Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska (25 April 1925 – 13 March 2015) was a Polish paleobiologist. In the mid-1960s, she led a series of Polish-Mongolian paleontological expeditions to the Gobi Desert. She was the first woman to serve on the executive committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences.
25 April 1925
Sokołów Podlaski, Poland
|Died||13 March 2015(aged 89)|
|Alma mater||Warsaw University|
|Institutions||Polish Academy of Sciences|
Early life and educationEdit
Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska was born in Sokołów Podlaski, Poland, on April 25, 1925. In 1928, her father, Franciszek Kielan, was offered a job for the Association of Agriculture and Trade Cooperatives in Warsaw, to which her family moved for five years. Zofia and family returned to Warsaw in 1934 and lived in the small town of Żoliborz. She began her studies in Warsaw, following the destruction after the war when the Nazis had attempted to completely destroy the city, resulting in the Department of Geology joining the ruins. She attended lectures given instead by the Polish paleontologist, Roman Kozłowski, in his own home. This is her where her passion began. She subsequently earned a master's degree in zoology and a paleontology doctorate at Warsaw University, where she later became a professor. 15 years later, she organized the first Polish-Mongolian paleontological quest to the Gobi Desert, and returned seven times. She became the first woman to serve on the committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Her findings remain arguably unmatched by any living expert.
Career and researchEdit
Her work included the study of Devonian and Ordovician trilobites from Central Europe (Poland and Czech Republic), leading several Polish-Mongolian paleontological expeditions to the Gobi Desert, and the discovery of new species of crocodiles, lizards, turtles, dinosaurs (notably Deinocheirus), birds and multituberculates. She is the author of the book Hunting for Dinosaurs, and a co-author of the book Mammals from the Age of Dinosaurs.
While at the University of Warsaw, she started her master's research. This allowed her to join expeditions with other paleontologists and make various contributions. Kielan-Jaworowska participated in her first paleontological excavation in 1947 along with a group of researchers from the Museum of Earth and the National Geological Institute. The excavations, led by the geologist Jan Czarnocki, took place in Poland's Świętokrzyskie Mountains in exposures of Middle Devonian strata. The group's work involved digging for soft rock and rinsing away the sediment, consisting of yellow marl, in running water while using a sieve to collect any fossils that were present. Kielan-Jaworowska spent two months with the group and specifically sought trilobite fossils, which became the focus of her master's thesis. She returned to specific sites in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains over the next three summers to continue developing her collection, which grew to over one hundred trilobite specimens.
Kielan-Jaworowska was awarded her master's degree in 1949. She had been employed as an assistant in the University of Warsaw's Department of Paleontology since fall 1948. She worked there until 1952, teaching classes in paleontology for biology and geology students.
During her expeditions from 1963 to 1971 to the Gobi Desert, she unearthed many dinosaurs and mammals from the Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Her findings were so extensive that, in 1965, her team had shipped over 20 tons of fossils back to Poland. One of her most notable finds was in 1971, when she discovered a Protoceratops and a young Velociraptor tangled in a struggle. The fossilization process of how these two remained intact in this position is still debated. Although her findings were mainly dinosaurs, she did not focus all her research on them. From 1949 to 1963, she concentrated on Paleozoic invertebrates, especially three-lobed water bugs called trilobites. They were among the oldest fossils commonly found. This led her to shift her focus on researching Mesozoic mammals in 1963.
Kielan-Jaworowska has added a great deal of contribution to monographs that detail findings of fossils and wrote her own book, Hunting for Dinosaurs, which give brief descriptions of her paleontological endeavors in the Gobi Desert. The book was written in Polish and translated to English and published in 1969. The book notes her exchange with the Mongolian people, as well as the hardships she faced to achieve success in her life's work. In her research, she explored the asteroid theory regarding the mass extinction of dinosaurs. Kielan-Jaworowska concluded the book with noting how the research of the mass extinctions could promote awareness for future decades. Kielan-Jaworowska and her book gained international attention and fame.
From 1960 to 1982, she was the director of the Institute of Paleobiology. In 1982, she stepped down from her position to undertake a visiting professorship at the Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle[ambiguous] in Paris, which lasted for two years. Soon after her return to Warsaw, she was appointed Professor of Paleontology at the University of Oslo, which lasted from 1986 to 1995 when she was appointed Professor Emerita in the institute of Paleobiology.
