Timeline of Korean history

This is a timeline of Korean history.

Early history edit

Proto-Three Kingdoms edit

Three Kingdoms edit

  • 42 AD: Traditional date for the founding of Gaya by Suro.[20]
  • 53: Goguryeo begins to become a centralized kingdom under Taejo's reign.[21]
  • 234: Baekje begins to become a centralized kingdom under Goi's reign.[22]
  • 244: Goguryeo is defeated by Cao Wei in the Goguryeo–Wei War, the defeat is so severe that Goguryeo is not mentioned again in Chinese historial record for decades.[23]
  • 313: Goguryeo destroys Lelang Commandery, ending the last of the four Han Chinese commanderies established by the Han Dynasty.[24]
  • 356: Silla becomes a centralized kingdom under Naemul's reign.
  • 371: Baekje's King Geunchogo invades Goguryeo and kills King Gogugwon.[25]
  • 372: Under Sosurim, Goguryeo imports Buddhism from Former Qin of China and adopts it as state sponsored religion.[26]
  • 372: Sosurim also establishes Korea's first National Confucian Academy.[27]
  • 384: Chimnyu of Baekje officially adopts Buddhism.[28]
  • 392: Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo begins his reign, expanding Goguryeo into a major regional power.[29]
  • 413: Jangsu of Goguryeo erects the Gwanggaeto Stele.[30]
  • 433: Baekje and Silla form an alliance against Goguryeo's aggression.[31]
  • 475: Goguryeo attacks Baekje and captures Hanseong (modern day Seoul).[32] Baekje moves its capital south to Ungjin (modern-day Gongju) due to Goguryeo's pressure.
  • 494: Last remains of Buyeo absorbed by Goguryeo.[33]
  • 498: Baekje attacks Tamna (modern-day Jeju Province), which enters into a tributary relationship with Baekje as a result.
  • 512: Silla vassalizes Usan (modern-day Ulleungdo).[34]
  • 520: Silla formalizes the Bone-rank system, an aristocratic rank system that acted as a caste system under the reign of Beopheung of Silla.
  • 527: Silla formally adopts Buddhism after Beopheung of Silla executes Ichadon, a Buddhist convert who had tried to persuade the king to adopt Buddhism.[35] Before he was executed, Ichadon predicted that milk colored blood would spill from his body after his death.[36] This supposed miracle allegedly occurred according to the Samguk Yusa and convinced Silla's royal court to adopt Buddhism as its state religion.
  • 538: Baekje moves its capital to Sabi (modern-day Buyeo).[32]
  • 553: Silla attacks Baekje, breaking the alliance.[37]
  • 562: Silla completes annexation of Gaya.[38]
  • 598: First of a series of major Sui dynasty attacks in the Goguryeo–Sui War, which ends in 614 in a costly defeat for Sui.[39]
  • 612: Goguryeo repulses second Sui invasion at the Salsu.
  • 631: Goguryeo builds the first Cheolli Jangseong following Tang incursions into Goguryeo's northwestern border.
  • 645: First campaign in the Goguryeo–Tang War.
  • 648: Silla establishes alliance with Tang.
  • 660: Baekje falls to the Silla-Tang forces.
  • 662: As a result of the fall of Baekje, Tamna enters into a tributary relationship with Silla.
  • 663: Battle of Baekgang, the remnants of Baekje allied with Japanese expeditionary forces are defeated by the Silla-Tang alliance, ending all hopes for the restoration of the kingdom.
  • 668: Goguryeo falls to the Silla-Tang forces.

