colorado, which at the time was also considered Miocene. This age was retained in the 1928 work of Edward W. Berry, who included the Klondike Mountain Formation fossil lakebeds as part of the Latah Formation.[9] The age of the Formation has been revised in the following hundred years, with Roland W. Brown identifying the deposits as being older than the Latah Formation in 1936.[10] In a later written communication circa 1958, Brown again revised the age still older, stating the fossils found in the area of Mount Elizabeth indicated an Oligocene age. This age was used by R.L. Parker and J. A. Calkins in their 1964 work on the Curlew Quadrangle of Ferry County.[11] Since then the fossil-bearing strata of the Formation have been radiometrically dated, to give a current estimate of the Ypresian, the mid stage of the early Eocene,49.4 ± .5 million years ago.[1]

LithologyEdit

Parker and Calkins in 1964 noted the association of the Klondike Mountain Formation with the gold and silver deposits of the Republic District and suggested it as a potential host to more ore deposits in the Curlew Quadrangle.[11] The epithermal gold deposits occurring in the Sanpoil volcanics terminate directly below the unconformity where the volcanics contact the base of the Klondike Mountain Formation[12] or sometimes penetrate into the Formation's lowest unit.[5] Hydrothermal sinter deposits are known from the lowest portions of the Formation and are thought to represent hydrothermal eruption areas.[5] In general the lower portions of the Formation have a large amount of hydrothermal alteration, and areas around vents are rich in pyrite and silica. two products of natural hydrothermic sintering. The areas above that show a transition to mudstones, siltstones and sandstones grading from fine-grained material into coarser materials moving up the strata column. The finely-bedded stones show the greatest numbers of fossils and the finest preservation of details.[13]

PaleobiotaEdit

 
Rhus hybrid leaf with lobed terminal leaflet

The lake bed sediments preserve a diverse array of plants, insects, and fishes, notably the biota called the Republic flora. The Okanagan lake system, which includes the Klondike Mountain Formation, has been classified as one of the great Canadian lagerstätten.[4] The paleoenvironment preserved in the lake deposits is that of a mesic forest, similar in rainfall to that found today along the modern Washington State and British Columbia coast. The climate of the region offered a moderate amount of summer heat, with chilly winters not cold enough to sustain snow cover (a lower mesothermal to upper microthermal climate).[4]

Over a dozen different Rosaceae genera, both extant and extinct, have been identified in the formation. These fossils are some of the oldest reliable macrofossils (excluding ancient fossil pollen) for the family.[14] Fossils of Sorbus genus and Rhus genus leaves that show evidence of being interspecies hybrids have been noted from the formation. Flynn, DeVore and Pigg in 2019 described four species of sumac which formed multiple hybrids.[15] The neuropteran insects (lacewings and their allies) identified as of 2014 include species from the families Berothidae, Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae, Ithonidae (including Polystoechotidae), Nymphidae, Osmylidae, and Psychopsidae.[1] A number of mecopteran species belonging to the families Cimbrophlebiidae, Dinopanorpidae, Eorpidae, and Panorpidae are also known.[16]

Conifers, Ferns, and GinkophytesEdit

Name Authority Year Family Notes Images

Abies milleri[17]

Shorn & Wehr, 1986

1986

Pinaceae

Oldest true Fir described

Azolla primaeva[18]

Arnold, 1955

1955

Salviniaceae

A mosquito fern

Ginkgo biloba[19]

Linnaeus

2002

Ginkgoaceae

A ginkgo

Ginkgo dissecta[19]

Mustoe, 2002

2002

Ginkgoaceae

A ginkgo

Metasequoia occidentalis[20][21]

(Newberry) Chaney

1987

Cupressaceae

A dawn redwood

Pinus latahensis[9]

Berry, 1929

1929

Pinaceae

A 5 needle pine

Pinus macrophylla[9]

Berry, 1929

1929

Pinaceae

A 3 needle pine, jr homoym to Pinus macrophylla Lindley 1839

Pinus monticolensis[9]

