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Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1996.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

ArthropodsEdit

Newly named crustaceansEdit

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Cancer (Metacarcinus) starri[2]

Valid

Berglund & Goedert

Early Miocene

Clallam & Pysht Formations

  USA (  Washington)

A crab

Newly named insectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Allopetalia europaea[3]

Sp nov

Jr synonym

Nel, Arillo, & Martínez-Delclòs

Messinian

  France

An Aeshnid dragonfly.
Moved to Boyeria europaea in 1997

Burmomyrma rossi[4]

Gen et sp. nov

Valid

Dlussky

Late Aptian to Early Cenomanian

Burmese amber

  Myanmar

A possible Aneuretin ant

Cerdanyagrion[3]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Nel, Arillo, & Martínez-Delclòs

Vallesian/Turolian

  Spain

A Megapodagrionid damselfly

Haidomyrmex cerberus[5]

Gen et sp. nov

Valid

Dlussky

Late Aptian to Early Cenomanian

Burmese amber

  Myanmar

A Sphecomyrmin ant

Somatochlora brisaci[3]

Sp nov

Valid

Nel, Arillo, & Martínez-Delclòs

Turolian

Montagne d'Andance

  France

A Corduliid dragonfly

Sympetrum cantalensis

Sp nov

Valid

Nel, Arillo, & Martínez-Delclòs

Messinian

  France

A Libellulid dragonfly

Vulcagrion[3]

Gen et comb et 2 sp nov

valid

Nel, Arillo, & Martínez-Delclòs

Messinian

  France

A Megapodagrionid damselfly, three species

AmphibiansEdit

TemnospondylsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Tatrasuchus[6]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Maryańska & Shishkin

Middle Triassic

  Poland

A cyclotosaurid

PlesiosaursEdit

New taxaEdit

Name Status Authors Location Notes Images

Pachycostasaurus

Valid

Cruickshank Martill

Plesiopleurodon

Valid

Carpenter

The Last of the Pliosaurs.

Thalassiodracon

Valid

Storrs Taylor

DinosaursEdit

Newly named dinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[8]

Name Status Authors Location Notes Images
"Angaturama'"[9] Junior synonym of Irritator
  • Kellner
  • Campos
Bagaraatan[10] Valid taxon   Mongolia
Deltadromeus[11] Valid taxon   Egypt

  Morocco

Gasparinisaura[12] Valid taxon
  • Salgado
  Argentina
Irritator[13] Valid taxon
  • Martill
  • Cruickshank
  • Frey
  • Small
  • M. Clarke
  Brazil
Ligabueino[14] Valid taxon   Argentina
"Jensenosaurus"[15] Junior synonym of Supersaurus

George Olshevsky vide:

  • B. D. Curtice
  • Stadtman
  • L. J. Curtice,
"Luanpingosaurus" Junior synonym of Psittacosaurus

Cheng Zhengwu vide:

  • et al.
"Magulodon"[16] Nomen nudum
  • et al.
Neovenator[17] Valid taxon
  • Hutt
  • Martill
  • Barker
  UK
Parvicursor[18] Valid taxon
  • Karhu
  • Rautian
  Mongolia
Patagonykus[19] Valid taxon
  • Novas
  Argentina
Pawpawsaurus[20] Valid taxon
  • Lee
  USA

(  Texas)

Pellegrinisaurus[21] Valid taxon
  • Salgado
  Argentina
Qinlingosaurus[22] Valid taxon
  • Xue
  • Zhang Y. X.
  • Bi
  • Yue
  • Chen D.
  China
Rayososaurus[14] Valid taxon   Argentina
Shanyangosaurus[22] Valid taxon
  • Xue
  • Zhang Y. X.
  • Bi
  • Yue
  • Chen D.
  China
Siamotyrannus[23] Valid taxon
  • Buffetaut
  • Suteethorn
  • Tong
  Thailand
Sigilmassasaurus[24] Valid taxon   Morocco
Sinosauropteryx[25] Valid taxon
  • Ji Q.
  • Ji S.
  China

BirdsEdit

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Novelt Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anas ganii [26]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Nikolay I. Burchak-Abramovich

K. L. Sushpanov

A. L. David

Late Early Pleistocene

  Moldova

An Anatidae.