North–South States period and Later Three Kingdoms edit

  • 676: Silla repels Chinese alliance forces from Korean peninsula, completes unification of much of the Three Kingdoms.
  • 698: The founding of Balhae by former Goguryeo general Dae Joyeong.
  • 751: Silla, at its cultural peak, constructs Seokguram and Bulguksa.
  • 828: Jang Bogo establishes Cheonghaejin, a major center of trade with China, Japan, and Vietnam.
  • 892: Silla begins to lose control of parts of the peninsula as the brief Later Three Kingdoms period begins.
  • 897: Queen Jinseong of Silla dies. She was the third and last queen regnant in Korean history.
  • 900: Hubaekje ("Later Baekje") established in the southwest of the peninsula.
  • 901: Taebong ("Later Goguryeo") established in the northwest of the peninsula.
  • 918: Founding of Goryeo by Taejo of Goryeo.
  • 926: Balhae falls to Khitan forces.
  • 935: Silla formally surrenders to Goryeo.
  • 936: Hubaekje formally surrenders to Goryeo.

Goryeo edit

  • 936: Goryeo completes the reunification of the Later Three Kingdoms, absorbing the entirety of Hubaekje and parts of former Balhae territory.
  • 938: Goryeo subjugates Tamna
  • 956: Emperor Gwangjong forces major land and slavery reforms, and in 958 implements civil service examinations.
  • 979: According to Goryeosa, tens of thousands of Balhae refugees from Jeongan flee to Goryeo, marking the largest Balhae migration since the 936 exodus.[40]
  • 986: Jeongan falls to the Liao Dynasty.
  • 993: The first of three Goryeo–Khitan Wars.
  • 1010: The second ravages the northern border.
  • 1018: The third, Khitan successfully repelled.
  • 1033: Goryeo builds the second Cheolli Jangseong (lit. "Thousand Li Wall"), also known as the Goryeo Jangseong, a massive wall running along the northern border.
  • 1135: Buddhist monk and geomancer Myocheong rebels in a failed attempt to move the capital to Pyongyang and pursue aggressive expansion against the Jin Dynasty
  • 1145: Kim Bu-sik compiles the Samguk Sagi, Korea's oldest extant history text.
  • 1170: Yi Ui-bang overthrows Uijong of Goryeo, beginning a century of military rule known as the Goryeo military regime
  • 1231: The Mongol invasions of Korea begin
  • 1234: Choi Yun-ui's Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun is published, world's first metal-block printed text.
  • 1251: Goryeo completes the Tripitaka Koreana, the most comprehensive and oldest intact version of the Buddhist canon in Chinese script
  • 1268: Mongol peace treaty is signed which Mongols agree to protect them the best they can.
  • 1270: Goryeo signs a peace treaty with the Mongols, beginning an 80-year period of Yuan overlordship. The Sambyeolcho Rebellion lasts for three more years.
  • 1274: Goryeo helps the Mongol Empire during the Mongol invasions of Japan
  • 1285: Il-yeon compiles the Samguk Yusa, record of history and legends
  • 1356: Goryeo regains its independence under the reign of King Gongmin of Goryeo and momentarily conquers Liaoyang
  • 1388: General Yi Seonggye, ordered to engage China in a border dispute, turns his troops against the Goryeo court.

Joseon edit

Korean Empire edit

  • 1897
    • 20 February. King Gojong returns to his palace after 1 year of refuge at the Russian legation.
    • 11 October. King Gojong proclaims the Korean Empire and is crowned at the religious shrine Hwangudan in Seoul.[61]
  • 1898: January. Independence Gate is constructed in Seoul. A symbol of Korean independence, it was built in place of Yeongeunmun, which was used to welcome Chinese ambassadors when Korea was a tributary state.[62][63]
  • 1902
    • The first modern indoor theater in Korea, Hyŏpyul-sa, is established in Seoul.[64]
    • The Sontag Hotel is established in Seoul. Funded by the Korean government and operated by proprietress Antoinette Sontag, it was one of the earliest Western-style hotels in Korea, and operated the first hotel dabang (cafe).[65][66]
  • 1903: The first Korean immigrants to the United States arrive in Hawaii.
  • 1904
  • 1905
  • 1906
  • 1907
    • Historic movie theater Dansungsa is founded in Seoul.[77]
    • February. The National Debt Repayment Movement begins. It is a grassroots effort to repay Korea's debts to Japan, in order to protect its sovereignty. The campaign is pressured by Japan to end by 1908, and the donations were confiscated by the Japanese government in 1910.[78]
    • June. The Hague Secret Emissary Affair occurs, in which emissaries from Gojong attempt to assert Korea's independence in Europe, but are rebuffed.
    • 18 July. Gojong is forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Sunjong by Imperial Japan.
  • 1908: 25 March. Durham Stevens, an American diplomat and Japanese sympathizer, is assassinated by Korean independence activists.
  • 1909
    • 15 October. The first Korean-owned private regional newspaper Gyeongnam Ilbo is established. It persists even into the first few years of the colonial period, and eventually becomes the only significant Korean-owned newspaper left. It is pressured to close in 1915.[79]
    • 26 October. The Japanese Resident-General of Korea Itō Hirobumi is assassinated by Korean independence activist An Jung-geun
  • 1910: 29 August. The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 started the annexation of the Korean Empire by Imperial Japan.

