The Norian is a division of the Triassic Period. It has the rank of an age (geochronology) or stage (chronostratigraphy). It lasted from ~227 to 208.5 million years ago.[8] It was preceded by the Carnian and succeeded by the Rhaetian.[9]

~227 – ~208.5 Ma
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionNot formally defined[6]
Lower boundary definition candidatesBase of Stikinoceras kerri ammonoid zone and near FAD of Metapolygnathus echinatus within the M. communisti Conodont zones[6]
Lower boundary GSSP candidate section(s)
Upper boundary definitionNot formally defined[6]
Upper boundary definition candidates
Upper boundary GSSP candidate section(s)

Stratigraphic definitions edit

Cast of a tridactyl footprint of a theropod dinosaur from the Norian of the Czech Republic.

The Norian was named after the Noric Alps in Austria. The stage was introduced into scientific literature by Austrian geologist Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvar in 1869.

The Norian Stage begins at the base of the ammonite biozones of Klamathites macrolobatus and Stikinoceras kerri, and at the base of the conodont biozones of Metapolygnathus communisti and Metapolygnathus primitius. A global reference profile for the base (a GSSP) had in 2009 not yet been appointed.

The top of the Norian (the base of the Rhaetian) is at the first appearance of ammonite species Cochloceras amoenum. The base of the Rheatian is also close to the first appearance of conodont species Misikella spp. and Epigondolella mosheri and the radiolarid species Proparvicingula moniliformis.

In the Tethys domain, the Norian Stage contains six ammonite biozones:

Subages edit

The Norian is divided into three global subages or substages:

  • Lacian (lower Norian)
  • Alaunian (middle Norian)
  • Sevatian (upper Norian)

Many older studies considered the Rhaetian to be the uppermost substage of the Norian, though it has subsequently been raised to its own stage.

The Revueltian land-vertebrate faunachron corresponds to part of the Norian.[10]

Notable formations edit

* Tentatively assigned to the Norian; age estimated primarily via terrestrial tetrapod biostratigraphy (see Triassic land vertebrate faunachrons)

References edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Widmann, Philipp; Bucher, Hugo; Leu, Marc; et al. (2020). "Dynamics of the Largest Carbon Isotope Excursion During the Early Triassic Biotic Recovery". Frontiers in Earth Science. 8 (196): 196. Bibcode:2020FrEaS...8..196W. doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00196.
  2. ^ McElwain, J. C.; Punyasena, S. W. (2007). "Mass extinction events and the plant fossil record". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 22 (10): 548–557. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2007.09.003. PMID 17919771.
  3. ^ Retallack, G. J.; Veevers, J.; Morante, R. (1996). "Global coal gap between Permian–Triassic extinctions and middle Triassic recovery of peat forming plants". GSA Bulletin. 108 (2): 195–207. Bibcode:1996GSAB..108..195R. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1996)108<0195:GCGBPT>2.3.CO;2. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  4. ^ Payne, J. L.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Wei, J.; Orchard, M. J.; Schrag, D. P.; Knoll, A. H. (2004). "Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction". Science. 305 (5683): 506–9. Bibcode:2004Sci...305..506P. doi:10.1126/science.1097023. PMID 15273391. S2CID 35498132.
  5. ^ Ogg, James G.; Ogg, Gabi M.; Gradstein, Felix M. (2016). "Triassic". A Concise Geologic Time Scale: 2016. Elsevier. pp. 133–149. ISBN 978-0-444-63771-0.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point". International Commission of Stratigraphy. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  7. ^ Rigo, Manuel; Bertinelli, Angela; Concheri, Giuseppe; Gattolin, Giovanni; Godfrey, Linda; Katz, Miriam E.; Maron, Matteo; Mietto, Paolo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Sprovieri, Mario; Stellin, Fabio; Mariachiara, Zaffani (2016). "The Pignola-Abriola section (southern Apennines, Italy): a new GSSP candidate for the base of the Rhaetian Stage". Lethaia. 49 (3): 287–306. doi:10.1111/let.12145. hdl:11577/3157425. ISSN 1502-3931.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ According to Gradstein et al. (2004). Brack et al. (2005) give 226 to 207 million years
  9. ^ See for a detailed geologic timescale Gradstein et al. (2004)
  10. ^ Spielmann, J.A.; Lucas, S.G.; Hunt, A.P. (2013). "The first Norian (Revueltian) rhynchosaur: Bull Canyon Formation, New Mexico, USA" (PDF). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 61: 562. Retrieved 17 November 2021.

Literature edit

  • Brack, P.; Rieber, H.; Nicora, A. & Mundil, R.; 2005: The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ladinian Stage (Middle Triassic) at Bagolino (Southern Alps, Northern Italy) and its implications for the Triassic time scale, Episodes 28(4), pp. 233–244.
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Kielan-Jaworowska, Z.; Cifelli, R. L.; Luo, Zhe-Xi; 2004: Mammals from the Age of Dinosaurs, Columbia University Press.
  • Martz, J.W.; 2008: Lithostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, and vertebrate biostratigraphy of the Dockum Group (Upper Triassic), of southern Garza County, West Texas, Doctoral Dissertation, Texas Tech.

External links edit