Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
These forests are richest and most distinctive in central China and eastern North America, with some other globally distinctive ecoregions in the Caucasus, the Himalayas, southern Europe, and the Russian Far East.
The typical structure of these forests includes four layers. The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 30 to 61 m (100 to 200 ft) high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory that is roughly 9 to 15 m (30 to 50 ft) shorter than the canopy. The top layer of the understory is the sub-canopy composed of smaller mature trees, saplings, and suppressed juvenile canopy layer trees awaiting an opening in the canopy. Below the sub-canopy is the shrub layer, composed of low growing woody plants. Typically the lowest growing (and most diverse) layer is the ground cover or herbaceous layer.
In the Northern hemisphere, characteristic dominant broadleaf trees in this biome include oaks (Quercus spp.), beeches (Fagus spp.), maples (Acer spp.), or birches (Betula spp.). The term "mixed forest" comes from the inclusion of coniferous trees as a canopy component of some of these forests. Typical coniferous trees include: Pines (Pinus spp.), firs (Abies spp.), and spruces (Picea spp.). In some areas of this biome the conifers may be a more important canopy species than the broadleaf species. In the Southern hemisphere, endemic genera such as Nothofagus and Eucalyptus occupy this biome. Furthermore, in the southern hemisphere, most coniferous trees (members of the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae) occur in mixtures with broadleaf species, and are classed as broadleaf and mixed forests.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests occur in areas with distinct warm and cool seasons that give them moderate annual average temperatures — 3 to 15.6 °C (37 to 60 °F). These forests occur in relatively warm and rainy climates, sometimes also with a distinct dry season. A dry season occurs in the winter in East Asia and in summer on the wet fringe of the Mediterranean climate zones. Other areas, as in the central and upper eastern United States and southeastern Canada, have a fairly even distribution of rainfall; annual rainfall is typically over 600 mm (24 in) and often over 1,500 mm (59 in). Temperatures are typically moderate except in parts of Asia such as Ussuriland where temperate forests can occur despite very harsh conditions with very cold winters.
|Chatham Islands temperate forests||New Zealand|
|Eastern Australian temperate forests||Australia|
|Fiordland temperate forests||New Zealand|
|Nelson Coast temperate forests||New Zealand|
|Northland temperate forests||New Zealand|
|Northland temperate kauri forests||New Zealand|
|Stewart Island / Rakiura temperate forests||New Zealand|
|Richmond temperate forests||New Zealand|
|Southland temperate forests||New Zealand|
|Tasmanian Central Highland forests||Australia|
|Tasmanian temperate forests||Australia|
|Tasmanian temperate rain forests||Australia|
|Westland temperate forests||New Zealand|
|Allegheny Highlands forests||United States|
|Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests||United States|
|Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests||United States|
|California mixed evergreen forest||United States|
|Central U.S. hardwood forests||United States|
|East Central Texas forests||United States|
|Eastern forest-boreal transition||Canada, United States|
|Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests||Canada, United States|
|Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests||Canada|
|Lac Saint-Jean and Saguenay valley forests||Canada|
|Middle Atlantic coastal forests||Southeastern United States|
|Mississippi lowland forests||United States|
|New England-Acadian forests||Canada, United States|
|Northeastern coastal forests||United States|
|Ozark Mountain forests||United States|
|Southeastern mixed forests||United States|
|Southeastern subtropical evergreen forests||United States|
|Southern Great Lakes forests||United States|
|Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition||United States|
|Western Great Lakes forests||Canada, United States|
|Willamette Valley forests||United States|
|Juan Fernandez Islands temperate forests||Chile|
|Magellanic subpolar forests||Argentina, Chile|
|San Felix-San Ambrosio Islands temperate forests (Desventuradas Islands)||Chile|
|Valdivian temperate rain forests||Argentina, Chile|
- This article incorporates text available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license. World Wide Fund for Nature. "Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest Ecoregions". Archived from the original on 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2019-05-29.
- Zhao, Ji; Zheng, Guangmei; Wang, Huadong; Xu, Jialin, eds. (1990). The natural history of China. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
- Martin, WH; Boyce, SG; Echternacht, AC, eds. (1993). Biodiversity of the southeastern United States: Lowland terrestrial communities. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
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