Santa Maria Formation

The Santa Maria Formation is a sedimentary rock formation found in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It has a Carnian age [1][2][3] (Late Triassic),[4][5] and is notable for its fossils of cynodonts, "rauisuchian" pseudosuchians, and early dinosaurs and other dinosauromorphs,[6][7] including the herrerasaurid Staurikosaurus, the basal sauropodomorphs Buriolestes and Saturnalia, and the lagerpetid Ixalerpeton.[8][9][10][11] It received this name because it was discovered first in the city of Santa Maria, on the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state.

Santa Maria Formation
Stratigraphic range: Carnian
~237-228 Ma
FormacaoX.PNG
Santa Maria Formation. Source: UFSM
TypeGeological formation
Unit ofRosário do Sul Group
Sub-unitsPasso das Tropas & Alemoa Members
UnderliesCaturrita Formation
OverliesSanga do Cabral Formation
Location
Coordinates29°41′42″S 53°47′43″W / 29.695042°S 53.795403°W / -29.695042; -53.795403Coordinates: 29°41′42″S 53°47′43″W / 29.695042°S 53.795403°W / -29.695042; -53.795403
Region Rio Grande do Sul
Country Brazil
ExtentParaná Basin

A U-Pb (Uranium decay) dating of a locality of the Upper portion of the Santa Maria Formation dated around 233.23±0.73 million years ago, putting that locality 1.5 million years older than the Ischigualasto Formation, instead being in the temporal range of the Los Chañares Formation, and making the two formations (Santa Maria and Ischigualasto) approximately equal as having the earliest dinosaur localities.[2][7][12][13][14]

The Santa Maria Formation is part of the Candelária Sequence,[3][4] and is biostratigraphically subdivided into Dinodontosaurus (possibly latest Ladinian-earliest Carnian, ~237 Ma),[5] Santacruzodon (earliest Carnian-middle Carnian, ~236 Ma),[1] and Hyperodapedon (middle Carnian-latest Carnian, ~233-228 Ma)[2][15] Assemblage Zones (from the oldest to youngest).[16][5]

Moreover, the Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone is subdivided into Hyperodapedon Acme Zone (most of the zone, where the rhynchosaur Hyperodapedon is widely reported) and Exaeretodon Zone (restricted to about three known and sampled localities, where rhynchsaurs are almost completely absent, but the traversodontid cynodont Exaeretodon is widely reported).[17][5] These subdivisions are also known as Lower and Upper Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, respectively.[16][17]

Vertebrate paleofaunaEdit

Most of the information below was included on a revision of the Triassic faunal successions of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil by Schultz et al.[5]

TemnospondylsEdit

Temnospondyls of the Santa Maria Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Compsocerops [18] C. sp.[19] Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone A partial skull A chigutisaurid temnospondyl

LepidosauromorphsEdit

Lepidosauromorphs of the Santa Maria Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Clevosaurus C. hadroprodon Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Exaeretodon Zone Cranial remains A clevosaurid rhynchocephalian

ParareptilesEdit

Parareptiles of the Santa Maria Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Candelaria C. barbouri Dona Francisca-Candelária, Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial and postcranial remains A owenetiid procolophonoid