Japanese colonial period edit

  • 1911
    • The 105-Man Incident occurs, in which the Japanese arrest over 700 Koreans in connection to alleged assassination attempts on the Governor-General of Korea, Terauchi Masatake.
    • The Korean enclave Shinhanchon is established in Vladivostok. It becomes a hub of the Korean independence movement until it is dissolved in 1937.[80]
    • Gwoneophoe, which became the de facto representative organization for Koreans in the Russian Empire, is founded in Shinhanchon. They secretly operate the Korean Independence Army Government [ko] and build an army using Russian government funds, but are eventually dissolved in 1917 after Japanese pressure on Russia.[81]
  • 1915: 9 September – 30 October. The Chōsen Industrial Exhibition is held at the former royal palace Gyeongbokgung.[82]
  • 1916: The final righteous army is defeated by Japanese forces.[citation needed]
  • 1919
    • 21 January. Gojong suddenly dies, widely believed to have been poisoned by Japan [ko].
    • 8 February. Inspired by the promotion of self-determination laid out in the Fourteen Points statement, Korean independence activists in Japan publish a February 8 Declaration of Independence. This directly inspires a similar act in Korea three weeks later.[83]
    • 1 March. The March 1st Movement and the proclamation of the Korean Declaration of Independence. Nationwide non-violent demonstrations are violently suppressed by Japanese authorities. Governor-General Hasegawa resigns.
    • 11 April. The Korean Provisional Government (KPG) is established in exile in Shanghai, and Syngman Rhee is elected its first leader.
    • 15 April. The Jeamni massacre occurs, during which Japanese soldiers trap Korean civilians inside a church and burn it down, killing the occupants.[84]
    • September. Saito Makoto appointed as third Governor-General of Korea. The period of "cultural rule" (文化政治‎; bunka seiji) begins.
    • September. The controversial Hunchun incident. Japanese authorities claim Korean rebels attacked a Japanese consulate in Manchuria on this date, but debate continues as to what happened.[85]
    • October. The Gando Massacre occurs in Manchuria, where Japanese soldiers kill, rape, and steal from thousands of Korean civilians.[86]
    • 27 October. The kino-drama, Righteous Revenge, widely considered the first Korean film, premieres at Dansungsa. This marks the anniversary of the modern Korean Film Day, although whether it is truly the first Korean film has been disputed.[87][88][89]
  • 1920
  • 1921
      The first golf course in Korea at what is now Hyochang Park. It was established by the Japanese, who left the graves of Korean royal family members directly on the course (fenced-off area in center of photo; photo published 1925)
      June. The first golf course in Korea is established at Hyochangwon by the Japanese colonial government. The tombs of Joseon royal family members are controversially left directly on the course.[97]
    • 28 June. The Free City Incident occurs, where Soviet forces kill Korean militants who refuse to surrender to them.[98]
  • 1922
  • 1923
    • 1 March. The Koryo-saram newspaper Sŏnbong is established. It changed names to the Lenin Kichi in 1938 and Koryo Ilbo in 1991. As of 2023, it is the oldest active Korean-language newspaper outside of the Korean peninsula.[102]
    • 1 September. In the immediate aftermath of the Great Kantō earthquake in Japan, the Kantō Massacre occurs. Rumors emerge that ethnic Koreans had poisoned wells or were planning to attack the Japanese.[103] The Japanese military, police, and bands of armed vigilantes massacre thousands of Koreans, anyone they suspect of being Korean, and Japanese anarchists or left-wingers.[104][105] The Japanese government then begins a campaign to minimize or downplay the scale of the massacre.[103][106]
      • During this, Korean independence activists Kaneko Fumiko and Pak Yol are arrested and sentenced to life in prison. Kaneko dies during her imprisonment, allegedly from suicide, but this is controversial.[107]
    • 1 December. The Government-General of Chōsen Library is established as part of the cultural rule movement. It is eventually succeeded by the National Library of Korea after liberation.[108]
  • 1924: 9 April. The Chōsen Folk Art Museum is established at Gyeongbokgung. Founded by Japanese Koreanists Yanagi Sōetsu and the Asakawa brothers, it continues until 1945, after which it was succeeded by the South Korean National Folk Museum of Korea.[109][110]
  • 1925: February. Kwon Ki-ok becomes the first female Korean aviator after attending a pilot training school in China.[111]
  • 1926
    • 10 June. The June 10th Movement pro-independence protests occur and are suppressed.[112]
    • 1 October. The Japanese General Government Building in Gyeongbokgung is completed. Its location and function makes it a symbol of the colonial government. The building remained standing even after the liberation of Korea, and is finally demolished in 1995.[113]
  • 1929:
    • Japanese linguist and Koreanist Shinpei Ogura publishes his successful decipherment of hyangga poetry, which had been a lost technique for centuries. Around this time, he also performs one of the earliest extensive documentations of Korean dialects, and remains a significant figure in Korean linguistics to the present.[114]
    • 12 September – 31 October. The Chōsen Exhibition is held at Gyeongbokgung.[115]
