Probainognathia

Probainognathia is one of the two major subgroups of the clade Eucynodontia, the other being Cynognathia. The earliest forms were carnivorous and insectivorous, though some groups eventually also evolved herbivorous diets. The earliest and most basal probainognathian is the Middle Triassic (Anisian) aged Lumkuia, from South Africa, though probainognathians would not become prominent until the mid Norian stage of the Late Triassic.[2] Three groups survived the extinction at the end of Triassic: Tritheledontidae and Tritylodontidae, which both survived until the Jurassic—the latter even into the Cretaceous (Montirictus and Xenocretosuchus)—and Mammaliaformes, which gave rise to the mammals.[3]

Probainognathia
Temporal range: Middle Triassic–Holocene
Belesodon magnificus.JPG
Fossil of the probainognathian Chiniquodon theotonicus in the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Synapsida
Clade: Therapsida
Clade: Cynodontia
Clade: Eucynodontia
Clade: Probainognathia
Hopson, 1990
Subgroups

PhylogenyEdit

 
Partial skeleton of an unidentified probainognathian from Madagascar in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago

Below is a cladogram from Ruta, Botha-Brink, Mitchell and Benton (2013) showing one hypothesis of cynodont relationships:[4]

Eucynodontia

Cynognathia

Probainognathia

Lumkuia

Ecteninion

Aleodon

Chiniquodon

Probainognathus

Trucidocynodon

Therioherpeton

Tritheledontidae

Riograndia

Chaliminia

Elliotherium

Diarthrognathus

Pachygenelus

Brasilodontidae

Brasilitherium

Brasilodon

Tritylodontidae

Oligokyphus

Kayentatherium

Tritylodon

Bienotherium

Mammaliaformes

Sinoconodon

Morganucodon

Mammalia

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Martinelli, A.; Soares, M. B.; Oliveira, T.; Rodrigues, P.; Schultz, C. (2017). "The Triassic eucynodont Candelariodon barberenai revisited and the early diversity of stem prozostrodontians". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 62. doi:10.4202/app.00344.2017.
  2. ^ Abdala, Fernando; Gaetano, Leandro C. (2018), Tanner, Lawrence H. (ed.), "The Late Triassic Record of Cynodonts: Time of Innovations in the Mammalian Lineage", The Late Triassic World, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 46, pp. 407–445, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-68009-5_11, ISBN 978-3-319-68008-8, retrieved 2021-05-24
  3. ^ The slow and fast steps to becoming a mammal
  4. ^ Ruta, M.; Botha-Brink, J.; Mitchell, S. A.; Benton, M. J. (2013). "The radiation of cynodonts and the ground plan of mammalian morphological diversity". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 280 (1769): 20131865. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1865. PMC 3768321. PMID 23986112.