SynapsidsEdit

Synapsids of the Santa Maria Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Alemoatherium [20] A. huebneri Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone A partial dentary A probainognathian cynodont  
Aleodon A. cromptoni Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial and postcranial remains A probainognathian cynodont
Bonacynodon B. schultzi Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial remains A probainognathian cynodont  
Candelariodon [21] C. barberenai Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone A partial mandible having some complete teeth A probainognathian cynodont
Charruodon [22] C. tetracuspidatus Candelária, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone A partial dentary A probainognathian cynodont[23]
Chiniquodon [24] C. theotonicus Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Several cranial remains A chiniquodontid cynodont
Chiniquodon [24] C. sp. Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Sul Middle Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Santa Cruz Sequence, Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone Cranial and postcranial remains A chiniquodontid cynodont
Dinodontosaurus D. pedroanum Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial and postcranial remains A kannemeyeriiform dicynodont  
Exaeretodon [25] E. major Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Exaeretodon Zone Cranial and postcranial remains A traversodontid cynodont
Exaeretodon [25] E. riograndensis Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Exaeretodon Zone Cranial and postcranial remains A traversodontid cynodont
Gomphodontosuchus [24] G. brasiliensis Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Cranial remains A traversodontid cynodont
Luangwa L. sudamericana Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial remains A traversodontid cynodont
Massetognathus M. ochagavie Rio Grande do Sul Lower and Middle Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Santa Cruz nad Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequences, Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone and Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial and postcranial remains A traversodontid cynodont
Massetognathus M. pascuali Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial remains A traversodontid cynodont
Menadon M. besairiei Rio Grande do Sul Middle Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Santa Cruz Sequence, Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone A traversodontid cynodont
Protheriodon P. estudianti Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial remains A probainognathian cynodont
Protuberum [26] P. cabralensis Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Partial articulated skeleton including skull, vertebrae and ribs A traversodontid cynodont
Prozostrodon [27] P. brasiliensis Santa Maria-São João do Polêsine, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Cranial remains A probainognathian cynodont
Santacruzgnathus [28] S. abdalai Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Sul Middle Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Santa Cruz Sequence, Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone Cranial remains A probainognathian cynodont
Santacruzodon [29] S. hopsoni[29] Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Sul[29] Middle Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Santa Cruz Sequence, Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone Cranial remains[29] A traversodontid cynodont[29]
Scalenodon S. ribeiroae Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone A traversodontid cynodont
Stahleckeria S. potens Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Cranial and postcranial remains A stahleckeriid dicyndont  
Therioherpeton [30] T. cargnini Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Cranial remains A probainognathian cynodont
Traversodon T. stahleckeri Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone A traversodontid cynodont
Trucidocynodon [31] T. riograndensis Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Exaeretodon Zone An ecteniniid probainognathiancynodont

ArchosauromorphsEdit

Archosauromorphs of the Santa Maria Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Aetobarbakinoides[32] A. brasiliensis Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Partial postcranial skeleton A stagonolepidid aetosaur pseudosuchian
Aetosauroides [33] A. scagliai Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone An almost complete skull and incomplete postcranial elements An aetosaur pseudosuchian
Bagualosaurus [34] B. agudoensis Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Exaeretodon Zone Almost complete skull with lower jaws, several vertebrae, partial pelvic girdle, partial hindlimbs A basal sauropodomorph
Barberenasuchus[35] B. brasiliensis Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone poorly preserved skull and axis vertebra An archosauriform of uncertain affinities
Brasinorhynchus[36] B. mariantensis Porto Mariante, Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone A complete skull, atlas, axis, third neck vertebra A stenaulorhynchine rhynchosaur archosauromorph
Buriolestes [37][38] B. schultzi São João do Polêsine, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone parts of the skull, vertebrae, left forelimb, and left hindlimb The basalmost sauropodomorph dinosaur
Cerritosaurus [39] C. binsfeldi Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Badly preserved skull and postcranial elements A proterochampsid archosauromorph
Chanaresuchus [40][41] C. bonapartei Candelária-Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul Middle Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Santa Cruz Sequence, Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone Disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements A proterochampsid archosauromorph
Dagasuchus [42] D. santacruzensis Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul Middle Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Santa Cruz Sequence, Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone an illium and a pair of ischia A "rauisuchian"/loricatan pseudosuchian archosaur
Decuriasuchus [43] D. quartacolonia Dona Francisca, Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Assemblage of several individuals, which together preserved virtually all the skeleton A "rauisuchian"/loricatan pseudosuchian archosaur
Dynamosuchus [44] D. collisensis Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Exaeretodon Zone Semi articulated partial skull and disarticulated fragmentary postcranial skeleton An ornithosuchid pseudosuchian archosaur
Gnathovorax [45] G. cabreirai São João do Polêsine, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone A complete semi-articulated skeleton, part of a multiataxic fossil assemblage, including two cynodonts and two rhynchosaurs A herrerasaurid dinosaur
Hyperodapedon [46][16] H. sanjuanensis