    • 30 October. The Gwangju Student Independence Movement begins, and is suppressed soon afterwards.[116]
  • 1931: The Korean Patriotic Organization (KPO) is founded.
  • 1932
    • 9 January. The Sakuradamon incident occurs, in which KPO member Lee Bong-chang fails in his attempt to assassinate Emperor Hirohito in Tokyo.[117]
    • 29 April. The Hongkou Park Incident occurs, in which Yun Bong-gil sets off a bomb in a park in Shanghai (now Lu Xun Park), killing several Japanese colonial and military leadership. In the aftermath, the KPG is forced to flee Shanghai.[118][119]
    • Japan begins the "comfort women" program, in which civilian women were coerced or forced into prostitution for the Japanese military. By the end of World War II, an estimated 100,000–200,000 Korean women would be forced into sexual slavery by Imperial Japan.
  • 1934: The Chinese Kuomintang assists in training 92 Korean guerrilla fighters in the 17th Army Officer Training Class of the 4th Battalion (제2총대 제4대대 육군군관훈련반 제17대) in Luoyang.[120]
  • 1935: 3 November. Runner Sohn Kee-chung becomes the first Korean to win an Olympic gold medal, and sets a world record time.[121][122] He receives a sapling as a gift from German leader Adolf Hitler, which is now in Sohn Kee-chung Park in Seoul.[123] However, Sohn begrudgingly competed as an athlete of the Empire of Japan.[121] The Dong-a Ilbo removes the Japanese flag from his uniform in an image, which leads to retaliation from the colonial government.[124]
  • 1937
    • 4 June. Kim Il Sung leads 150–200 guerrillas in the Battle of Pochonbo.[91]
    • September. The deportation of Koreans in the Soviet Union occurs, in which roughly 172,000 Koreans are forced to move from the Russian Far East to Central Asia. Conditions during the journey and at their destination are poor, and death toll ranges from 16,500 to 50,000.
    • November/December. The KPG flees Nanjing just weeks before the Nanjing Massacre.
  • 1938
    • 1 March. Samsung is established in Daegu.
    • The Governor-General of Korea enacts the Sōshi-kaimei policy, under which Koreans are pressured and incentivized to adopt Japanese-style names.
  • 1939
    • 24 March. The State General Mobilization Law is passed, and millions of Koreans are forcefully conscripted to work for Japan. Tens of thousands die due to poor work conditions.
    • The KPG settles in Chongqing, where they would remain until the end of the war.
  • 1940
    • Amidst tightening wartime control over Korea, the Japanese colonial government enacts the One Province, One Company (1道1社; 1도 1사) policy, under which both Japanese and Korean newspapers are forced to consolidate or close.[90] The Chosun Ilbo and The Dong-a Ilbo are forced to close, leaving the pro-Japanese Maeil Sinbo as the only major Korean-language newspaper left in Korea.[125]
    • 1 September. The Chōsen Grand Exposition is held.[126]
    • 17 September. The KPG establishes the Korean Liberation Army, a guerrilla army that was intended to eventually fight to liberate the Korean peninsula. At its peak, it reached over 400 personnel.
    • Kim Il Sung and a few survivors escape from China into the USSR.[91]
  • 1942: October. The Korean Language Society incident occurs, under which members of the Korean Language Society are arrested and tortured on suspicion that they are Korean independence activists.[127]
  • 1943: 27 November. The Cairo Declaration between China, the United States, and the United Kingdom announces the intention of the Allies to liberate Korea after World War II, but place it under a trusteeship. This both excites and angers Koreans.[128][58]
  • 1944: Starting in 1944, Japan started the conscription of Koreans into the armed forces. All Korean males were drafted to either join the Imperial Japanese Army, as of April 1944, or work in the military industrial sector, as of September 1944.
  • 1945 (before liberation)
    • 8 February. At the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt secretly proposes to Joseph Stalin that Korea be placed a three-way trusteeship, between China, the USSR, and the US for a period of 20–30 years, and that no troops be stationed on the peninsula. Stalin mostly agrees, but argues that the trusteeship should be as short as possible.[128][129][130]
    • May. The Eagle Project, a joint operation between the KPG and the United States Office of Strategic Services, occurs. Kim Ku and others are hopeful that it will facilitate the US's formal recognition of the KPG, but Truman rebuffs Kim's attempts at communication and the mission is halted after the atomic bombings of Japan.[131][132]
    • July. It is decided during the Potsdam Conference and announced via the Potsdam Declaration that the Cairo Declaration's terms on Korea would be affirmed.[128]
    • 24 July. The Bumingwan bombing incident [ja] occurs, in which Korean independence activists set off a bomb at the building Bumingwan.[133][134]
    • 11 August. The General Order No. 1, drafted by the United States, specified the division of Korea at the 38th parallel. Stalin did not object to the terms.[128]
    • 11 August. Soviet troops begin their first military operation in Korea, and land in Unggi County (later renamed Sonbong-guyok).
    • 13–17 August. The Seishin Operation is fought between the Soviet Union and Japan. Despite being outnumbered, the Soviet troops win. Chŏng Sang-chin is the only ethnic Korean to fight on the Soviet side.[135][136]