Berry, 1929

1929

Pinaceae

A pine seed morphogenus

Pinus tetrafolia[9]

Berry, 1929

1929

Pinaceae

A possible 4 needled pine,
Noted by Berry as "highly improbable that this should represent a distinct botanic species"

Sequoia affinis[20]

Lesquereux

1935

Cupressaceae

A coast redwood,
Reported as "Sequioa langsdorfii" by Brown, 1935

Taxodium dubium[9][20]

(Sternberg) Heer, 1855

1929

Cupressaceae

A bald cypress

Torreya bonseri[9][22]

(Knowlton) LaMotte, 1926

1929

Taxaceae

A plum-yew relative

Flowering plantsEdit

Name Authors Year Family Notes Images

Acer arcticum[23]

Heer, 1876

1987

Sapindaceae

A maple

Acer hillsi[23]

Wolfe & Tanai, 1987

1987

Sapindaceae

A maple

Acer republicense[23]

Wolfe & Tanai, 1987

1987

Sapindaceae

A maple

Acer stonebergae[23]

Wolfe & Tanai, 1987

1987

Sapindaceae

A maple

Acer toradense[23]

Wolfe & Tanai, 1987

1987

Sapindaceae

A maple

Acer washingtonense[23]

Wolfe & Tanai, 1987

1987

Sapindaceae

A maple

Alnus parvifolia[21]

(Berry) Wolfe & Wehr, 1929

1929

Betulaceae

An Alder

Barghoornia oblongifolia[21]

Wolfe & Wehr, 1987

1987

Burseraceae

An extinct Bursera relative

Betula leopoldae[21]

Wolfe & Wehr, 1987

1987

Betulaceae

A birch

Bohlenia americana[21]

(Brown) Wolf & Wehr, 1935

1935

Sapindaceae

An extinct sapindale

Cercidiphyllum obtritum[21]

(Dawson) Wolfe & Wehr, 1890

1935

Cercidiphyllaceae

A katsura

Comptonia columbiana[21]

Dawson, 1890

1890

Myricaceae

A Comptonia

Concavistylon wehrii[24]

Manchester et al., 2018

2018

Trochodendraceae

A Trochodendrale

Corylopsis reedae[2]

Radtke, Pigg, & Wehr, 2001

2001

Hamamelidaceae

A winter-hazel

Corylus johnsonii[25]

Pigg, Manchester, & Wehr, 2003

2003

Betulaceae

A hazel nut

Dillhoffia[26]

Manchester & Pigg, 2008

2008

incertae sedis

A flower of unknown relationships

Dipteronia brownii[27]

McClain & Machester, 2001

2001

Sapindaceae

A Dipteronia

Eucommia montana[28]

Brown, 1940

1997

Eucommiaceae

A "hard rubber tree"

Fagopsis undulata[21]

(Knowlton) Hollick, 1899

1987

Fagaceae

A beech

Fagus langevinii[29]

Manchester & Dillhoff, 2004

2004

Fagaceae

A beech

Florissantia quilchenensis

(Mathewes & Brooke) Manchester

Malvaceae

A chocolate relative

Fothergilla malloryi[2]

Radtke, Pigg, & Wehr, 2005

2005

Hamamelidaceae

A witch alder

Koelreuteria dilcheri[30]

Wang et al., 2012

2012

Sapindaceae

A Koelreuteria species

Langeria magnifica[21]

Wolfe & Wehr, 1987

1987

Hamamelidaceae

A witch hazel relative

Macginitiea gracilis[21]

(Lesquereux) Wolfe & Wehr

1929

Platanaceae

A plane tree

Nuphar carlquistii[31]

DeVore, Taylor, & Pigg, 2015

2015

Nymphaeaceae

A waterlily

Oemleria janhartfordae[14]

Benedict, DeVore, & Pigg, 2011

2011

Rosaceae

An Osoberry

Orontium wolfei[32]

Bogner, Johnson, Kvaček & Upchurch, 2007

2007

Araceae

A golden club

Palaeocarpinus barksdaleae[25]