H. mariensis

H. huenei

Santa Maria-Agudo-Candelária, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone Complete skulls, and most postcranial elements A hyperodapedontine rhynchosaur archosauromorph
Ixalerpeton [37] I. polesinensis São João do Polêsine, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Partial skull including a partial maxilla and both dentaries, most of the presacral vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae, several caudal verterae and associated chevrons, scapula and humerus, femora of at least two individuals, and tibia A basal lagerpetid ornithodiran
Nhandumirim [47] N. waldsangae Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Some vertebrae, partial pelvic girdle, partial hindlimb A juvenile saturnaliidsauropodomorph dinosaur[48][49][50][51][52]
Pagosvenator [53] P. candelariensis Candelária, Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Poorly preserved skull and cervical elements An erpetosuchid archosaur
Pampadromaeus[54] P. barberenai Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Exaeretodon Zone Almost complete skull and lower jaws, several vertebrae, partial pectoral girdle, partial forelimb, partial pelvic girdle, partial hindlimb A basal sauropodomorph dinosaur
"Polesinesuchus" [55] "P. aurelioi" São João do Polêsine, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Several postcranial elements An immature aetosaur pseudosuchian, possible synonym of Aetosauroides scagliai[56]
Prestosuchus [57][58][59] P. chiniquensis
P. loricatus
Candelária-Dona Francisca-São Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Virtually all the skeleton is known A "rauisuchian"/loricatan pseudosuchian archosaur
Procerosuchus [60] P. celer São Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone A "rauisuchian"/loricatan pseudosuchian archosaur
Proterochampsa P. nodosa Candelária, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Skull and partial postcranial elements A proterochampsid archosauromorph
Rauisuchus [61] R. tiradentes Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Incomplete skeleton including skull elements, several vertebrae and partial hindlimb A "rauisuchian"/loricatan pseudosuchian archosaur
Rhadinosuchus [62] R. gracilis Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Badly preserved skull and postcranial elements A proterochampsid archosauromorph
Saturnalia [11] S. tupinquim Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Three partial skeleton, including partial skull and lower jaw, complete cervical, dorsal and partial caudal vertebral series, pectoral girdle, partial forelimb, pelvic girdle, partial hindlimb A basal sauropodomorph dinosaur
Spondylosoma [63] S. absconditum São Pedro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul Lower Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone Several postcranial remains An avemetatarsalian aphanosaur
Staurikosaurus [8][9] S. pricei Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Partial postcranial skeleton with mandible A basal herrerasaurid dinosaur
Unnamed lagerpetid [7] - Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Specimen UFSM 11611 (partial left femur) A basal lagerpetid ornithodiran
Unnamed silesaurid [7][64] - Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul Upper Santa Maria Formation, Alemoa Member, Candelária Sequence, Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone, Hyperodapedon Acme Zone Specimen UFSM 11579, comprised by cranial and postcranial remains A silesaurid

FormationsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Philipp, Ruy P.; Schultz, Cesar L.; Kloss, Heiny P.; Horn, Bruno L.D.; Soares, Marina B.; Basei, Miguel A.S. (December 2018). "Middle Triassic SW Gondwana paleogeography and sedimentary dispersal revealed by integration of stratigraphy and U-Pb zircon analysis: The Santa Cruz Sequence, Paraná Basin, Brazil". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 88: 216–237. Bibcode:2018JSAES..88..216P. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2018.08.018.
  2. ^ a b c Langer, M.C.; Ramezani, J.; Da Rosa, Á.A.S. (2018). "U-Pb age constraints on dinosaur rise from south Brazil". Gondwana Research. X (18): 133–140. Bibcode:2018GondR..57..133L. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2018.01.005.
  3. ^ a b Zerfass, Henrique; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz; Schultz, Cesar Leandro; Garcia, Antônio Jorge Vasconcellos; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio; Chemale, Farid (2003-09-01). "Sequence stratigraphy of continental Triassic strata of Southernmost Brazil: a contribution to Southwestern Gondwana palaeogeography and palaeoclimate". Sedimentary Geology. 161 (1): 85–105. Bibcode:2003SedG..161...85Z. doi:10.1016/S0037-0738(02)00397-4. ISSN 0037-0738.
  4. ^ a b Horn, B. L. D.; Melo, T. M.; Schultz, C. L.; Philipp, R. P.; Kloss, H. P.; Goldberg, K. (2014-11-01). "A new third-order sequence stratigraphic framework applied to the Triassic of the Paraná Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, based on structural, stratigraphic and paleontological data". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 55: 123–132. Bibcode:2014JSAES..55..123H. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2014.07.007. ISSN 0895-9811.
  5. ^ a b c d e Schultz, Cesar L.; Martinelli, Agustín G.; Soares, Marina B.; Pinheiro, Felipe L.; Kerber, Leonardo; Horn, Bruno L.D.; Pretto, Flávio A.; Müller, Rodrigo T.; Melo, Tomaz P. (December 2020). "Triassic faunal successions of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 104: 102846. Bibcode:2020JSAES.10402846S. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2020.102846. S2CID 225015757.
  6. ^ Da-Rosa, Átila A. S. (2015-08-01). "Geological context of the dinosauriform-bearing outcrops from the Triassic of Southern Brazil". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 61: 108–119. Bibcode:2015JSAES..61..108D. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2014.10.008. ISSN 0895-9811.
  7. ^ a b c d Maurício S. Garcia; Rodrigo T. Müller; Átila A.S. Da-Rosa; Sérgio Dias-da-Silva (2019). "The oldest known co-occurrence of dinosaurs and their closest relatives: A new lagerpetid from a Carnian (Upper Triassic) bed of Brazil with implications for dinosauromorph biostratigraphy, early diversification and biogeography". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 91: 302–319. Bibcode:2019JSAES..91..302G. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2019.02.005.
  8. ^ a b Colbert, EH (1970). "A saurischian dinosaur from the Triassic of Brazil". American Museum Novitates (2045): 1–39.
  9. ^ a b Dias-Da-Silva, Sérgio; Müller, Rodrigo T.; Garcia, Maurício S. (2019-07-04). "On the taxonomic status of Teyuwasu barberenai Kischlat, 1999 (Archosauria: Dinosauriformes), a challenging taxon from the Upper Triassic of southern Brazil". Zootaxa. 4629 (1): 146–150. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4629.1.12. ISSN 1175-5334. PMID 31712541. S2CID 198274900.
  10. ^ Langer, Max Cardoso; Brodt, André; Carrilho, Rodrigo; Raugust, Tiago; Batista, Brunna Jul’Armando; Bittencourt, Jonathas de Souza; Müller, Rodrigo Temp; Marsola, Júlio Cesar de Almeida; Bronzati, Mario (2016-11-21). "A Unique Late Triassic Dinosauromorph Assemblage Reveals Dinosaur Ancestral Anatomy and Diet". Current Biology. 26 (22): 3090–3095. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.09.040. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 27839975.
  11. ^ a b Langer, MC; Abdala, F; Richter, M; Benton, MJ (1999). "A sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Triassic (Carnian) of southern Brazil". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. 329 (7): 511–517. Bibcode:1999CRASE.329..511L. doi:10.1016/s1251-8050(00)80025-7.
  12. ^ Martinez, R. N.; Sereno, P. C.; Alcober, O. A.; Colombi, C. E.; Renne, P. R.; Montanez, I. P.; Currie, B. S. (2011-01-14). "A Basal Dinosaur from the Dawn of the Dinosaur Era in Southwestern Pangaea". Science. 331 (6014): 206–210. Bibcode:2011Sci...331..206M. doi:10.1126/science.1198467. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 21233386. S2CID 33506648.