Division of Korea edit

  • 1945 (after liberation)
  • 1946
    • 4 January. Cho Man-sik, Kim's main rival for leadership in the North, is removed from office and placed under house arrest by the Soviets.[141]
    • 8 February. The Provisional People's Committee of North Korea is established, and Kim Il Sung is made its chairman. While it supposedly represents all political groups in the North, it is dominated by the Soviet-backed Communist Party.[142]
    • 1 July. North Korea creates its first film: Our Construction.[143][144]
    • December. A coalition is made in the North among all major political parties, including representatives of left-leaning parties in the South. This coalition is again dominated by the Communists.[145]
  • 1947
    • Hyundai is established, initially as a construction company.
    • 19 July. Lyuh Woon-hyung, whom some Americans had been eyeing as a more moderate alternative candidate for leadership in the South,[146] is assassinated by a member of the far-right terrorist group the White Shirts Society.[147]
    • 14 November. The United Nations passes General Assembly Resolution 112, which creates the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea. The commission was intended to monitor the integrity of elections throughout the peninsula.[148] This resolution was the result of a September initiative by the United States, which was frustrated by the lack of Soviet cooperation in negotiations about the administration of Korea. The Soviets dispute the authority of the commission and ignore it.[149]
  • 1948
  • 1949: 26 June. Kim Ku is murdered in his home by Ahn Doo-hee. The exact motives behind the murder still remain unclear.[155]
  • 1950 (before Korean War)
    • 30 January.[156] After months of negotiations, Stalin finally relents to Kim's requests to launch an invasion of the South, but makes it conditional on whether Kim can convince Mao to support the effort.[157][158]
    • April. Mao agrees to support Kim in the invasion.[157][158]

