Open main menu

Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1985.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988

Contents

MolluscsEdit

BivalvesEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Oryzoconcha[2]

gen et sp nov

not valid

He & Pei

Early Cambrian

Henan province

  China

synonym of Pojetaia runnegari

Tuarangia[3]

Ord, Supfam, fam, gen et sp nov

valid

MacKinnon

late Middle Cambrian

Tasman Formation

  New Zealand

one of four accepted Cambrian bivalves

ArthropodsEdit

InsectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Azteca alpha[4]

Sp nov

valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican Amber

  Dominican Republic

A dolichoderine ant

Azteca eumeces[4]

Sp nov

valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican Amber

  Dominican Republic

A dolichoderine ant

Dominickus[5]

gen et sp. nov

valid

Tindale

Priabonian

Florissant Formation

  USA

A castniid butterfly-moth, monotypic

ArchosauromorphsEdit

  • Psittacosaurus gastroliths documented.[6]

Newly named pseudosuchiansEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Postosuchus[7]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Chatterjee

CarnianNorian

Cooper Canyon Formation
Chinle Formation
Newark Supergroup

  United States

A rauisuchid.

Newly named pterosaursEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anhanguera

Gen et sp

Valid

Campos & Kellner

Aptian

Crato Formation

  Brazil

A pterodactyloid belonging to Anhangueridae.

"Palaeolimnornis"[8]

Gen et sp nov

Nomen nudum

Jurcsák & Kessler

Early Cretaceous

Bauxite mine

  Romania

An informal name applied to Palaeocursornis. An azhdarchoid pterosaur.[9]

Newly named non-avian dinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[10]

Name Status Authors Location Notes Images
Abelisaurus[11] Valid taxon
  • Novas
A short-handed Flesh-eating Dinosaur.
"Aliwalia"[12]

Junior synonym.

Junior subjective synonym of Eucnemosaurus.

Blikanasaurus[13] Valid taxon
  • van Heerden
Camelotia[14] Valid taxon A British Melanorosaur.
Carnotaurus[15] Valid taxon An Abelisaurid. The Horned Cheetah of the Cretaceous.
"Dachungosaurus"[16]

Nomen nudum.

  • Zhao X. (as Chao S.)
"Dystylosaurus"[17]

Junior synonym.

Junior synonym of Supersaurus.

Gasosaurus[18] Valid taxon
"Mifunesaurus"

Nomen nudum

  • Hisa
"Moshisaurus"

Nomen nudum.

  • Hisa
"Oshanosaurus"[16]

Nomen nudum.

  • Zhao X. (as Chao S.)
"Sanchusaurus"

Nomen nudum

  • Hisa
Supersaurus[17] Valid taxon
"Ultrasaurus"[17]

Preoccupied name.

Preoccupied by Kim H. M., 1983 and renamed Ultrasauros.

"Xuanhuasaurus"[16]

Nomen nudum.

  • Zhao X. (as Chao S.)

Later renamed Xuanhuaceratops in 2006

Literature on fossil birdsEdit

  • Storrs Olson: the fossil record of birds [19]

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aegialornis szarskii [20]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Dieter S. Peters

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

  Germany

An Aegialornithidae

Amphipelargus dzabghanensis [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Miocene-Pliocene

Chono-Harayah

  Mongolia

A Gruiformes, Eogruidae

Anas molesta [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Miocene

Hyargas Nuur 2

  Mongolia

An Anatidae, transferred to the genus Aythya by Nikita V. Zelenkov [22]

Anas schneideri [23]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Steven D. Emslie

Late Pleistocene

  USA

An Anatidae.

Anser tchikoicus [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Pliocene

  Mongolia

An Anatidae.

Anthus seductus [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Early Pliocene

  Mongolia

A Motacillidae.

Avisaurus archibaldi [24]

Valid

Gen et Sp. nov.

Michael K. Brett-Surman

Gregory S. Paul

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

  USA (  Montana and    North Dakota)

An Enantiornithes, Avisauridae Brett-Surman & Paul, 1985 this is the type species of the new genus.

Aythya magna [21]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Early Pliocene

Hyargas Nuur Formation

  Mongolia

An Anatidae.

Aythya shihuibas [25]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Late Miocene

  China

An Anatidae, Nikita V. Zelenkov, 2012 transferred the species to his genus Protomelanitta Zelenkov, 2011.[26]

Bonibernicla ponderosa [21]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Miocene

Hyargas Nuur Formation

  Mongolia
  USA

An Anatidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Brasilogyps faustoi [27]

Valid

Gen et Sp nov.

Herculano M. F. de Alvarenga

Early Oligocene

Taubate

  Brazil

A Cathartidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Centropus colossus [28]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Robert F. Baird

Quaternary

Green Waterhole Cave

  Australia

A Cuculiformes, Centropodidae.