  13. ^ Martínez, Ricardo N.; Apaldetti, Cecilia; Alcober, Oscar A.; Colombi, Carina E.; Sereno, Paul C.; Fernandez, Eliana; Malnis, Paula Santi; Correa, Gustavo A.; Abelin, Diego (November 2012). "Vertebrate succession in the Ischigualasto Formation". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (sup1): 10–30. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.818546. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 37918101.
  14. ^ Desojo, Julia B.; Trotteyn, M. Jimena; Hechenleitner, E. Martín; Taborda, Jeremías R. A.; Miguel Ezpeleta; von Baczko, M. Belén; Rocher, Sebastián; Martinelli, Agustín G.; Fiorelli, Lucas E. (October 2017). "Deep faunistic turnovers preceded the rise of dinosaurs in southwestern Pangaea". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 1 (10): 1477–1483. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0305-5. ISSN 2397-334X. PMID 29185518. S2CID 10007967.
  15. ^ Colombi, Carina; Martínez, Ricardo N.; Césari, Silvia N.; Alcober, Oscar; Limarino, Carlos O.; Montañez, Isabel (November 2021). "A high-precision U–Pb zircon age constraints the timing of the faunistic and palynofloristic events of the Carnian Ischigualasto Formation, San Juan, Argentina". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 111: 103433. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2021.103433.
  16. ^ a b c Langer, MC; Schultz, CL (2007). "The continental tetrapod-bearing Triassic of South Brazil". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 41: 201–218.
  17. ^ a b Müller, Rodrigo T.; Garcia, Maurício S. (2019-03-08). "Rise of an empire: analysing the high diversity of the earliest sauropodomorph dinosaurs through distinct hypotheses". Historical Biology. 32 (10): 1334–1339. doi:10.1080/08912963.2019.1587754. ISSN 0891-2963. S2CID 92177386.
  18. ^ D. P. Sengupta. 1995. Chigutisaurid temnospondyls from the Late Triassic of India and a review of the Family Chigutisauridae. Palaeontology 38(2):313-339
  19. ^ Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio, et al. 2011. The presence of Compsocerops (Brachyopoidea: Chigutisauridae) (Late Triassic) in southern Brazil with comments on chigutisaurid palaeobiogeography. Palaeontology 55(1):163-172
  20. ^ Martinelli, A.G.; Eltink, E.; Da-Rosa, Á.A.S.; Langer, M.C. (2017). "A new cynodont from the Santa Maria formation, south Brazil, improves Late Triassic probainognathian diversity". Papers in Palaeontology. 3 (3): 401–423. doi:10.1002/spp2.1081
  21. ^ De Oliveira, Téo Veiga; Schultz, Cesar Leandro; Soares, Marina Bento; Nunes Rodrigues, Carlos (2011). "A new carnivorous cynodont (Synapsida, Therapsida) from the Brazilian Middle Triassic (Santa Maria Formation): Candelariodon barberenai gen. et sp. nov" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3027: 19–28. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3027.1.3. ISSN 1175-5334.
  22. ^ Abdala, F.; Ribeiro, A. M. (2000). "A new therioherpetid cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation (middle Late Triassic), southern Brazil" (PDF). Geodiversitas. 22 (4): 589–596. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-12. Retrieved 2010-04-05.
  23. ^ Martinelli, Agustín G.; Eltink, Estevan; Da-Rosa, Átila A. S.; Langer, Max C. (August 2017). Angielczyk, Kenneth (ed.). "A new cynodont from the Santa Maria formation, south Brazil, improves Late Triassic probainognathian diversity". Papers in Palaeontology. 3 (3): 401–423. doi:10.1002/spp2.1081.
  24. ^ a b c Von Huene. Die Fossilien Reptilien des südamerikanischen Gondwanalandes an der Zeitenwende (Denwa-Molteno-Unterkeuper = Ober-Karnisch). Ergebnisse der Sauriergrabungen in Südbrasilien 1928/29. (The fossil reptiles of South American Gondwana during the temporal transition) (Denwa-Molteno-Upper Triassic = Upper Carnian). Results of the excavations in South Brazil 1928/29, part II.) 1936. Pages 93–159.
  25. ^ a b Liu, J. (2007). "The taxonomy of the traversodontid cynodonts Exaeretodon and Ischignathus". Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia. 10 (2): 133–136. doi:10.4072/rbp.2007.2.07.
  26. ^ Reichel, Míriam; Schultz, Cesar Leandro; Soares, Marina Bento (2009). "A New Traversodontid Cynodont (Therapsida, Eucynodontia) from the Middle Triassic Santa Maria Formation of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil". Palaeontology. 52 (1): 229–250. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00824.x.