Pigg, Manchester, & Wehr, 2003

2003

Betulaceae

A birch relative

Paleoallium billgenseli[33]

Pigg, Bryan, & DeVore, 2018

2018

Amaryllidaceae

An onion relative

Pentacentron sternhartae[24]

Manchester et al., 2018

2018

Trochodendraceae

A Trochodendrale

Photinia pageae[21]

Wolfe & Wehr, 1987

1987

Rosacaea

A Christmas-berry relative

Populus lindgreni[9]

Knowlton, 1898

1929

Salicaceae

A cottonwood

Prunus cathybrownae[14]

Benedict, DeVore, & Pigg, 2011

2011

Rosaceae

A cherry relative

Republica hickeyi[21]

Wolfe & Wehr, 1987

1987

incertae seids

An incertae sedis angiosperm
possibly of Hamamelididae affiliations

Rhus boothillensis[15]

Flynn, DeVore, & Pigg, 2019

2019

Anacardiaceae

A sumac,
formed hybrids with the other Rhus species in the Klondike Mountain Formation

Rhus garwellii[15]

Flynn, DeVore, & Pigg, 2019

2019

Anacardiaceae

A sumac,
formed hybrids with the other Rhus species in the Klondike Mountain Formation

Rhus malloryi[21][15]

(Wolfe and Wehr) Flynn, DeVore and Pigg

1987

Anacardiaceae

A sumac,
formed hybrids with the other Rhus species in the Klondike Mountain Formation

Rhus republicensis[15]

Flynn, DeVore, & Pigg, 2019

2019

Anacardiaceae

A sumac,
formed hybrids with the other Rhus species in the Klondike Mountain Formation

Sassafras hesperia[21]

Berry, 1929

1929

Lauraceae

A sassafras

Schoepfia republicensis[21]

(LaMotte) Wolfe & Wehr, 1944

1929

Schoepfiaceae

A Schoepfia relative

Tetracentron hopkinsii[24]

Pigg et al., 2007

2018

Trochodendraceae

A Trochodendrale,
possibly the leaves of Pentacentron sternhartae

Tilia johnsoni[21]

Wolfe & Wehr, 1987

1987

Malvaceae

A Linden

Trochodendron nastae[34]

Pigg, Wehr, & Ickert-Bond, 2001

2001

Trochodendraceae

A Trochodendron

Tsukada davidiifolia[21]

Wolfe & Wehr, 1987

1987

Nyssaceae

A dove-tree relative

Ulmus chuchuanus[35]

(Berry) LaMotte, 1926

2005

Ulmaceae

An elm species

Ulmus okanaganensis

Denk & Dillhoff, 2005

2005

Ulmaceae

An elm species

InsectsEdit

Name Authors Year Family Notes Images

Adamsochrysa wilsoni[36]

Makarkin & Archibald

2013

Chrysopidae

A green lacewing

Ainigmapsychops[1]

Makarkin & Archibald

2014

Psychopsidae?

A possible psychopsid lacewing

Allorapisma chuorum[37]

Makarkin & Archibald

2009

Ithonidae

A moth lacewing

Cimbrophlebia brooksi[38]

Archibald

2009

Cimbrophlebiidae

A Cimbrophlebiid scorpionfly

Cimbrophlebia westae[38]

Archibald

2009

Cimbrophlebiidae

A Cimbrophlebiid scorpionfly

Cretomerobius wehri[39]

Makarkin, Archibald, & Oswald

2003

Hemerobiidae

A hemerobiid lacewing

Dinokanaga andersoni[40]

Archibald

2005

Dinopanorpidae

A scorpion fly species

Dinokanaga dowsonae[40]

Archibald

2005

Dinopanorpidae

A scorpion fly species

Dinokanaga sternbergi[40]

Archibald

2005

Dinopanorpidae

A scorpion fly species

Eoceneithycerus carpenteri[41]

Legalov

2013

Brentidae

An Ithycerinae weevil

Eoprephasma hichensi[42]