Korean War edit

Animated map of the Korean War
  • 1950
    • 25 June. The Korean War begins with a surprise attack from the North. While minor border skirmishes had happened prior to the war, they are not comparable in scale of the invasion the North launches. The First Battle of Seoul begins with the deaths of hundreds of civilians; Seoul falls within a few days.[159]
    • 7 July. The UN Security Council creates the United Nations Command under the United States to support the South. Over the following years, tens of thousands of soldiers from a number of countries fight for the South.[160]
    • 26 to 29 July. The No Gun Ri massacre occurs. Unarmed South Korean civilians near the village of Nogeun-ri are deliberately killed by the US Army; the death toll and cause of the massacre is disputed.[161]
    • August. UN forces are driven back to the south-east corner of the Korean Peninsula ("The Pusan Perimeter").[162]
    • September. The Battle of Inchon occurs after UN Troops make a surprise amphibious landing on the west coast. Despite the death toll, the UN resolution's original goal of returning to the status quo borders, and the concerns of the US's allies that China or the USSR could enter the war, MacArthur and Rhee decide to push North and reunify the peninsula. The UN approves this on 7 October, and troops move North on 9 October. This prompts the Chinese to begin planning a counteroffensive.[163]
    • 19 October. Chinese forces as the People's Volunteer Army under Peng Dehuai secretly enter the North.[164]
    • 27 November. Chinese forces launch a massive offensive from the North, which puts the UN and ROK forces into a full retreat.[162]
    • 6 December. The Chinese retake Pyongyang.[164]
    • December. The National Defense Corps incident begins and lasts until February 1951. The Rhee government drafts hundreds of thousands of civilians into a militia, but fail to provide them adequate supplies. Tens of thousands die or disappear.[164][165]
  • 1951
    • 4 January. The North and China take Seoul.[164]
    • 15 March. Seoul is retaken by the ROK and UN Forces.[164]
    • July. Armistice talks begin. While the establishment of a demilitarized zone and the creation of an armistice commission are agreed on, the talks stall on the issue of prisoner exchanges. Over the following two years of more stalled talks, the US and UN Forces drop more bombs on North Korea than the Allies did on Germany and Japan in World War II. Both the North and the South commit atrocities against their own citizens and civilians on the other side. Over a million and up to two million Koreans die.[166]
  • 1953
    • January. The South Korean newsreel Korean News is established. It serves as an arm of the South Korean government until it closes in 1994.[167]
    • 27 July. The Korean War is halted by the Korean Armistice Agreement that has remained in force until now.