  27. ^ Pacheco, Cristian P.; Martinelli, Agustín G.; Pavanatto, Ane E. B.; Soares, Marina B.; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio (2018-05-19). "Prozostrodon brasiliensis , a probainognathian cynodont from the Late Triassic of Brazil: second record and improvements on its dental anatomy". Historical Biology. 30 (4): 475–485. doi:10.1080/08912963.2017.1292423. ISSN 0891-2963. S2CID 90730154.
  28. ^ Martinelli, Agustín G.; Soares, Marina Bento; Schwanke, Cibele (2016-10-05). Viriot, Laurent (ed.). "Two New Cynodonts (Therapsida) from the Middle-Early Late Triassic of Brazil and Comments on South American Probainognathians". PLOS ONE. 11 (10): e0162945. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1162945M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162945. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5051967. PMID 27706191.
  29. ^ a b c d e Abdala, F.; Ribeiro, A. M. (2003). "A new traversodontid cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation (Ladinian-Carnian) of southern Brazil, with a phylogenetic analysis of Gondwanan traversodontids". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 139 (4): 529–545. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2003.00096.x.
  30. ^ Oliveira, É. V. (2006). "Reevaluation of Therioherpeton cargnini Bonaparte & Barberena, 1975 (Probainognathia, Therioherpetidae) from the Upper Triassic of Brazil" (PDF). Geodiversitas. 28 (3): 447–465.
  31. ^ De Oliveira, T.V.; Soares, M.B.; Schultz, C.L. (2010). "Trucidocynodon riograndensis gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Eucynodontia), a new cynodont from the Brazilian Upper Triassic (Santa Maria Formation)". Zootaxa. 2382: 1–71. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2382.1.1.
  32. ^ Desojo, Julia B.; Ezcurra, Martin D.; Kischlat, Edio E. (2012). "A new aetosaur genus (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from the early Late Triassic of southern Brazil". Zootaxa. 3166: 1–33. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3166.1.1.
  33. ^ Da-Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock; Paes-Neto, Voltaire Dutra; Schultz, Cesar Leandro; Desojo, Julia Brenda; Brust, Ana Carolina Biacchi (2018-08-15). "Osteology of the first skull of Aetosauroides scagliai Casamiquela 1960 (Archosauria: Aetosauria) from the Upper Triassic of southern Brazil (Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone) and its phylogenetic importance". PLOS ONE. 13 (8): e0201450. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1301450B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201450. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6093665. PMID 30110362.
  34. ^ Pretto, Flávio A.; Langer, Max C.; Schultz, Cesar L. (2018). "A new dinosaur (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) from the Late Triassic of Brazil provides insights on the evolution of sauropodomorph body plan". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 185 (2): 388–416. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zly028.
  35. ^ Mattar, L.C.B. 1987. Descrição osteólogica do crânio e segunda vértebrata cervical de Barberenasuchus brasiliensis Mattar, 1987 (Reptilia, Thecodontia) do Mesotriássico do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Anais, Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 61: 319–333
  36. ^ Leandro Schultz, Cesar; Cardoso Langer, Max; Chinaglia Montefeltro, Felipe (2016). "A new rhynchosaur from south Brazil (Santa Maria Formation) and rhynchosaur diversity patterns across the Middle-Late Triassic boundary". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 90 (3): 593–609. doi:10.1007/s12542-016-0307-7. hdl:11449/161986. S2CID 130644209.
  37. ^ a b Cabreira, S.F.; Kellner, A.W.A.; Dias-da-Silva, S.; da Silva, L.R.; Bronzati, M.; de Almeida Marsola, J.C.; Müller, R.T.; de Souza Bittencourt, J.; Batista, B.J.; Raugust, T.; Carrilho, R.; Brodt, A.; Langer, M.C. (2016). "A Unique Late Triassic Dinosauromorph Assemblage Reveals Dinosaur Ancestral Anatomy and Diet". Current Biology. 26 (22): 3090–3095. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.09.040. PMID 27839975.
  38. ^ Müller, Rodrigo T; Langer, Max C; Bronzati, Mario; Pacheco, Cristian P; Cabreira, Sérgio F; Dias-Da-Silva, Sérgio (2018-05-15). "Early evolution of sauropodomorphs: anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of a remarkably well-preserved dinosaur from the Upper Triassic of southern Brazil". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zly009. ISSN 0024-4082.