Archibald & Bradler

2015

Susumanioidea

A stick insect species

Eorpa elverumi[43]

Archibald, Mathewes, & Greenwood

2013

Eorpidae

A mecopteran scorpionfly

?Eorpa ypsipeda[43]

Archibald, Mathewes, & Greenwood

2013

Eorpidae

A mecopteran scorpionfly, tentatively identified

 
Possible E. ypsipeda[43]

Klondikia whiteae[44]

Dlussky & Rasnitsyn

2003

Formicidae

An ant

Metanephrocerus belgardeae[45]

Archibald, Kehlmaier, & Mathewes

2014

Pipunculidae

A pipunculid

Myrmeciites[46]

Archibald, Cover, & Moreau

2006

Formicidae

A bulldog ant form genus

Neoephemera antiqua[47]

Sinitchenkova

1999

Neoephemeridae

A mayfly

Nymphes georgei[48]

Archibald, Makarkin, & Ansorge

2009

Nymphidae

A nymphid lacewing

Oecophylla kraussei[49]

(Dlussky & Rasnitsyn)

1999

Formicidae

An ant, described as Camponotites kraussei,
Moved to Oecophylla kraussei in 2017[50]

Palaeopsychops marringerae[51]

Archibald & Makarkin, 2006

2006

Ithonidae[52]

A giant lacewing

Palaeopsychops timmi[51]

Archibald & Makarkin, 2006

2006

Ithonidae[52]

A giant lacewing

Polystoechotites barksdalae[46]

Archibald & Makarkin, 2006

2006

Ithonidae[52]

A giant lacewing

Polystoechotites falcatus[46]

Archibald & Makarkin, 2006

2006

Ithonidae[52]

A giant lacewing

Polystoechotites lewisi[46]

Archibald & Makarkin, 2006

2006

Ithonidae[52]

A giant lacewing

Propalosoma gutierrezae[49]

Dlussky & Rasnitsyn

1999

Formicidae

An ant, described as a Rhopalosomatidae wasp,
moved to myrmeciinae in 2018[53]

Ulteramus republicensis[54]

Archibald & Rasnitsyn

2015

Pamphiliidae

A parasitic wasp

VertebratesEdit

Name Authors Year Family Notes Images

"Amia" hesperia

Wilson

1977

Amiidae

A bowfin

Amyzon aggregatum

Wilson

1977

Catostomidae

A sucker

Eosalmo[55]