Colius hendeyi [29]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Patricia Vickers Rich

Philippa J. Haarhoff

Early Pliocene

Varswater Formation

  South Africa

A Coliidae.

Corvus solitus [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Late Pliocene

  Mongolia

A Corvidae.

Diangallus mious [25]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Late Miocene

  China

A Phasianidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Egretta subfluvia [30]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Jonathan J. Becker

Late Miocene

Early Hemphillian

  USA:

  Florida

An Ardeidae.

Eudromia olsoni [31]

Valid

Nom. nov.

Claudia P. Tambussi

Eduardo P. Tonni

Late Pliocene

Monte Hermoso Formation

  Argentina

A Tinamidae, new name for the preoccupied Tinamisornis intermedius Dabbene et Lillo, 1913 = Eudromia elegans intermedia (Dabbene et Lillo, 1913).

Geronticus apelex [32]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Early Pliocene

Varswater Formation

  South Africa

A Threskiornithidae.

Grus afghana [33]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Jean-Christophe Balouet

Yves Jehenne

Émile Heintz

Late Miocene

MN 12

  Afghanistan

A Gruidae.

Haliaeetus fortis [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Miocene

MN 13,

Hyargas-Nuur 2

  Mongolia

An Accipitridae.

Heliadornis ashbyi [34]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Middle Miocene

Langhian,

Calvert Formation

  USA
  Belgium
  Antwerp

A Phaethontidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Limosa lacrimosa [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Late Pliocene

  Mongolia

A Scolopacidae.

“Lophura” inferna [21]

Not Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene

Shaamar

  Mongolia

A Phasianidae, not a Lophura, the holotype is not diagnostic to genus.[citation needed]

Melopyrrha latirostris [35]

Valid

Sp. nov.

David W. Steadman

Gary S. Morgan

Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene

Cayman Brac cave deposits

  Cayman Islands

A Thraupidae.

Oceanites zaloscarthmus [36]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Early Pliocene

Varswater Formation

  South Africa

An Oceanitidae.

Oenanthe infima [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Late Pliocene

Sharga

  Mongolia

A Muscicapidae.

Orthonyx hypsilophus [28]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Robert F. Baird

Quaternary

Green Waterhole Cave

  Australia

An Orthonychidae.

Pachyptila salax [36]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Early Pliocene

Varswater Formation

  South Africa

A Procellariidae.

Paleopsilopterus itaboraiensis [37]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Herculano M. F. de Alvarenga

Itaboraian

  Brazil

A Gruiformes, Phorusrhacidae Ameghino, 1889, Psilopterinae Dolgopol de Saez, 1927, this is the type species of the new genus.

Palaeotodus escampsiensis [38]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Late Eocene

Phosphorites du Quercy,

Escamps

  France

A Todidae.

Palaeotodus itardiensis [38]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Oligocene

Phosphorites du Quercy

  France

A Todidae.

Pandion lovensis [39]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Jonathan J. Becker

Latest Clarendonian

  USA

A Pandionidae.

Pelecanoides cymatotrypetes [36]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Early Pliocene

Varswater Formation

  South Africa

A Pelecanoididae.

Perdix margaritae [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Late Pliocene

Chikoi River

  Soviet Union:

  Russia

A Phasianidae.

Phalaropus eleonorae [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Late Pliocene

  Mongolia

A Phalaropidae.

Phasianus lufengia [25]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Late Miocene

Shihuiba

  China

A Phasianidae.

Podiceps solidus [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Miocene;

Early Pliocene

Hyargas-Nuur 2:

MN 13;
Chono-Harayah 1 and 2
Zogsoo-Harhan 1 and 4

  Mongolia

A Podicipedidae.

Pseudodontornis tenuirostris [40]

Valid ?

Sp. nov.

Colin J. O. Harrison

Late Paleocene

Oldhaven Beds

  UK:

  England

A Pseudontornithidae, possibly a synonymym of Pseudodontornis longidentata[citation needed]

Siphonorhis daiquiri[41]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Quaternary, probably Holocene

Cave deposits

  Cuba

A Caprimulgidae, may still be living.

Syrmaticus kozlovae [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Late Pliocene

Khirgis Nur Formation

  Mongolia

A Phasianidae.

Syrrhaptes kashini [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Late Pliocene

  Mongolia

A Pteroclidae.

Tadorna petrina [21]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Pliocene

  Mongolia

An Anatidae.

Yunnanus gaoyuansis [25]

Valid

Gen et Sp nov.

Hou Lianhai

Late Miocene

Shihuiba

  China

A Passeriformes, family Incertae Sedis, this is the type species of the new genus.