Modern period edit

  • 1955: March 1955. Chongryon, an association for Koreans in Japan that are aligned with North Korea, is created. It has continued to draw controversy and criticism until today.
  • 1956
    • April. Chongryon assists in establishing the North Korean-aligned Korea University in Tokyo.
    • September. The August Faction Incident occurs, in which pro-Soviet and pro-Chinese North Koreans attempt to purge Kim Il Sung from power. Kim then conducts a counter-purge, which diplomatically distances North Korea from its Soviet allies.
  • 1960: A student uprising begins the April Revolution which overthrows the autocratic First Republic of South Korea. Syngman Rhee resigns and goes into exile.
  • 1961
  • 1962
  • 1964
  • 1966: The World Bank organizes the International Economic Consultative Organization for Korea
  • 1967: Start of the second five-year plan.
  • 1968
    • January. The Blue House raid, an unsuccessful attempt of North Korean commandos to assassinate South Korean president Park Chung Hee occurs.
    • April. In retaliation for the Blue House raid, a South Korean group is created (Unit 684) to assassinate Kim Il Sung, but the group eventually mutinies on 23 August.
    • 1 April. Establishment of the Pohang Iron and Steel Company (now "POSCO").
    • 5 December. Proclamation of the National Education Charter.
  • 1970
  • 1972
    • Start of the third five-year plan.
  • 1972
    • 12 August. The first Red Cross talks between North and South Korea are held.
  • 1972
    • President Park Chung Hee declares emergency martial law and changes the constitution in August, which allows for him to become the permanent ruler.
  • 1974: 15 August. The assassination of first lady Yuk Young-soo by North Korean sympathizer Mun Se-gwang.
  • 1976
    • The Koreagate scandal breaks out in the United States.[170]
    • 18 August. The Axe Murder Incident in Panmunjom, Joint Security Area. Triggers former North Korean leader Kim Il Sung's first official apology to the South.
    • 12 October. Discontinuation of rice imports, the accomplishment of total self-sufficiency in rice by the 'Unification Rice'.
  • 1977
    • Start of the fourth five-year plan
    • 22 December. Celebration of achievement of 10 billion dollars gained by exports.
  • 1978: 26 October. Detection of the 3rd tunnel. Made by North Korea to attack South Korea.
  • 1978: 10 December. Achievement of 1,117 US dollars as GNP.
  • 1979
  • 1979: Coup d'état of December Twelfth, Chun Doo-hwan gets military power
  • 1980: Gwangju Uprising. Martial law is declared throughout the nation. The city of Gwangju becomes a battleground between dissenters and the Armed Forces (18–27 May). The official death toll was set at 200 people but some reports claim over 1000 casualties.
  • 1985: A South Korean expedition team becomes the first Koreans to set foot in Antarctica.[171][172]
  • 1987: The June Democratic Struggle begins, which eventually overthrows the autocratic Fifth Republic of South Korea. The ruling party of Fifth Republic, Democratic Justice Party, then declares democratic elections.
  • 1988
    • 17 February. The King Sejong Station becomes the first South Korean research station in Antarctica.[173]
    • 17 September – 2 October. The 24th Olympic Games are held in Seoul. This event has since become viewed as a watershed moment that showcased South Korea's rapid economic development to the world.[174]
  • 1990: 11 September. South Korea and the USSR establish diplomatic relations.
  • 1991
    • 17 September. North Korea (DPRK) and South Korea (ROK) join the United Nations (UN).
    • 26 December. The end of the Cold War as the Soviet Union collapses and North Korea loses military and economic aid.
  • 1992
  • 1993: Test of Rodong-1, a single-stage, mobile liquid propellant medium-range ballistic missile by the DPRK.
  • 1994
  • 1995: 29 June. The Sampoong Department Store collapses in Seoul.
  • 1997: Asian Financial Crisis (or "IMF Crisis" as it was called in Korea) shakes Korea
  • 1998
    • Taepodong-1, a two-stage intermediate-range ballistic missile is developed and tested by the DPRK. End of the Arduous March. It is possible that up to 3.5 million people did not survive the 'march'.
    • The Shimonoseki Trial, the first ever lawsuit against the Japanese government by comfort women or forced laborers by Koreans, ends with the denial of compensation for the three women.[176][177]
  • 1999: The DPRK promises to freeze long-range missile tests.
  • 2002
  • 2004
  • 2005: The DPRK fires short-range missile into the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
  • 2006: Test of Taepodong-2 by DPRK, a successor of Taepodong-1.There is a nuclear test in the DPRK. US officials assert it might have been a misfire.