Wilson

1977

Salmonidae

A Salmon

Hiodon woodruffi

Wilson

1978

Hiodontidae

A mooneye

Libotonius pearsoni

Wilson

1979

Percopsidae

A trout perch

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Makarkin, V.; Archibald, S.B. (2014). "An unusual new fossil genus probably belonging to the Psychopsidae (Neuroptera) from the Eocene Okanagan Highlands, western North America". Zootaxa. 3838 (3): 385–391. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.692.1185. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3838.3.8. PMID 25081783.
  2. ^ a b c Radtke, M.G.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2005). "Fossil Corylopsis and Fothergilla Leaves (Hamamelidaceae) from the Lower Eocene Flora of Republic, Washington, U.S.A., and Their Evolutionary and Biogeographic Significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 166 (2): 347–356. doi:10.1086/427483.
  3. ^ Muessig, Siegfried (1962). "Tertiary volcanic and related rocks of the Republic area, Ferry County, Washington". Geological Survey Research 1962. 450 D: D56–58.
  4. ^ a b c Archibald, SB; Greenwood, DR; Smith, RY; Mathewes, RW; Basinger, JF (2012). "Great Canadian Lagerstätten 1. Early Eocene Lagerstätten of the Okanagan Highlands (British Columbia and Washington State)". Geoscience Canada. 38 (4): 155–164.
  5. ^ a b c Lasmanis, R (1996). "A historical perspective on ore formation concepts, Republic Mining District, Ferry County, Washington". Washington Geology. 24 (2): 8–11.
  6. ^ Cheney, ES; Rasmussen, MG (1996). "Regional geology of the Republic area". Washington Geology. 24 (2): 3–7.
  7. ^ Gaylord, DR; Suydam, JD; Price, SM; Matthews, JM; Lindsey, KA (1996). "Depositional history of the uppermost Sanpoil Volcanics and Klondike Mountain Formation in the Republic basin". Washington Geology. 24 (2): 15–18.
  8. ^ Suydam, J.; Gaylord, D.R. (1997). "Toroda Creek half graben, northeast Washington: Late-stage sedimentary infilling of a synextensional basin". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 109 (10): 1333–1348. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1997)109<1333:tchgnw>2.3.co;2.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Berry, E.W. (1929). "A revision of the flora of the Latah Formation". USGS Professional Paper. PP 154-H: 225–265.
  10. ^ Brown, R.W. (1936). "Additions to some fossil floras of the western United States". USGS Professional Paper. PP 186-J.
  11. ^ a b Parker, RL; Calkins, JA (1964). "Geology of the Curlew Quadrangle, Ferry County, Washington". Geological Survey Bulletin. 1169.
  12. ^ Boleneus, DE; Raines, GL; Causey, JD; Bookstrom, AA; Frost, TP; Hyndman, PC (2001). "Assessment method for epithermal gold deposits in northeast Washington State using weights-of-evidence GIS modeling" (PDF). USGA Open File Report. 01-501: 1–52.
  13. ^ Gaylord, DR; Price, SM; Suydam, JD (2001). Volcanic and hydrothermal influences on middle Eocene lacustrine sedimentary deposits. Republic Basin, northern Washington, USA. International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication. pp. 199–222. ISBN 9781444304268.
  14. ^ a b c Benedict, JC; DeVore, ML; Pigg, KB (2011). "Prunus and Oemleria (Rosaceae) Flowers from the Late Early Eocene Republic Flora of Northeastern Washington State, U.S.A.". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 172 (7): 948–958. doi:10.1086/660880.
  15. ^ a b c d e Flynn, S.; DeVore, M. L.; Pigg, K. B. (2019). "Morphological Features of Sumac Leaves (Rhus, Anacardiaceae), from the Latest Early Eocene Flora of Republic, Washington". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 180 (6). doi:10.1086/703526.
  16. ^ Archibald, SB (2009). "New Cimbrophlebiidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) from the Early Eocene at McAbee, British Columbia, Canada and Republic, Washington, USA". Zootaxa. 2249: 51–62.
  17. ^ Schorn, Howard; Wehr, Wesley (1986). "Abies milleri, sp. nov., from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington". Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History (1): 1–7.
  18. ^ Arnold, C. A. (1955). "A Tertiary Azolla from British Columbia" (PDF). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan. 12 (4): 37–45.
  19. ^ a b Mustoe, G.E. (2002). "Eocene Ginkgo leaf fossils from the Pacific Northwest". Canadian Journal of Botany. 80 (10): 1078–1087. doi:10.1139/b02-097.
  20. ^ a b c Chaney, R.W. (1951). "A revision of fossil Sequoia and Taxodium in western North America based on the recent discovery of Metasequoia". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 40 (3): 231.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Wolfe, J.A.; Wehr, W.C. (1987). "Middle Eocene dicotyledonous plants from Republic, northeastern Washington". United States Geological Survey Bulletin. 1597: 1–25.