LepidosauromorphsEdit

Newly named pleosiosaursEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Yuzhoupliosaurus

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Zhang

Middle Jurassic

  China

A rhomaleosauride

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Elicki, O.; Gürsu, S. (2009). "First record of Pojetaia runnegari Jell, 1980 and Fordilla Barrande, 1881 from the Middle East (Taurus Mountains, Turkey) and critical review of Cambrian bivalves" (PDF). Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (2): 267–291. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0021-9.
  3. ^ MacKinnon, D.I. (1982). "Tuarangia paparua n. gen. and n. sp. A late Middle Cambrian bivalve from New Zealand". Journal of Paleontology. 56 (3): 589–598. JSTOR abstract and first page 1304393 abstract and first page.
  4. ^ a b Wilson, E.O. (1985). "Ants of the Dominican amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). 3. The subfamily Dolichoderinae". Psyche. 92: 17–37. doi:10.1155/1985/20969.
  5. ^ Tindale, N. B. (1985). "A butterfly-moth (Lepidoptera:Castniidae) form the Oligocene shales of Florissant, Colorado" (PDF). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. 24 (1): 31–40.
  6. ^ Bird (1985). Sanders, Manley, and Carpenter (2001), "Table 12.1" page 167.
  7. ^ Chatterjee, Sankar (1985). "Postosuchus, a new Thecodontian reptile from the Triassic of Texas and the origin of Tyrannosaurs". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 309 (1139): 395–460. doi:10.1098/rstb.1985.0092.
  8. ^ Jurcsak, T. and E. Kessler. 1985. La paleofaune de Comet- implications phylogenetiques et ecologiques. Evolution et Adaptation 11: pp. 137-147.
  9. ^ Federico L. Agnolin and David Varricchio (2012). "Systematic reinterpretation of Piksi barbarulna Varricchio, 2002 from the Two Medicine Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Western USA (Montana) as a pterosaur rather than a bird". Geodiversitas 34 (4): 883–894. doi:10.5252/g2012n4a10.
  10. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  11. ^ Bonaparte, J.F. and F.E. Novas. 1985. Abelisaurus comahuensis, ng, n. sp., Carnosauria from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. Ameghiniana 21: pp. 259-265.
  12. ^ Galton, P.M. 1985. The poposaurid thecodontian Teratosaurus suevicus v. Meyer, plus referred specimens mostly based on prosauropod dinosaurs, from the Middle Stubensandstein (Upper Triassic) of Nordwurttenburg. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. (ser. B) 116: pp. 1-29.
  13. ^ Galton, P.M. and Heerden, J. 1985. Partial hindlimb of Blikanasaurus cromptoni n. gen. and n. sp. representing a new family of prosauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Triassic of South Africa. Geobios 18: pp. 509-516.
  14. ^ Galton, P. M. 1985. Notes on the Melanorosauridae, a family of large prosauropod dinosaurs (Saurischia, Sauropodomorpha). Geobios 19: pp. 671-676.
  15. ^ Bonaparte, J.E. 1985. A horned Cretaceous Carnosaur from Patagonia. Natl. Geogr. Res. Winter: pp. 149-152.
  16. ^ a b c Chao Shichin. 1985. The reptilian fauna of the Jurassic in China. In: The Jurassic System of China (Wang S., Z. Cheng, and N. Wang, eds.). Geological Publishing House, Beijing: pp. 286-289, 347, pl. 10, 11 [in Chinese].
  17. ^ a b c Jensen, J.A. 1985. Three new sauropod dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic of Colorado. Great Basin Nat. 45 (4): pp. 679-709.
  18. ^ Dong, Z. and Z. Tang. 1985. Note on the mid Jurassic carnosaur (Gasosaurus constructus gen. et sp. nov.) from Suchuan Basin. China. Vertebrate Palasiatica 23 (1): pp. 77-83.
  19. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1985). "The Fossil Record of Birds" (PDF). In Farner, D.S.; King, J.R.; Parkes, K.C. (eds.). Avian Biology. 8. New York: Academic Press. pp. 79–252.
  20. ^ Dieter S. Peters (1985). "Ein Neuer Segler aus der Grube Messel und seine Bedeutung für den Status der Aegialornithidae (Aves: Apodiformes)". Senckenbergiana Lethaea. 66 (1–2): 143–164.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Evgeny N. Kurochkin (1985). "[Birds of Central Asia in the Pliocene] [in Russian]". Transactions of the Joint Soviet-Mongolian Expedition. 26: 1–120.
  22. ^ Nikita V. Zelenkov (1985). "Neogene Geese and Ducks (Aves: Anatidae) from Localities of the Great Lakes Depression, Western Mongolia". Paleontological Journal. 46 (6): 607–619.
  23. ^ Steven D. Emslie (1985). "A New Species of Teal from the Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) of Wyoming" (PDF). Auk. 102 (1): 201–205. doi:10.2307/4086849. JSTOR 4086849.