Anas marecula [27]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Pierre Jouventin

Holocene

Amsterdam Island

  French Southern and Antarctic Lands

An Anatidae.

Anhinga fraileyi [28]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, jr.

Late Miocene

Huayquerian

  Peru

An Anhingidae.

"Branta" minor [29]

Valid

Eugen Kessler

Erika Gal

Late Miocene

MN 9

  Moldova

An Aves Incertae Sedis, it is not an Anatidae.

Copepteryx hexeris [30]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Yoshikazu Hasegawa

Late Oligocene

Ainoshima Formation

  Japan

A Pelecaniformes, Plotopteridae Howard, 1969, this is the type species of the new genus.

Copepteryx titan [30]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Yoshikazu Hasegawa

Late Oligocene

Ainoshima Formation

  Japan

A Pelecaniformes, Plotopteridae Howard, 1969.

Eoalulavis hoyasi [31]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

José L. Sanz

Luis M. Chiappe

Bernardo P. Pérez-Moreno

Angela D. Buscaliono

José J. Moratalla

Francisco Ortega

Francisco J. Poyato-Ariza

Early Cretaceous

Neocomian

  Spain:

  Castilla-La Mancha

An Ornithothoraces Chiappe & Calvo, 1994, Enantiornithes. Walker, 1981, this is the type species of the new genus.

Nanantius valifanovi [32]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Cretaceous

Late Campanian

  Mongolia

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Alexornithidae Brodkorb, 1976, Gobipteryginae Elzanowski, 1974.

Nandayus vorohuensis [33]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Eduardo P. Tonni

Jorge Noriega

Late Pliocene

Orohué Formation

  Argentina

A Psittacidae.

Otis bessarabicus [29]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Eugen Kessler

Erika Gal

Late Miocene

MN 9

  Moldova

An Otididae.

Struthio coppensi [34]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Brigitte Senut

Martin Pickford

Pierre Mein

Early Miocene

Karingarab

  Namibia

A Struthionidae.

?Tringa grigorescui [29]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Eugen Kessler

Erika Gal

Middle Miocene

MN 8

  Romania

A Scolopacidae, not sure it is a Tringa.

Vorona berivotrensis [35]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Catharine A. Forster

Luis M. Chiappe

David W. Krause

Scott D. Sampson

Late Cretaceous

Campanian,

Maevarano Formation

  Madagascar

An Ornithothoraces Chiappe et Calvo, 1994 .

PterosaursEdit

New taxaEdit

Name Status Authors Location Notes

Kepodactylus

Valid

Harris, J.D. Carpenter

Fossil eggsEdit

New ootaxaEdit

Name Status Authors Location Notes
Dispersituberoolithus Valid Zelenitsky et al. Probably laid by a primitive neognath.[36]

Gobioolithus

Valid

Mikhailov

Formerly called "Gobipteryx eggs", though they are not presently considered to be eggs of Gobipteryx.[37]