  • 2007: The second summit between DPRK and ROK leaders is held, with Roh Moo-hyun representing the south and Kim Jong-il the north. The DPRK fires short-range missile into the Sea of Japan.
  • 2008: 8 April. A Korean woman, Yi So-yeon, becomes the first Korean to fly to outer space.[181]
  • 2009
  • 2010: North Korea launches missile and attacks Korean Pohang-class corvette, ROKS Cheonan. 46 Korean soldiers die because of the attack. At November, North Korean army rains artillery fire on Yeon-Pyeong-Do island.
  • 2011: Kim Jong-il dies, Kim Jong-un takes over as the Supreme Leader of North Korea. The National Intelligence Service accuses pro-unification lawmakers of being spies. One of the members was a former Democratic Party representative. In a move indicative of the heavy-handedness of the Park regime, the party is outlawed and key party members are imprisoned.
  • 2012
    • 13 April. The Kim Regime of the DPRK tested a rocket, officially called "Unha-3", an expendable launch system developed from the Soviet Scud rockets. The rocket was to send a satellite, called "Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3", into orbit. The rocket failed to launch the satellite and fell into the Yellow Sea. The mission ultimately ended in complete failure.
    • 12 December. DPRK has successful launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 it was launched from the Sohae Satellite Launching Ground. A South Korean military official cited 3 stage success. DPRK confirmed.
    • 19 December. Park Geun-hye, a daughter of Park Chung Hee, is elected as first female and the 11th president of South Korea.
  • 2013
    • 8 December. Jang Song-thaek, uncle of North Korean Leader Kim Jong-un, was ousted from all powerful posts on various charges. The official Korean Central News Agency said the political bureau of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea stripped Jang of all posts, depriving him of all titles and expelling him and removing his name from the party.[182]
    • 12 December. North Korean Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un, executes his Uncle, Jang Song-thaek, as a "traitor for all ages." Jang Song-thaek's execution was said to be set up by his own wife, Kim Kyong-hui, Late Supreme Leader Kim Jong-il's sister. Jang Song-thaek was considered to be the most powerful official in the DPRK Regime.[183]
  • 2014: 16 April. Sinking of MV Sewol, where 304 people, mostly students, die.[184][185]
  • 2016: 9 December. The impeachment vote of President Park Geun-hye took place, whilst 234 members in the 300-member National Assembly voting in favor of the impeachment and temporary suspension of her presidential powers and duties. Hwang Kyo-ahn, then prime minister, became acting president while the Constitutional Court of Korea was due to determine whether to accept the impeachment.
  • 2017
    • 10 March. The court upheld the impeachment in a unanimous 8–0 decision, removing Park from office.
    • 10 May. Moon Jae-In is sworn into office immediately after official votes were counted on 10 May, replacing Acting President and Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-Ahn.[186]
  • 2019: 21 May. The South Korean film Parasite premieres at the 2019 Cannes Film Festival, and becomes the first Korean film to win the top prize.[187] At the 2020 Academy Awards, it becomes the first Korean film to receive any recognition from the academy, and the first non–English language film to win Best Picture.[188]
  • 2021: 17 September. Premiere of the TV series Squid Game, which becomes an international sensation with hundreds of millions of viewers around the world.[189]
  • 2022
    • 10 May. Yoon Suk Yeol is sworn into office, succeeding former President Moon Jae-in.
    • 5 July. American mathematician of Korean descent June Huh is awarded the Fields Medal, which is considered the most prestigious award in mathematics. He is the first ethnic Korean to receive the award.[190]
    • 29 October. Seoul Halloween crowd crush, 159 people are killed and another 197 injured in the deadliest accident since the sinking of the Sewol.[191]
  • 2024: 2 January. Opposition leader Lee Jae-myung is stabbed in an assassination attempt[192] in Busan.[193]

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

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    "Although Kija may have truly existed as a historical figure, Tangun is more problematical."
    "Most [Korean historians] treat the [Tangun] myth as a later creation."
    "The Tangun myth became more popular with groups that wanted Korea to be independent; the Kija myth was more useful to those who wanted to show that Korea had a strong affinity to China."
    "If a choice is to be made between them, one is faced with the fact that the Tangun, with his supernatural origin, is more clearly a mythological figure than Kija."
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