  24. ^ Michael K. Brett-Surman; Gregory S. Paul (1985). "A New Family of Bird-Like Dinosaurs Linking Laurasia and Gondwanaland" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 5 (2): 133–138. doi:10.1080/02724634.1985.10011851.
  25. ^ a b c d Hou Lianhai (1985). "Upper Miocene Birds from Lufeng, Yunnan". Acta Anthropologica Sinica. 4 (2): 118–126.
  26. ^ Nikita V. Zelenkov (2012). "A New Duck from the Middle Miocene of Mongolia with Comments on Miocene Evolution of Ducks". Paleontological Journal. 46 (5): 520–530. doi:10.1134/s0031030112050139.
  27. ^ Herculano M. F. de Alvarenga (1985). "Notas Sobre Os Cathartidae (Aves) e Descrição de um Novo Gênero do Cenozóico Brasileiro". Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 57: 349–357.
  28. ^ a b Robert F. Baird (1985). "Avian Fossils from Quaternary Deposits on 'Green Waterhole Cave', Southeastern South Australia" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. 37 (6): 353–370. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.37.1985.332.
  29. ^ Patricia Vickers Rich; Philippa J. Haarhoff (1985). "Early Pliocene Coliidae (Aves, Coliiformes) from Langebaanweg, South Africa". Ostrich. 56 (1–3): 20–41. doi:10.1080/00306525.1985.9639567.
  30. ^ Jonathan J. Becker (1985). "Fossil Herons (Aves: Ardeidae) of the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene of Florida". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 5 (1): 24–31. doi:10.1080/02724634.1985.10011844.
  31. ^ Claudia P. Tambussi; Eduardo P. Tonni (1985). "Un Tinamidae (Aves: Tinamiformes) del Mioceno Tardío de la Pampa (República Argentina) y Comentarios Sobre los Tinamidae Fósiles Argentinos". Revista de la Asociación Paleontológica Argentina. 14: 4.
  32. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1985). "Early Pliocene Ibises (Aves, Plataleidae) from South-Western Cape Province, South Africa" (PDF). Annals of the South African Museum. 97 (3): 57–69.[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré; Jean-Christophe Balouet; Yves Jehenne; Émile Heintz (1985). "Un Nouvelle Espèce de Grue, Grus afghana (Aves, Gruiformes) du Miocène Supérieur de Molayan, Afghanistan". Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section C: Sciences de la Terre: Paléontologie, Géologie, Minéralogie, Série 4. 7: 179–187.
  34. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1985). "A New Genus of Tropicbird (Pelecaniformes: Phaetontidae) from the Middle Miocene Calvert Formation of Maryland" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 98 (4): 851–855. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-16. Retrieved 2014-08-28.
  35. ^ David W. Steadman; Gary S. Morgan (1985). "A New Species of Bullfinch (Aves: Emberizinae) from a Late Quaternary Cave Deposit on Cayman Brac, West Indies" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 98 (3): 544–553. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
  36. ^ a b c Storrs L. Olson (1985). "Early Pliocene Procellariiformes (Aves) from Langebaanweg, South-Western Cape Province, South Africa" (PDF). Annals of the South African Museum. 95 (3): 123–145.
  37. ^ Herculano M. F. de Alvarenga (1985). "Um Novo Psilopteridae (Aves: Gruiformes) dos Sedimentos Terciários de Itaboraí, Estado Rio de Janeiro, Brasil". VIII Congresso Brasileiro da Paleontologia, 1983, Sociedade Brasileira de Paleontologia/Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Séria Geologia 27, Paleontologia/Estratigrafia 2: 17-20. NME-DNPM Série Geologia 27 Paleontolgia Estratigraphiá. 2: 17–20.
  38. ^ a b Cécile Mourer-Chauviré (1985). "Les Todidae (Aves: Coraciiformes) des Phosphorites du Quercy (France)". Proceedings of the Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen B. 88: 407–414.
  39. ^ Jonathan J. Becker (1985). "Pandion lovensis, A New Species of Osprey from the Late Miocene of Florida" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 98 (2): 314–320. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
  40. ^ Colin J. O. Harrison (1985). "A Bony-Toothed Bird (Odontopterygiformes) from the Palaeocene of England". Tertiary Research. 7 (1): 23–25.
  41. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1985). "A New Species of Siphonorhis from Quaternary Cave Deposits in Cuba (Aves: Caprimulgidae)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 98 (2): 526–532. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-03. Retrieved 2014-08-27.
  • Bird, R.T. (1985) Bones for Barnum Brown (V.T. Schreiber, Ed.), Texas Christian Univ. Press. Fort Worth, TX. 225 pp.
  • Sanders F, Manley K, Carpenter K. Gastroliths from the Lower Cretaceous sauropod Cedarosaurus weiskopfae. In: Tanke D.H, Carpenter K, editors. Mesozoic vertebrate life: new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press; Bloomington, IN: 2001. pp. 166–180.