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Berglund, R.E.; Goedert J.L. (1996). "A new crab (Brachyura: Cancridae) from Lower Miocene rocks of the Northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington". Journal of Paleontology. 70 (5): 830–835. doi:10.1017/S0022336000023866. JSTOR 1306484.
  3. ^ a b c d Nel, A.; Arillo, A.; Martínez-Delclòs, X. (1996). "New fossil Odonata (Insecta) from the upper Miocene of France and Spain (Anisoptera and Zygoptera)". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 199 (2): 167–219. doi:10.1127/njgpa/199/1996/167.
  4. ^ Dlussky, G. M. (1996). "Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Burmese amber" (PDF). Paleontological Journal. 30 (4): 449–454.
  5. ^ Barden, P.; Grimaldi, D. (2012). "Rediscovery of the bizarre Cretaceous ant Haidomyrmex Dlussky (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with two new species" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3755 (3755): 1–16. doi:10.1206/3755.2. hdl:2246/6368.
  6. ^ Teresa Maryańska; Mikhail A. Shishkin (1996). "New cyclotosaurid (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Middle Triassic of Poland and some problems of interrelationships of capitosauroids". Prace Muzeum Ziemi. 43: 53–83.
  7. ^ "Location and Geologic Setting," in Pasche and May (2001); page 220.
  8. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  9. ^ Kellner, A.W.A., D. de A. Campos. 1996. First Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaur from Brazil with comments on Spinosauridae. Neues Jahrbuch Geol. Palaontol. Abhandlungen Stuttgart 199 (2): pp. 151-166.
  10. ^ Osmolska, H. 1996. An unusual theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Nemegt Formation of Mongolia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 41 (1): pp. 1-38.
  11. ^ Sereno, P.C.; Dutheil, D.B.; Iarochene, M.; Larsson, H.C.E.; Lyon, G.H.; Magwene, P.M.; Sidor, C.A.; Varricchio, D.J.; Wilson, J.A. (1996). "Predatory dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous faunal differentiation". Science. 272 (5264): 986–991. Bibcode:1996Sci...272..986S. doi:10.1126/science.272.5264.986. PMID 8662584.
  12. ^ Coria, R.A. and L. Salgado. 1996. A Basal Iguanodontian (Ornithischia: Ornithopoda) from the Late Cretaceous of South America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16 (3): pp. 445-457.
  13. ^ Martill, D.M.; Cruickshank, A.R.I.; Frey, E.; Small, P.G.; Clarke, M. (1996). "A new crested maniraptoran dinosaur from the Santana Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of Brazil". Journal of the Geological Society. 153 (1): 5–8. Bibcode:1996JGSoc.153....5M. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.153.1.0005.
  14. ^ a b Bonaparte, J.F. (1996). "Cretaceous tetrapods of Argentina". Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (A). 30: 73–130.
  15. ^ Olshevsky vide Curtice, B.D., K.L. Stadtman, and L.J. Curtice. 1996. A reassessment of Ultrasauros Macintoshi (Jensen, 1985). The continental Jurassic (M. Morales, ed.). Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 60: pp. 87-95.
  16. ^ Kranz, P.M. (1996). "Notes on the Sedimentary Iron Ores of Maryland and their Dinosaurian Fauna". Maryland Geological Survey Special Publication. 3: 87–116.
  17. ^ Hutt, S., D.M. Martill, and M.J. Barker. 1996. The first European allosaurid dinosaur (Lower Cretaceous, Wealden Group, England). N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 10: pp. 635-644.
  18. ^ Karhu, A.A.; Rautian, A.S. (1996). "A new family of Maniraptora (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia". Paleontological Journal. 30 (5): 583–592.
  19. ^ Novas, F.E. (1996). "Alvarezsauridae, Cretaceous basal birds from Patagonia and Mongolia". Memoirs of the Queensland Museum. 39 (3): 675–702.
  20. ^ Lee, Y.-N. (1996). "A new nodosaurid ankylosaur (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Paw Paw Formation (Late Albian) of Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16 (2): 232–245. doi:10.1080/02724634.1996.10011311.
  21. ^ Salgado, L (1997). "Pellegrinisaurus powelli nov. gen. et. sp. (Sauropoda, Titanosauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Lago Pellegrini, Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina". Ameghiniana. 33 (4): 355–365.