Awards and honoursEdit
She was awarded the Romer-Simpson Medal in 1996, becoming the 8th recipient of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology's award, which honors sustained and outstanding scholarly excellence in the discipline of vertebrate paleontology. In 2002, she also became the recipient of the Commander's Cross with Star of the Order of Polonia Restituta. Her book, Mammals from the Age of Dinosaurs, won her the prestigious Prize of the Foundation for Polish Science in 2005. Her work was recognized "for a creative synthesis of research on the Mesozoic evolution of mammals".
Kielan-Jaworowska's co-author, Zhe-Xi Lou, describes her contribution to paleontology as unmatched by any living experts, and that "in the whole of Mesozoic mammalian studies for the last 100 years, only the late American paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson would be her equal". "She is the rarest among the rare – she has been a leader in making important scientific contributions, and also a gregarious and charismatic figure, both of which have made paleontology a better science, and paleontologists worldwide a better community."
She was a member of the Polish Geological Society, Academia Europaea, Palaeontological Association, Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Norwegian Paleontological Society, Polish Academy of Sciences as well as an honorary member of the Linnean Society of London, Polish Copernicus Society of Naturalists and the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. She worked at the Harvard University (1973–74), Paris Diderot University (1982–84), University of Oslo (1987–95) and the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Published scientific workEdit
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. (1974). Hunting for dinosaurs. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-61007-0.
- Lillegraven, Jason A.; Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Clemens, William A., eds. (1979). Mesozoic mammals : the first two-thirds of mammalian history. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03951-3.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Cifelli, Richard L.; Luo, Zhe-Xi (2004). Mammals from the age of dinosaurs : origins, evolution, and structure. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11918-6.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. (2013). In pursuit of early mammals. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-00817-6.
This section may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience.(May 2020)
- Kielan, Zofia (1954). "Les trilobites Mésodévoniens des Monts de Sainte-Croix" (PDF). Palaeontologia Polonica (in French). 6.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia (January 1968). "Scolecodonts versus jaw apparatuses". Lethaia. 1 (1): 39–49. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1968.tb01726.x.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia (14 June 1969). "Discovery of a multituberculate marsupial bone". Nature. 222 (5198): 1091–2. Bibcode:1969Natur.222.1091K. doi:10.1038/2221091a0. PMID 5815073. S2CID 4178745.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Sochava, Andrey V. (1969). "The first multituberculate from the Uppermost Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert (Mongolia)" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 14 (3): 355–367.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia (6 June 1970). "Unknown structures in multituberculate skull". Nature. 226 (5249): 974–6. Bibcode:1970Natur.226..974K. doi:10.1038/226974a0. PMID 5445884. S2CID 109430.
- Butler, P. M.; Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. (14 September 1973). "Is Deltatheridium a marsupial?". Nature. 245 (5420): 105–106. Bibcode:1973Natur.245..105B. doi:10.1038/245105a0. S2CID 4213693.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Benthe, H.F.; Haberland, G. (26 June 1975). "Possible occurrence of marsupial bones in Cretaceous eutherian mammals". Nature. 255 (5511): 698–699. Bibcode:1975Natur.255..698K. doi:10.1038/255698a0. S2CID 4273117.
- Crompton, A. W. and Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. 1978. Molar structure and occlusion in Cretaceous therian mammals. In Butler, P. M. and Joysey, K. A. (eds.), Studies in the Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth: 249—289. Academic Press, London and New York.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia (1 February 1979). "Pelvic structure and nature of reproduction in Multituberculata". Nature. 277 (5695): 402–3. Bibcode:1979Natur.277..402K. doi:10.1038/277402a0. PMID 399323. S2CID 4349840.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia (April 1980). "Absence of ptilodontoidean multituberculates from Asia and its palaeogeographic implications". Lethaia. 13 (2): 169–173. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1980.tb01047.x.