  39. ^ The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs: Faunal Change across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary by Kevin Padian
  40. ^ Tiago Raugust, Marcel Lacerda & Cesar Leandro Schultz (in press). "The first occurrence of Chanaresuchus bonapartei Romer 1971 (Archosauriformes, Proterochampsia) of the Middle Triassic of Brazil from the Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone, Santa Maria Formation (Paraná Basin)". In S.J. Nesbitt; J.B. Desojo & R.B. Irmis (eds.). Anatomy, phylogeny and palaeobiology of early archosaurs and their kin. The Geological Society of London. Bibcode:2013GSLSP.379..303R. doi:10.1144/SP379.22. S2CID 130219417. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  41. ^ "http://tede2.pucgoias.edu.br:8080/handle/tede/3645". doi:10.18315/argumentum.v10i3.16911.s5842. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); External link in |title= (help)
  42. ^ Lacerda, M. B.; Schultz, C. L.; Bertoni-Machado, C. (2015). "First 'Rauisuchian' archosaur (Pseudosuchia, Loricata) for the Middle Triassic Santacruzodon Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0118563. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1018563L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118563. PMC 4340915. PMID 25714091.
  43. ^ Marco Aurélio G. França; Jorge Ferigolo; Max C. Langer (2011). "Associated skeletons of a new middle Triassic "Rauisuchia" from Brazil". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (5): 389–395. Bibcode:2011NW.....98..389F. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0782-3. PMID 21445632. S2CID 4811617.
  44. ^ Müller, Rodrigo; von Baczko, M. Belén; Desojo, Julia; Nesbitt, Sterling (2020). "The first ornithosuchid from Brazil and its macroevolutionary and phylogenetic implications for Late Triassic faunas in Gondwana". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 65. doi:10.4202/app.00652.2019. hdl:10919/98583. ISSN 0567-7920. S2CID 213816236.
  45. ^ Pacheco, Cristian; Müller, Rodrigo T.; Langer, Max; Pretto, Flávio A.; Kerber, Leonardo; Dias da Silva, Sérgio (2019-11-08). "Gnathovorax cabreirai : a new early dinosaur and the origin and initial radiation of predatory dinosaurs". PeerJ. 7: e7963. doi:10.7717/peerj.7963. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC 6844243. PMID 31720108.
  46. ^ Langer, Max C.; Schultz, Cesar L. (October 2000). "A New Species Of The Late Triassic Rhynchosaur Hyperodapedon From The Santa Maria Formation Of South Brazil". Palaeontology. 43 (4): 633–652. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00143.
  47. ^ Marsola, Júlio C. A.; Bittencourt, Jonathas S.; Butler, Richard J.; Da Rosa, Átila A. S.; Sayão, Juliana M.; Langer, Max C. (2018-09-03). "A new dinosaur with theropod affinities from the Late Triassic Santa Maria Formation, south Brazil" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 38 (5): e1531878. doi:10.1080/02724634.2018.1531878. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 91999370.
  48. ^ Pacheco, Cristian; Müller, Rodrigo T.; Langer, Max; Pretto, Flávio A.; Kerber, Leonardo; Dias da Silva, Sérgio (2019-11-08). "Gnathovorax cabreirai : a new early dinosaur and the origin and initial radiation of predatory dinosaurs". PeerJ. 7: e7963. doi:10.7717/peerj.7963. ISSN 2167-8359. PMC 6844243. PMID 31720108.
  49. ^ Müller, Rodrigo Temp; Garcia, Maurício Silva (August 2020). "A paraphyletic 'Silesauridae' as an alternative hypothesis for the initial radiation of ornithischian dinosaurs". Biology Letters. 16 (8): 20200417. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2020.0417. ISSN 1744-9561.
  50. ^ Müller, Rodrigo T. (2020). "A new theropod dinosaur from a peculiar Late Triassic assemblage of southern Brazil". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 107: 103026. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2020.103026.
  51. ^ Garcia, Maurício S.; Müller, Rodrigo T.; Pretto, Flávio A.; Da-Rosa, Átila A. S.; Dias-Da-Silva, Sérgio (2021-01-02). "Taxonomic and phylogenetic reassessment of a large-bodied dinosaur from the earliest dinosaur-bearing beds (Carnian, Upper Triassic) from southern Brazil". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 19 (1): 1–37. doi:10.1080/14772019.2021.1873433. ISSN 1477-2019.
  52. ^ Novas, Fernando E.; Agnolin, Federico L.; Ezcurra, Martín D.; Müller, Rodrigo T.; Martinelli, Agustìn; Langer, Max (April 2021). "Review of the fossil record of early dinosaurs from South America, and its phylogenetic implications". Journal of South American Earth Sciences: 103341. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2021.103341.
