The Ladinian is a stage and age in the Middle Triassic series or epoch. It spans the time between 242 Ma and ~237 Ma (million years ago).[8] The Ladinian was preceded by the Anisian and succeeded by the Carnian (part of the Upper or Late Triassic).[9]

Ladinian
~242 – ~237 Ma
Lago di Lugano.jpg
Monte San Giorgio preserves exceptionally preserved Ladinian vertebrate fossils
Chronology
Etymology
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Definition
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionFAD of the Ammonite Eoprotrachyceras curionii
Lower boundary GSSPBagolino, Lombardian pre-Alps, Italy
45°49′09″N 10°28′16″E / 45.8193°N 10.4710°E / 45.8193; 10.4710
GSSP ratified2005[6]
Upper boundary definitionFAD of the Ammonite Daxatina canadensis
Upper boundary GSSPPrati di Stuores, Dolomites, Italy
46°31′37″N 11°55′49″E / 46.5269°N 11.9303°E / 46.5269; 11.9303
GSSP ratified2008[7]

The Ladinian is coeval with the Falangian regional stage used in China.

Stratigraphic definitionsEdit

The Ladinian was established by Austrian geologist Alexander Bittner in 1892. Its name comes from the Ladin people that live in the Italian Alps (in the Dolomites, then part of Austria-Hungary).

The base of the Ladinian Stage is defined as the place in the stratigraphic record where the ammonite species Eoprotrachyceras curionii first appears or the first appearance of the conodont Budurovignathus praehungaricus. The global reference profile for the base (the GSSP) is at an outcrop in the river bed of the Caffaro river at Bagolino, in the province of Brescia, northern Italy.[10] The top of the Ladinian (the base of the Carnian) is at the first appearance of ammonite species Daxatina canadensis.

The Ladinian is sometimes subdivided into two subages or substages, the Fassanian (early or lower) and the Longobardian (late or upper). The Ladinian contains four ammonite biozones, which are evenly distributed among the two substages:

Ladinian lifeEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Widmann, Philipp; Bucher, Hugo; Leu, Marc; et al. (2020). "Dynamics of the Largest Carbon Isotope Excursion During the Early Triassic Biotic Recovery". Frontiers in Earth Science. 8 (196): 1–16. doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00196.
  2. ^ McElwain, J. C.; Punyasena, S. W. (2007). "Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 22 (10): 548–557. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2007.09.003. PMID 17919771.
  3. ^ Retallack, G. J.; Veevers, J.; Morante, R. (1996). "Global coal gap between Permian–Triassic extinctions and middle Triassic recovery of peat forming plants". GSA Bulletin. 108 (2): 195–207. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1996)108<0195:GCGBPT>2.3.CO;2. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  4. ^ Payne, J. L.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Wei, J.; Orchard, M. J.; Schrag, D. P.; Knoll, A. H. (2004). "Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction". Science. 305 (5683): 506–9. doi:10.1126/science.1097023. PMID 15273391.
  5. ^ Ogg, James G.; Ogg, Gabi M.; Gradstein, Felix M. (2016). "Triassic". A Concise Geologic Time Scale: 2016. Elsevier. pp. 133–149. ISBN 978-0-444-63771-0.
  6. ^ Brack, Peter; Rieber, Hans; Nicora, Alda; Mundil, Roland (December 2005). "The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ladinian Stage (Middle Triassic) at Bagolino (Southern Alps, Northern Italy) and its implications for the Triassic time scale". Episodes. 28 (4): 233–244. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2005/v28i4/001. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  7. ^ Mietto, Paolo; Manfrin, Stefano; Preto, Nereo; Rigo, Manuel; Roghi, Guido; Furin, Stefano; Gianolla, Piero; Posenato, Renato; Muttoni, Giovanni; Nicora, Alda; Buratti, Nicoletta; Cirilli, Simonetta; Spötl, Christoph; Ramezani, Jahandar; Bowring, Samuel (September 2012). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Carnian Stage (Late Triassic) at Prati Di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen Section (Southern Alps, NE Italy)" (PDF). Episodes. 35 (3): 414–430. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2012/v35i3/003. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  8. ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale
  9. ^ For a detailed geologic timescale see Gradstein et al. (2004)
  10. ^ The GSSP was established by Brack et al. (2005)

LiteratureEdit

  • Brack, P.; Rieber, H.; Nicora, A. & Mundil, R.; 2005: The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ladinian Stage (Middle Triassic) at Bagolino (Southern Alps, Northern Italy) and its implications for the Triassic time scale, Episodes 28(4), pp. 233–244.
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 45°49′09″N 10°28′16″E / 45.8193°N 10.4710°E / 45.8193; 10.4710