  22. ^ a b Xue, X., Y. Zhang, Y. Bi, L. Yue, and D. Chen. 1996. The development and environmental changes of the Intermontane Basins in the eastern part of Qinling Mountains. Geological Publishing House, Beijing: pp. 1-181.
  23. ^ Buffetaut, E.; Suteethorn, V.; Tong, H. (1996). "The earliest known tyrannosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand". Nature. 381 (6584): 689–691. Bibcode:1996Natur.381..689B. doi:10.1038/381689a0.
  24. ^ Russell, D.A. 1996. Isolated dinosaur bones from the Middle Cretaceous of the Tafilalt, Morocco. Museum Natl. d'Histoire Nat. (Paris) Bull. (ser. 4) 18 (Section C, Nos. 2-3) : pp. 349-402.
  25. ^ Ji, Q.; Ji, S.-A. (1996). "On the discovery of the earliest bird fossil in China and the origin of birds". Chinese Geology. 233: 30–33.
  26. ^ Nikolay I. Burchak-Abramovich; K. L. Sushpanov; A. L. David (1996). "Новый вид утки рода Anas позднего плиоцена Молдовы [A new species of the genus Anas duck from the Late Pliocene Moldova]". Bul. Acad. Ştiinţe Repub. Moldova. Şt. Biol. Chim. 1996. №1. С.: 38–42.
  27. ^ Storrs L. Olson; Pierre Jouventin (1996). "A New Species of Small Flightless Duck from Amsterdam Island, Southern Indian Ocean (Anatidae: Anas)" (PDF). The Condor. 98 (1): 1–9. doi:10.2307/1369501. JSTOR 1369501.
  28. ^ Kenneth E. Campbell, jr. (1996). "A New Species of Giant Anhinga (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Anhingidae) from the Upper Miocene (Huyquerian) of Amazonian Peru" (PDF). Museum of Natural History of Los Angeles County, Contributions in Science. 460: 1–9.
  29. ^ a b c Eugen Kessler; Erika Gal (1996). "New Taxa in the Neogene Bird Fauna from Eastern Paratethys". Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Studia Biologica. 41: 73–79.
  30. ^ a b Storrs L. Olson; Yoshikazu Hasegawa (1996). "A New Genus and Two New Species of Gigantic Plotopteridae from Japan (Aves: Pelecaniformes)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16 (4): 742–751. doi:10.1080/02724634.1996.10011362.
  31. ^ José L. Sanz; Luis M. Chiappe; Bernardo P. Pérez-Moreno; Angela D. Buscaliono; José J. Moratalla; Francisco Ortega; Francisco J. Poyato-Ariza (1996). "An Early Cretaceous Bird from Spain and Its Implications for the Evolution of Avian Flight" (PDF). Nature. 382 (6590): 442–445. Bibcode:1996Natur.382..442S. doi:10.1038/382442a0.
  32. ^ Evgeny N. Kurochkin (1996). "A New Enantiornithid of the Mongolian Late Cretaceous, and a General Appraisal of the Infraclass Enantiornithes". Palaeontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moskou. 1996: 1–60.
  33. ^ Eduardo P. Tonni; Jorge Noriega (1996). "Uno Nova Especie de Nandayus Bonaparte, 1854. (Aves: Psittaciformes) del Plioceno Tardio de Argentina". Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 69: 97–104.
  34. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré; Brigitte Senut; Martin Pickford; Pierre Mein (1996). "Le Plus Ancien Représentant de Genre Struthio (Aves, Struthionidae), Struthio coppensi n. sp. du Miocène Inférieur de Namibie". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série IIA. 322 (1): 325–332.
  35. ^ Catharine A. Forster; Luis M. Chiappe; David W. Krause; Scott D. Sampson (1996). "The First Cretaceous Bird from Madagascar". Nature. 382 (6591): 532–534. Bibcode:1996Natur.382..532F. doi:10.1038/382532a0.
  36. ^ Zelenitsky, D. K.; Hills, L. V.; Currie, P. J. (1996). "Parataxonomic classification of ornithoid eggshell fragments from the Oldman Formation (Judith River Group; Upper Cretaceous), southern Alberta". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 33 (12): 1655–1667. Bibcode:1996CaJES..33.1655Z. doi:10.1139/e96-126.
  37. ^ Mikhailov, Konstantin (1996). "Bird Eggs in the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia". Paleontological Journal. 30 (1): 114–116.

ReferencesEdit

  • Pasch, A. D., K. C. May. 2001. Taphonomy and paleoenvironment of hadrosaur (Dinosauria) from the Matanuska Formation (Turonian) in South-Central Alaska. In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Ed.s Tanke, D. H., Carpenter, K., Skrepnick, M. W. Indiana University Press. Pages 219-236.