  22. ^ LaMotte, R.S. (1944). "Supplement to catalogue of Mesozoic and Cenozoic plants of North America, 1919–37". United States Geological Survey Bulletin. 924: 307.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Wolfe, J.A.; Tanai, T. (1987). "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Distribution of Acer (maples) in the Cenozoic of Western North America". Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and Mineralogy. 22 (1): 1–246.
  24. ^ a b c Manchester, S.; Pigg, K. B.; Kvaček, Z; DeVore, M. L.; Dillhoff, R. M. (2018). "Newly recognized diversity in Trochodendraceae from the Eocene of western North America". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 179 (8): 663–676. doi:10.1086/699282.
  25. ^ a b Pigg, K.B.; Manchester S.R.; Wehr W.C. (2003). "Corylus, Carpinus, and Palaeocarpinus (Betulaceae) from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain and Allenby Formations of Northwestern North America". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 164 (5): 807–822. doi:10.1086/376816.
  26. ^ Manchester, S.; Pigg, K. (2008). "The Eocene mystery flower of McAbee, British Columbia". Botany. 86 (9): 1034–1038. doi:10.1139/B08-044.
  27. ^ McClain, A. M.; Manchester, S. R. (2001). "Dipteronia (Sapindaceae) from the Tertiary of North America and implications for the phytogeographic history of the Aceroideae". American Journal of Botany. 88 (7): 1316–25. doi:10.2307/3558343. JSTOR 3558343. PMID 11454632.
  28. ^ Call, V.B.; Dilcher, D.L. (1997). "The fossil record of Eucommia (Eucommiaceae) in North America" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 84 (6): 798–814. doi:10.2307/2445816. JSTOR 2445816. PMID 21708632.
  29. ^ Manchester, S. R.; Dillhoff, R. M. "Fagus (Fagaceae) fruits, foliage, and pollen from the Middle Eocene of Pacific Northwestern North America". Canadian Journal of Botany. 82: 1509–1517.
  30. ^ Wang, Q.; Manchester, S. R.; Gregor, H. J.; Shen, S.; Li, Z. Y. (2013). "Fruits of Koelreuteria (Sapindaceae) from the Cenozoic throughout the northern hemisphere: their ecological, evolutionary, and biogeographic implications". American Journal of Botany. 100 (2): 422–449.
  31. ^ DeVore, ML; Taylor, W; Pigg, KB (2015). "Nuphar carlquistii sp. nov. (Nymphaeaceae): A Water Lily from the Latest Early Eocene, Republic, Washington". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 176 (4): 365–377. doi:10.1086/680482.
  32. ^ Bogner, J.; Johnson, K. R.; Kvacek, Z.; Upchurch, G. R. (2007). "New fossil leaves of Araceae from the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene of western North America" (PDF). Zitteliana. A (47): 133–147. ISSN 1612-412X.
  33. ^ Pigg, K. B.; Bryan, F. A.; DeVore, M. L. (2018). "Paleoallium billgenseli gen. et sp. nov.: fossil monocot remains from the latest Early Eocene Republic Flora, northeastern Washington State, USA". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 179 (6): 477–486. doi:10.1086/697898.
  34. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C.; Ickert-Bond, S.M. (2001). "Trochodendron and Nordenskioldia (Trochodendraceae) from the Middle Eocene of Washington State, U.S.A.". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 162 (5): 1187–1198. doi:10.1086/321927.
  35. ^ Denk, T.; Dillhoff, R.M. (2005). "Ulmus leaves and fruits from the Early-Middle Eocene of northwestern North America: systematics and implications for character evolution within Ulmaceae" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Botany. 83 (12): 1663–1681. doi:10.1139/b05-122. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-09. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  36. ^ Vladimir N. Makarkin; S. Bruce Archibald (2013). "A Diverse New Assemblage of Green Lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) from the Early Eocene Okanagan Highlands, Western North America". Journal of Paleontology. 87 (1): 123–146. doi:10.1666/12-052R.1.
  37. ^ Makarkin, V. N.; Archibald, S. B. (2009). "A new genus and first Cenozoic fossil record of moth lacewings (Neuroptera: Ithonidae) from the Early Eocene of North America" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2063: 55–63.
  38. ^ a b Archibald, S. B. (2009). "New Cimbrophlebiidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) from the Early Eocene at McAbee, British Columbia, Canada and Republic, Washington, USA" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2249: 51–62.