- Fosse, G.; Kielan-Jaworowska, Z.; Skaale, S.G. (August 1985). "The microstructure of tooth enamel in multituberculate mammals". Palaeontology. 28 (3): 435–449.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Presley, R.; Poplin, Cecile (27 October 1986). "The cranial vascular system in taeniolabidoid multituberculate mammals". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 313 (1164): 525–602. Bibcode:1986RSPTB.313..525K. doi:10.1098/rstb.1986.0055.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Dashzeveg, Demberlyin; Trofimov, Boris A. (1987). "Early Cretaceous multituberculates from Mongolia and a comparison with Late Jurassic forms" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 32 (1–2): 3–347.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Crompton, A. W.; Jenkins, Farish A. (30 April 1987). "The origin of egg-laying mammals". Nature. 326 (6116): 871–873. Bibcode:1987Natur.326..871K. doi:10.1038/326871a0. S2CID 4325816.
- Hopson, James A.; Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Allin, Edgar F. (30 June 1989). "The cryptic jugal of multituberculates". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 9 (2): 201–209. doi:10.1080/02724634.1989.10011754. JSTOR 4523255.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Nessov, Lev A. (January 1990). "On the metatherian nature of the Deltatheroida, a sister group of the Marsupialia". Lethaia. 23 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1990.tb01776.x.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Z.; Ensom, P.C. (January 1992). "Multituberculate mammals from the Upper Jurassic Purbeck Limestone Formation of southern England". Palaeontology. 35 (1): 95–126.
- Krause, David W.; Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Bonaparte, José F. (3 September 1992). "Ferugliotherium Bonaparte, the first known multituberculate from South America". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 12 (3): 351–376. doi:10.1080/02724634.1992.10011465. JSTOR 4523458.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Z.; Ensom, P.C. (April 1994). "Tiny plagiaulacoid multituberculate mammals from the Purbeck Limestone Formation of Dorset, England". Palaeontology. 37 (1): 17–31.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia (September 1996). "Characters of multituberculates neglected in phylogenetic analyses of early mammals". Lethaia. 29 (3): 249–266. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1996.tb01658.x.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Cifelli, Richard L.; Luo, Zhexi (29 March 2007). "Alleged Cretaceous placental from down under". Lethaia. 31 (3): 267–268. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1998.tb00516.x.
- Luo, Zhe-Xi; Cifelli, Richard L.; Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia (4 January 2001). "Dual origin of tribosphenic mammals". Nature. 409 (6816): 53–57. Bibcode:2001Natur.409...53L. doi:10.1038/35051023. PMID 11343108. S2CID 4342585.
- Kielan-Jaworowska, Zofia; Hurum, Jorn H. (May 2001). "Phylogeny and systematics of multituberculate mammals". Palaeontology. 44 (3): 389–429. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00185.
- Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey; Harvey, Joy (2000). The biographical dictionary of women in science: pioneering lives from ancient times to the mid-20th century, Volume 1. Taylor & Francis. p. 694. ISBN 978-0-415-92038-4.
- Richard L. Cifelli (2015). "Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska (1925-2015) Discoverer of early mammals". Nature. 520 (7546): 158. doi:10.1038/520158a. PMID 25855448.
- Mikołuszko, Wojciech (13 March 2015). "Zmarła prof. Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska, wybitna paleontolożka. Niewielu polskich uczonych osiągnęło tyle, co ona" [Prof. Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska, outstanding paleontologist, has died. Few Polish scholars achieved as much as she.]. Wyborcza (in Polish). Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Nick Crumpton (August 27, 2014). "Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska: Mighty Mammals of Mesozoic Mongolia!". trowelblazers.com. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
.org /files /ZKJ%20autobio2 .doc
- "Rocky Road: Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska". www.strangescience.net.
- William A. Clemens, "ZOFIA KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA (25 APRIL 1925 - 13 MARCH 2015) PASSES AWAY AT AGE 89", June 18, 2015; Society of Vertebrate Paleontology
- "prof. dr hab. Zofia KIELAN-JAWOROWSKA". Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- "Powstańcze Biogramy - Zofia Kielan". www.1944.pl. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
- "Gruppe 3: Geofag" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
- López-Torres, Sergi; Fostowicz-Frelik, Łucja (2018). "A new Eocene anagalid (Mammalia: Euarchontoglires) from Mongolia and its implications for the group's phylogeny and dispersal". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 13955. Bibcode:2018NatSR...813955L. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-32086-x. PMC 6141491. PMID 30224674.