  53. ^ Schultz, Cesar L.; de França, Marco A. G.; Lacerda, Marcel B. (2018-10-20). "A new erpetosuchid (Pseudosuchia, Archosauria) from the Middle–Late Triassic of Southern Brazil". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 184 (3): 804–824. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zly008. ISSN 0024-4082.
  54. ^ Cabreira, Sergio F.; Cesar L. Schultz; Jonathas S. Bittencourt; Marina B. Soares; Daniel C. Fortier; Lúcio R. Silva; Max C. Langer (2011). "New stem-sauropodomorph (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Triassic of Brazil". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (12): 1035–1040. Bibcode:2011NW.....98.1035C. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0858-0. PMID 22083251. S2CID 5721100.
  55. ^ Lúcio Roberto-da-Silva, Julia B. Desojo, Sérgio F. Cabreira, Alex S. S. Aires, Rodrigo T. Müller, Cristian P. Pacheco and Sérgio Dias-da-Silva (2014). "A new aetosaur from the Upper Triassic of the Santa Maria Formation, southern Brazil". Zootaxa. 3764 (3): 240–278. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3764.3.1. PMID 24870635.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  56. ^ Paes-Neto, Voltaire D.; Desojo, Julia Brenda; Brust, Ana Carolina B.; Schultz, Cesar Leandro; Da-Rosa, Átila Augusto S.; Soares, Marina B. (2021). "Intraspecific variation in the axial skeleton of Aetosauroides scagliai (Archosauria: Aetosauria) and its implications for the aetosaur diversity of the Late Triassic of Brazil". Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 93 (suppl 2): e20201239. doi:10.1590/0001-3765202120201239. ISSN 1678-2690. PMID 34468486. S2CID 237372648.
  57. ^ Mastrantonio, Bianca; von Baczko, María; Desojo, Julia; Schultz, Cesar (2019). "The skull anatomy and cranial endocast of Prestosuchus chiniquensis (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia) from Brazil". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 64. doi:10.4202/app.00527.2018.
  58. ^ Roberto-Da-Silva, Lúcio; Müller, Rodrigo Temp; França, Marco Aurélio Gallo de; Cabreira, Sérgio Furtado; Dias-Da-Silva, Sérgio (2018-12-24). "An impressive skeleton of the giant top predator Prestosuchus chiniquensis (Pseudosuchia: Loricata) from the Triassic of Southern Brazil, with phylogenetic remarks". Historical Biology. 32 (7): 976–995. doi:10.1080/08912963.2018.1559841. ISSN 0891-2963. S2CID 92517047.
  59. ^ Barberena, MC (1978). "A huge tecodont skull from the Triassic of Brazil". Pesquisas Em Geociências. 9 (9): 62–75. doi:10.22456/1807-9806.21780.
  60. ^ Gower, D. J. (2000). "Rauisuchian archosaurs (Reptilia:Diapsida): An overview". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 218 (3): 447–488. doi:10.1127/njgpa/218/2000/447.
  61. ^ Lautenschlager, Stephan; Rauhut, Oliver W. M. (January 2015). "Osteology of Rauisuchus tiradentes from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Santa Maria Formation of Brazil, and its implications for rauisuchid anatomy and phylogeny: Osteology of Rauisuchus Tiradentes". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 173 (1): 55–91. doi:10.1111/zoj.12196.
  62. ^ Ezcurra, Martín D.; Desojo, Julia B.; Rauhut, Oliver W.M. (August 2015). "Redescription and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Proterochampsid Rhadinosuchus gracilis (Diapsida: Archosauriformes) from the Early Late Triassic of Southern Brazil". Ameghiniana. 52 (4): 391–417. doi:10.5710/AMGH.28.04.2015.2867. ISSN 0002-7014. S2CID 128784202.
  63. ^ Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Butler, Richard J.; Ezcurra, Martín D.; Barrett, Paul M.; Stocker, Michelle R.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.; Smith, Roger M. H.; Sidor, Christian A.; Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz (April 2017). "The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan" (PDF). Nature. 544 (7651): 484–487. Bibcode:2017Natur.544..484N. doi:10.1038/nature22037. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 28405026.
  64. ^ Mestriner, Gabriel; LeBlanc, Aaron; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Marsola, Júlio C. A.; Irmis, Randall B.; Da‐Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Ferigolo, Jorge; Langer, Max (2021-06-09). "Histological analysis of ankylothecodonty in Silesauridae (Archosauria: Dinosauriformes) and its implications for the evolution of dinosaur tooth attachment". The Anatomical Record: ar.24679. doi:10.1002/ar.24679. ISSN 1932-8486.