  39. ^ Makarkin, VN; Archibald, SB; Oswald, JD (2003). "New Early Eocene brown lacewings (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) from western North America". The Canadian Entomologist. 135 (5): 637–653. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.489.5852. doi:10.4039/n02-122.
  40. ^ a b c Archibald, S.B. (2005). "New Dinopanorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) from the Eocene Okanagan Highlands (British Columbia, Canada and Washington State, USA)". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 42 (2): 119–136. doi:10.1139/e04-073.
  41. ^ Legalov, A. A. (2013). "New and little known weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from the Paleogene and Neogene". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 25 (1): 59–80. doi:10.1080/08912963.2012.692681.
  42. ^ Archibald, SB; Bradler, S (2015). "Stem-group stick insects (Phasmatodea) in the early Eocene at McAbee, British Columbia, Canada, and Republic, Washington, United States of America". Canadian Entomologist. 147 (6): 744. doi:10.4039/tce.2015.2.
  43. ^ a b c Archibald, SB; Mathewes, RW; Greenwood, DR (2013). "The Eocene apex of panorpoid scorpionfly family diversity". Journal of Paleontology. 87 (4): 677–695. doi:10.1666/12-129.
  44. ^ Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. (2003). "Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America". Russian Entomology Journal. 11 (4): 411–436.
  45. ^ Archibald, SB; Kehlmaier, C; Mathewes, RW (2014). "Early Eocene big headed flies (Diptera: Pipunculidae) from the Okanagan Highlands, western North America". The Canadian Entomologist. 146 (4): 429–443. doi:10.4039/tce.2013.79.
  46. ^ a b c d Archibald, S.B.; Cover, S. P.; Moreau, C. S. (2006). "Bulldog Ants of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands and History of the Subfamily (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae)" (PDF). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 99 (3): 487–523. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2006)99[487:BAOTEO]2.0.CO;2.
  47. ^ Sinitchenkova, N. D. (1999). "A new mayfly species of the extant genus Neoephemera from the Eocene of North America (Insecta: Ephemerida=Ephemeroptera)" (PDF). Paleontological Journal. 33 (4): 403–405. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-30. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  48. ^ Archibald, S. B.; Makarkin, V. N.; Ansorge, J. (2009). "New fossil species of Nymphidae (Neuroptera) from the Eocene of North America and Europe" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2157: 59–68.
  49. ^ a b Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. (1999). "Two new species of aculeate hymenopterans (Vespida=Hymenoptera) from the Middle Eocene of the United States". Paleontological Journal. 33: 546–549.
  50. ^ Perfilieva, K. S.; Dubovikoff, D. A.; Dlussky, G. M. (2017). "Miocene ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Crimea". Paleontological Journal. 51: 391–401. doi:10.1134/S0031030117040098.
  51. ^ a b Archibald, S.B.; Makarkin V.N. (2006). "Tertiary Giant Lacewings (Neuroptera: Polystechotidae): Revision and Description of New Taxa From Western North America and Denmark". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 4 (2): 119–155. doi:10.1017/S1477201906001817. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
  52. ^ a b c d e Winterton, SL; Makarkin, VN (2010). "Phylogeny of Moth Lacewings and Giant Lacewings (Neuroptera: Ithonidae, Polystoechotidae) Using DNA Sequence Data, Morphology, and Fossils". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 103 (4): 511–522. doi:10.1603/an10026.
  53. ^ Archibald, S. B.; Rasnitsyn, A. P.; Brothers, D. J.; Mathewes, R. W. (2018). "Modernisation of the Hymenoptera: ants, bees, wasps, and sawflies of the early Eocene Okanagan Highlands of western North America". The Canadian Entomologist. 150: 205–257. doi:10.4039/tce.2017.59.
  54. ^ Archibald, S.B.; Rasnitsyn, A.P. (2015). "New early Eocene Siricomorpha (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Pamphiliidae, Siricidae, Cephidae) from the Okanagan Highlands, western North America". The Canadian Entomologist. 148 (2): 209–228. doi:10.4039/tce.2015.55.
  55. ^ Wilson, M.V.H.; Li, Guo-Qing (1999). "Osteology and systematic position of the Eocene salmonid †Eosalmo driftwoodensis Wilson from western North America" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 99 (125): 279–311. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1999.tb00594.x. Retrieved 2010-01-01.