|Subdivision of the Permian system|
according to the ICS, as of 2017.
In the geologic time scale, the Changhsingian or Changxingian is the latest age or uppermost stage of the Permian. It is also the upper or latest of two subdivisions of the Lopingian epoch or series. The Changhsingian lasted from 254.14 to 251.902 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Wuchiapingian and followed by the Induan.
The Changhsingian is named after Changxing (Chinese: 长兴; pinyin: Chángxìng; Wade–Giles: Ch’ang-hsing) in northern Zhejiang, China. The stage was named for the Changhsing Limestone. The name was first used for a stage in 1970 and was anchored in the international timescale in 1981.
The base of the Changhsingian stage is at the first appearance of conodont species Clarkina wangi. The global reference profile is profile D at Meishan, in the type area in Changxing. The top of the Changhsingian (the base of the Induan stage and the Triassic system is at the first appearance of conodont species Hindeodus parvus.
The Changhsingian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event when both global biodiversity and alpha diversity (community-level diversity) were devastated. The world after the extinction was almost lifeless, deserted, hot, and dry. Ammonites, fishes, insects, and the tetrapods (cynodonts, amphibians, reptiles, etc.) remained rare and terrestrial ecosystems did not recover for 30 million years.
|Amphibians of the Changhsingian|
|Inta Formation, Russia|
- "Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
- Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press
- Grabau, A.W.; 1923: Stratigraphy of China, Part 1: Palaeozoic and lower, Geological Survey of China, 529 pp.
- Furnish, W.M. & Glenister, B.F.; 1970: Permian ammonite Cyclolobus from the Salt Range, West Pakistan, in: Kummel, B. & Teichert, G. (eds.): Stratigraphic boundary problems, Permian and Triassic of west Pakistan, Geological Department of Kansas University, Special Publication 4, pp 158–176.
- Furnish, W.M. & Glenister, B.F.; 1973: Permian stages names, in: Logan, A. & Hills, L.V.: The Permian and Triassic systems and their mutual boundary, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 2, pp 522–548.
- Jin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Henderson, C.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Shen, S. & Cao, C.; 2006: The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian) Episodes 29(3), p. 175-182, PDF.
- Sahney, S.; Benton, M.J. (2008). "Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1636): 759–65. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1370. PMC 2596898. PMID 18198148.